公司章程细则翻译报告 A Report on the Translation of The Memorandum and Articles of Company

A Report on the Translation of The Memorandum and Articles of Company

《公司章程细则》翻译报告

 Abstract

As the basic legal document to define the rights and obligations of company, the main and the most important file to establish a company, the basic norm of behavior and organization of a company and (he legal basis on which the company rely, Memorandum and Articles of Company plays an important role to the company.

Being a kind of legal document, it has its own language features. In this Memorandum and Articles, there are many passive sentences, nominalization, prepositions and objectives. The most important is that there are too many long sentences and complex sentences. They caused great difficulties to the author during lhe translation process because it’s very difficult to detennine the logical relationship of these sentences. In addition, it requires high standard about the translation because it is very important to the company. Therefore, during the translation, the author should express the meaning of the source language correctly. Moreover, the author should take into account lhe “integrity” in selecting words or structure of sentences in order to rellect the authority of this kind of legal document.

In accordance with translation requirements and the characteristics of this kind of legal document, the author took the theory of Functional Equivalence-translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terns of meaning and secondly in terms of style-as the guidance. At the same time, lhe author used the translation skills and strategy to define the meaning of the words and the phrases, analyze the long sentence and recognize the meanings. As for the so many long sentences, the author used different translation strategy to follow the Chinese expression habits and express the translation equivalently.

It consists of four sections: section one is an introduction of this document and the author made a brief introduction to the background information and the characteristics of this legal document; section two is the translation process, and in the preparation stage and the author made a comparison about English and Chinese, and the author analyzed the language characteristic of this document and introduced the helper methods; in the section three, the author introduced the theory that it used and showed the translation strategies and the author made a case study to every translation strategy by analyzing the translation process of the sample sentences; section four is a summary about what the author learned from this translation.

Key Words: Legal document; theory of Functional Equivalence; translation strategy

《公司章程细则》是i种法律文件,用来约束公司权利、义务关系,是公司设立过 程中参考的最主要条件和最重要的文件,是公司组织和行为的基本规范,是公司对外进 行经营交往的基本法律依据,并且是公司解决内部纠纷的非常重要的依据,对公司有着 举足轻重的作用。

作为一种法律文体,它具有自己特有的语言特点,在这篇公司章程细则中,大量使 用被动句、名词化现象普遍,并且大量使用介词和形容词,最重要的是存在很多长句和 复合句,这种K句结构和逻辑关系都很复杂,不易判断逻辑关系,对译者的翻译造成很 大的困难。但是,由于其文体的正式性和特殊性,对于翻译文本的质量也有很高的要求。 在这片章程细则的翻译过程中,译者要准确传达原文信息,需要做到译入语准确无误地 表达原语的真正含义,在用词上及句子结构上都必须做到“信”和“忠实”,体现法律 文件的权威性。

在此次翻译实践过程中,根据原文本的语言特征以及该文体的翻译要求,译者以尤 金-奈达的“功能对等”理论为指导一一翻译是用最切近、自然和对等的语言从语义到 文体再现源语的信息一一译者对于单伺采用直译和语境意义法进行翻译,对于长句则采 用顺译、逆译、分译及综合译法等翻译方法对长句进行分析,并根据中文表达习惯对意 群进行重新排列,完全是一次在“功能对等”理论下的翻译实践。

本篇论文总共包含四部分:第一部分是翻译任务描述,在这部分中,译者对译本的 背景知识和特点做了简单的介绍;第二部分是翻译过程,在这部分中,译者介绍了译前 准备,简单对比了中英两种语言的差异,并且简要分析了本篇译本的语言特点以及在翻 译过程中的辅助手段:第三部分是实例分析,译者介绍了作为理论支撑的功能对等理论 以及译者在翻译过程中所采用的翻译方法,并利用译本中的语句和译文对照对每种翻译 方法做了案例分析;第四部分是翻译心得,译者阐述了通过此次翻译得到的心得及体会; 第五部分是对本次翻译活动的一次总结。

关键词:法律文件;功能对等;翻译策略;

Abstract

摘要 Ill

英语原文 1

汉语译文 31

翻译报告

1翻译任务描述 47

1.1翻译项目简介 47

1.2翻译文本特点分析 47

2翻译过程 48

  1. 1译前准备 48
  2. 2翻译过程中的辅助手段 49

3翻译实例分析 49

3.1法律英语翻译原则 50

3.2尤金•奈达及其“功能对等理论” 5()

3.3实例分析 50

  1. 1直译法 51
  2. 3.2语境意义法 51
  3. 3. 3顺译法 53
  4. 3. 4逆译法 55
  5. 3.5分译法 56
  6. 3. 6综合译法 57

4实践总结 58

参考文献 61

英语原文

Second:- The Registered Office of the Company will be situated in Hong Kong.

Third: – The liability of the Members is limited.

Fourth:- The Share C叩ital of the Company is HK$ 10,000.00 divided into 10,000 shares of HK$L00 each with the power for the company to increase or reduce the said capital and to issue any part of its capital, original or increased, with or without preference, priority or special privileges, or subject to any postponement of rights or to any conditions or restrictions and so that, unless the conditions of issue shall otherwise expressly declare, every issue of shares, whether declared to be preference or otherwise, shall be subject to the power hereinbefore contained.

Preliminary

  1. The regulations contained in Table “A” in the First Schedule to the Compa nics Ordinance (Chapter 32) shall apply to the Company save in so far as they arc hereby expressly excluded or mod由ed・In case of conflict between the provisions of Table “A” and these presents, the provisions herein contained shall prevail.
  2. The company is a private company and accordingly:
  • the right to transfer shares is restricted in manner hereinafter prescribed:
  • the number of members of the company (exclusive of persons who are in the employment of the company and of persons who having been formerly in the employment of the company were while in such employment and have continued after the determination of such employment to be members of the company) is limited to 50. Provided that where 2 or more persons hold one or more shares in the company jointly they shall for the purpose of this regulation be treated as a single member;
  • any invitation to the public to subscribe for any shares or debentures of the company is prohibited.
  1. The Directors may decline to register any transfer of shares to any person without giving any reason therefore. The Directors may suspend the registration of transfers during the twenty-one days immediately preceding the Annual General Meeting in each year. The Directors may decline to register any instrument of transfer, unless (a) a fee not exceeding two dollars is paid to the Company in respect thereof, and (b) the instrument of transfer is accompanied by the Certificate of the shares to which it relates, and such other evidence as the Directors may reasonably require to show the right of the transferor to make the transfer.
  2. The Directors may elect a chairman of their meetings, and determine the period for which he is to hold office, and unless otherwise determined the chairman shall be elected annually. If no chairman is elected, or if at any meeting the chairman is not present within half an hour of the time appointed for holding the same, the Directors present shall choose someone of their number to be the chairman of such mcctina.
  3. Unless and until the Company in General Meeting shall otherwise determine, the number of Directors shall not be less than one. The first Directors of the Company shall be nominated in writing by the subscribers to the Memorandum of Association.
  4. A Director who is about to go away from or is absent from Hong Kong may with the approval of the majority of the other Directors nominate any person to be his substitute and such substitute whilst he holds office as such shall be entitled to notice of Meetings of the Directors and to attend and vote thereat accordingly and he shall ipso facto vacate office if and when the appointor returns to Hong Kong or vacate office as a Director or removes the substitute from office and any appointment and removal under this Article shall be effected by notice in writing under the hand of or by cable from the Director making the same. A Director may appoint (subject as above provided) one of the other Directors to be his substitute who shall thereupon be entitled to exercise (in addition to his own right of voting as a Director) such appointofs rights at Meetings of the Directors.
  1. At the Annual General Meeting to be held next after the adoption of these Articles and at every succeeding Annual General Meeting all Directors, except Permanent Directors if any are appointed, shall retire from office and shall be eligible for re-election.
  2. A Director shall not require any qualification shares.
  3. The office of a Director shall be vacated if the Director:-
  • resigns his office by notice in writing to the Company; or
  • becomes bankrupt or makes any arrangement or composition with his creditors generally; or
  • becomes of unsound mind.
  1. (a) No Director shall be disqualified from his office by contracting with the Company, nor shall any such contract or any contract entered into by or on behalf of the Company in which any Director shall be in any way interested be avoided, nor shall any Director so contracting or being so interested be liable to account to the Company for any profit realised by any such contract by reason only of such Director holding that office, or of the fiduciary relations thereby established but it is declared that the nature of his interest must be disclosed by him at the meeting of the Directors at which the contract is determined on if his interest then exists, or, in any other case, at the first meeting of the Directors after the acquisition of his interest. A Director may vote in respect of any contract or arrangement in which he is interested.

(b) A Director of the Company may be or become a Director of any company promoted by this Company or in which it may be interested as a vendor, shareholder or otherwise and no such Director shall be accountable for any benefits received as a Director or shareholder of such company.

  1. The Directors may meet together for the dispatch of business, adjourn and otherwise regulate their Meetings as they think fit and determine the quorum necessary for the transaction of business. Until otherwise detennined, two Directors shall constitute a quorum or one Director shall constitute a quorum for sole Director company
  2. Any casual vacancy occurring in the Board of Directors may be filled up by the Directors, but the person so chosen shall be subject to retirement at the same time as if he had become a Director on the day on which the Director in whose place he is appointed was last elected a Director.
  3. Subject to the provisions of Article 6 hereof, the Directors shall have power at any time, and from time to time, to appoint a person as an additional Director who shall retire from office at the next following Annual General Meeting, but shall be eligible for election by the Company at that meeting as an additional Director.
  4. The Company may by ordinary resolution remove any Director and may by an ordinary resolution appoint another person in his stead. The person so appointed shall be subject to retirement at the same time as if he had become a Director on the day on which the Director in whose place he is appointed was last elected a Director.
  5. Any Resolution of the Board of Directors in writing signed by the majority of the Directors, in whatever part of the world they may be, shall be valid and binding as a resolution of the Directors provided that notice shall have been given to all the Directors of the Company capable of being communicated with conveniently according to the last notification of address by each such Director given to the Registered Office of the Company.
  6. Where any notice is required either by these Articles, by Table “A”, by the Ordinance or otherwise, to be given to any Director or to any Member of the Company, such shall be valid if given by cable and where any consent, agreement, signature, notice by or authority from any Director or Member of the Company such shall be good and valid if given by cable in spite of the fact that neither the cable nor the document by which the cable is sent bears a written signature. This clause shall not apply to Special Resolutions.
  1. The Directors, in addition to the powers and authorities by these Articles or otherwise expressly conferred upon them, may exercise all such powers and do all such acts and things as may be exercised or done by the Company in General Meeting subject nevertheless to the provisions of the Companies Ordinance, to these Articles, and to any regulations from time to time made by the Company in General Meetings, provided that no such regulation so made shall invalidate any prior act of the Directors which would have been valid if such regulations had not been made.
  2. Without prejudice to the general powers conferred by the preceding Article and the other powers confened by these Articles, it is hereby expressly declared that the Directors shall have the following powers, that is to say, power:-
  • To pay the costs, charges and expenses preliminary and incidental to the promotion, formation, establishment and registration of the Company.
  • To purchase or otherwise acquire for the Company or sell or otherwise dispose of any property, rights or privileges which the Company is authorised to acquire at such price and generally on such terms and conditions as they shall think fit.
  • To engage, suspend or dismiss the employees of the Company, and to fix and vary their salaries or emoluments.
  • To institute, conduct, defend, compromise or abandon any legal proceedings by or against the Company or its officers, or otherwise concerning the affairs of the Company, and also to compound and allow time for payment or satisfaction of any debts due and of any claims or demands by or against the Company.
  • To refer any claims or demands by or against the Company to arbitration and observe and perform the awards.
  • To make and give receipts, releases and other discharges for moneys payable to the Company, and for claims and demands of the Company.
  • To invest, lend or otherwise deal with any of the moneys or property of the Company in such manner as they think fit having regard to the Company’s Memorandum of Association and from time to time to vary or realise any such investment.
  • To boiTow money on behalf of the Company, and to pledge, mortgage or hypothecate any of the property of the Company.
  • To open a current account with themselves for the Company and to advance any money to the Company with or without interest and upon such terms and conditions as they shall think fit.
  • To enter into all such negotiations and contracts and rescind and vary all such contracts and execute and do all such acts, deeds and things in the name and on behalf of the Company as they may consider expedient for, or in relation to, any of the matters aforesaid, or otherwise for the purposes of the Company.
  • To give to any Director, officer or other person employed by the Company a commission on the profits of any particular business or transaction, and such commission shall be treated as part of the working expenses of the Company, and to pay commissions and make allowances (either by way of a share in the general profits of the Company or otherwise) to any person introducing business to the Company or otherwise promoting or serving lhe interest thereof.
  • To sell, improve, manage, exchange, lease, let, mortgage or turn to account all or any part of the land, property, rights and privileges of the Company.
  • To employ, invest or otherwise deal with any Reserve Fund or Reserve Funds in such manner and for such purposes as the Directors may think fit.
  • To execute, in the name and on behalf of the Company, in favour of any Director or other person who may incur or be about to incur any personal liability for the benefit of the Company, such mortgages of the Company’s property (present or future) as they think fit, and any such mortgage may contain a power of sale and such other powers, covenants and provision as shall be agreed upon.
  • From time to time to provide for the management of the affairs of the Company abroad in such manner as they think fit, and in particular to appoint any persons to be the attorneys or agents of the Company with such powers (including power to sub-delegate) and upon such terms as they think fit.
  • From time lo time to make, vary or repeal rules and by-laws for the regulation of the business of the Company, its officers and servants.
  • To delegate any or all of the powers herein to any Director or other person or persons as the Directors may at any time think fit.
  1. Clause 81 of Tabic UA,9shall not apply. ;
  2. The Seal of the Company shall be kept by the Board of Directors and shall not be used except with their authority.
  3. Every document required to be sealed with the Seal of the Company shall be deemed to be properly executed if sealed with the Seal of the Company and signed by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or such person or persons as the Board may from time to time authorise for such purpose.
  4. All cheques, promissory notes, drafts, bills of exchange, and other negotiable instruments, shall be made, signed, drawn, accepted and endorsed, or otherwise executed by the person or persons from time to time authorised by a resolution of the Board of Directors.

23・ For all purposes, the quorum for all general meetings shall be two members personally present and holding either in his own right or by proxy at least one-tenth of the paid-up capital of the Company. One member shall constitute a quorum for a meeting of a company having only one member. No business shall be transacted at any General Meeting unless the requisite quorum be present at the commencement of the business.

  1. A resolution in writing signed by all the shareholders shall be as valid and effectual as a resolution passed at a general meeting duly convened and held.
  2. All voting of members in respect of any matter or matters shall be by poll and every member present in person or by proxy shall have one vote for each share of which he is the holder.
  3. The net profits of the Company in each year shall be applied in or towards the formation of such reserve fund or funds and in or towards the payment of such dividends and bonuses as the Directors subject to the approval of the Company in General Meeting may direct.
  4. No dividend shall be payable except out of the profits of the Company, and no dividend shall carry interest as against the Company.
  5. A transfer of shares shall not pass the right to any dividend declared thereon before the registration of the transfer.
  6. If two or more persons are registered as joint holders of any share, any one of such persons may give effectual receipts for any dividends or for other moneys payable in respect of such share.
  7. The Directors may retain any dividends payable on shares on which the Company has a lien, and may apply the same in or towards satisfaction of the debts, liabilities or engagements in respect of which the lien exists.
  8. All dividends unclaimed for one year after having been declared may be invested or otherwise made use of by the Directors for benefit of the Company until claimed.
  9. The First Secretary of the Company shall be XX SECRETARIES LIMITED who may resign from this office upon giving notice to Company of such intention and such resignation shall take effect upon the expiration of such notice or its earlier acceptance.
  10. Any notice required to be given to the shareholders under these Articles may be in Chinese or English or both.
  11. The Company may from time to time in general meeting by ordinary resolution fix, increase or reduce the maximum and minimum number of Directors but so that the number of Directors shall never be less than the minimum required by the Ordinance.
  12. The Company shall keep a register in which (here shall be entered the particulars required by the Ordinance in respect of the Directors, the Secretary and reserve Director, and shall from time to time notify the Registrar of Companies of any change that takes place in such particulars as required by lhe Ordinance.

Powers and Duties of Directors

  1. The business of the Company shall be managed by the Directors who, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, may pay all expenses incurred in setting up and registering the Company and may exercise all such powers of the Company as are not required, by the Ordinance or by the Articles, to be exercised by the Company in general meeting subject, nevertheless, to such regulations as may be prescribed by the Company in general meeting being not inconsistent with any of the Articles or the provisions of the Ordinance; but no regulation made by the Company in general meeting shall invalidate any prior act of the Directors which would have been valid if that regulation had not been made. The general powers given by this Article shall not be limited or restricted by any special authority or power given to the Directors by any other Article. A meeting of the Directors at which a quorum is present may exercise all powers exercisable by the Directors.
  2. The Directors may establish and maintain or procure the establishment and maintenance of any contributory or non-contributory pension or superannuation funds or death or disability benefits for the benefit of, or give or procure the giving of donations, gratuities, pensions, allowances or emoluments to, any persons who are or were at any time in the employment or service of the Company or of any company which is a subsidiary of the Company or is allied or associated with the Company or with any such subsidiary company or who are or were at any time Directors or officers of the Company or of any such other company as aforesaid and holding or who have held any salaried employment or office in the Company or such other company and the wives, widows, families and dependants of any such persons. The Directors may also establish and subsidise or subscribe to any institutions, associations, clubs or funds calculated to be for the benefit of or to advance the interests and well-being of the Company or of any such other company as aforesaid or of any such persons as aforesaid and may make payments for or towards the insurance of any such persons as aforesaid and subscribe or guarantee money for charitable or benevolent objects or for any exhibition or for any public, general or useful object. The Directors may do all or any of the matters aforesaid, either alone or in conjunction with any such other company as aforesaid. Any Director holding any such employment or office shall be entitled to participate in and retain for his own benefit any such donation, gratuity, pension, allowance or emolument.
  3. The Directors may from time to time and at any time by power of attorney or otherwise appoint any company, firm or person or any fluctuating body of persons, whether nominated directly by the Directors, to be the attorney or attorneys of the Company for such purposes and with such powers, authorities and discretions (not exceeding those vested in or exercisable by the Directors under the Articles) and for such period and subject to such conditions as they may think fit, and any such power of attorney may contain such provisions for the protection and convenience of persons dealing with any such attorney as the Directors may think fit, and may also authorize any such attorney to sub-delegate all or any of the powers, authorities and discretions vested in him.
  1. (A) The Directors may from time to time appoint one or more of their body to the office of managing director or joint managing director on such terms and for such period as they may determine and, without prejudice to the terms of any contract entered into in any particular case, may at any time revoke any such appointment. Such appointment shall automatically determine if the holder ceases to be a Director but without prejudice to any claim for damages for breach of any contract of service between him and the Company.
  • The Directors may entrust to and confer upon a managing director or joint managing director any of the powers exercisable by them as Directors upon such terms and conditions and with such restrictions as they think fit, and either collaterally with or to the exclusion of their own powers and may from time to time revoke, withdraw, alter or vary all or any of such powers. The managing director or joint managing directors shall receive such remuneration (either by way of salary, commission, participation in profits, or otherwise howsoever) as the Directors may determine.
  1. The Directors shall cause minutes to be duly entered in books provided for the purpose:
  • of all appointments of officers made by the Directors;
  • of the names of the Directors present at each meeting of the Directors and of any committee of Directors;
  • of all declarations made or notices given by any Director (either generally or specially) of his interest in any contract or proposed contract or of his holding of any office or property whereby any conflict of duty or interest may arise; and
  • of all resolutions, written records and proceedings of general meetings of the Company and of meetings of the Directors and any committee of Directors; and any such minutes of any general meeting of the Company or any meeting of the Directors or of any committee of Directors shall be signed by the chairman of such meeting or by the chairman of the next succeeding meeting and if so signed shall be receivable as prima facie evidence of the matters stated therein.

Borrowing Powers

  1. The Directors may exercise all powers of the Company to borrow money, to give guaranlees and to mortgage or charge the undertaking, properly and uncalled capital of the Company and to issue debentures and other securities, whether outright or as collateral security for any debt, liability or obligation of the Company or of any third party.

Directors1 Interests

  1. (A) A Director may be or become a director or other officer of, or otherwise interested in, any company promoted by the Company or in which the Company may be interested as vendor, shareholder or otherwise and, subject to the Ordinance, no such Director shall be accountable to the Company for any remuneration or benefits received by him as a director or officer of, or from his interest in, such other company unless the Company otherwise directs. The Directors may exercise the voting powers conferred by the shares in any other company held or owned by the Company or exercisable by them as directors of such other company in such manner in all respects as they think fit (including the exercise thereof in favour of any resolution appointing themselves or any of them as directors or other officers of such company) and any Director may vote in favour of the exercise of such voting rights in the manner aforesaid notwithstanding that he may be, or be about to be; appointed a director or other officer of such a company and that as such he is or may become interested in the exercise of such voting rights in the manner aforesaid.

(B) A Director may hold other office or place of profit under the Company (other than the office of auditor) in conjunction with his office of Director for such period and on such terms as to remuneration (whether by way of salary, commission, participation in profits or otherwise) as the Directors may determine and no Director or intending Director shall be disqualified by his office from contracting with the Company either with regard to his tenure of any such office or place of profit or as vendor, purchaser or otherwise nor shall any such contract or any contract or arrangement entered into by or on behalf of the Company in which any Director is in any way interested (whether or not such contract or arrangement is with any person, company or partnership of or in which any Director shall be a member) be liable to be avoided on that account nor shall any Director so contracting or being so interested be liable to account to the Company for any profit realised by any such contract or arrangement by reason of such Director holding that office or of the fiduciary relationship thereby established provided that such Director shall forthwith disclose the nature of his interest in any contract or arrangement in which he is interested as required by and subject to the provisions of the Ordinance and the Articles. A Director may vote in respect of any resolution concerning his own appointment as the holder of any office or place of profit with the Company (including the arrangement or variation of the terms thereof or the termination thereof).

  • Provided such disclosure is made as aforesaid, a Director shall be entitled to vote in respect of any contract or arrangement in which he is interested and to be counted in the quorum present at the meeting at which such contract or arrangement is considered.
  • A general notice to the Directors by a Director that he is to be regarded as interested in any contract or arrangement which may subsequently be made with any specified person, firm or corporation shall be a sufficient declaration of interest in relation to any contract or arrangement so made, provided that no such notice shall be of effect unless it is given before the date on which the question of entering into such contract or arrangement is first taken into consideration on behalf of the Company, and provided that such declaration is duly noted in the Minutes of the Company.
  • Any Director may act by himself or his firm in a professional capacity for the Company, and he or his firm shall be entitled to remuneration for professional services as if he were not a Director provided that nothing herein contained shall authorize a Director or his firm to act as auditor to the Company.
  • (1) Subject to the provisions of Article 90(F) (2), in case the Company has only one Member and the Company enters into a contract with that Member and that Member is also a Director of the Company, unless the contract is in writing, the terms of the contract shall be set out in a written memorandum within 7 days after the contract is made, which memorandum shall be kept at the same place where the books containing the minutes of the meetings of the Directors are kept.
  • Article 90(F)(1) does not apply to contracts entered into in the ordinary course of the Company’s business.

Proceedings of Directors

  1. The Directors may meet together for the dispatch of business, adjourn, and otherwise regulate their meetings, as they think fit. At any time any Director may, and the Secretary on requisition of any Director shall, summon a meeting of Directors. Any Director may waive notice of any meeting and any such waiver may be given prospectively or retrospectively. Questions arising at any meeting shall be decided by resolution passed by a simple majority of votes and in the event, of an equality of votes the Chairman shall not have a second or casting vote.

92 (A) A resolution in writing signed by all the Directors for the time being shall be as valid and effectual as if it had been passed at a meeting of the Directors duly convened and held. Any such resolution may consist of several documents in like form each signed by one or more of the Directors.

 

  • (1) In case the Company has only one Director and that Director lakes any decision that may be taken in a meeting of the Directors and that has effect as if agreed in a meeting of the Directors, he shall (unless that decision is taken by way of a resolution in writing) provide the Company with a written record of that decision within 7 days after the decision is made in accordance with the Ordinance.
  • Where the Director provides the Company with a written record of a decision, that record shall be sufficient evidence of the decision having been taken by the Director.
  • The Company shall cause a record of all written records provided to the Company to be entered into a book kept for that purpose in the same way as minutes of proceedings of a meeting of the Directors.
  1. Meetings of the Directors may be held by means of conference telephone, video conference or by such lawful electronic means and in such manner as may be agreed by the Directors. All the provisions in these Articles as to Directors* meetings shall, mutatis mutandis, be applicable.
  2. Unless otherwise determined by the Directors, the quorum of a Directors5meeting shall be two. Any Director who ceases to be a Director at a Directors* meeting may continue to be present and to act as a Director and be counted in the quorum until the termination of the Directors1 meeting if no other Director objects and if otherwise a quorum of Directors would not be present.
  3. The continuing Directors may act notwithstanding any vacancy in their body, but, if and so long as their number is reduced below the number fixed by or pursuant to the Articles as the necessary quorum of Directors, the continuing Directors may act for the purpose of increasing the number of Directors to that number, or of summoning a general meeting of the Company, but for no other puipose.
  1. The Directors may elect a chairman of 由eir meetings and determine the period for which he is to hold office; but if no such chairman is elected, or if at any meeting the chairman is not present within 10 minutes after the time appointed for holding the same, the Directors present may choose one of their number to be chairman of the meeting.
  1. The Directors may delegate any of their powers to committees consisting of such member or members of their body as they think fit; any committee so formed shall in the exercise of the powers so delegated conform to any regulations that may be imposed on it by the Directors.
  2. A committee may elect a chairman of its meetings; if no such chairman is elected, or if at any meeting the chairman is not present within 10 minutes after the time appointed for holding the same, the members present may choose one of their number to be chairman of the meeting.
  3. All acts done by any such committee in conformity with such regulations and in fulfillment of the purposes for which it is appointed, but not otherwise, shall have the like force and effect as if done by the Directors and the Directors shall have power, with the consent of the Company in general meeting, to remunerate the members of any special committee and charge such remuneration to the current expenses of the Company.
  4. The meetings and proceedings of any such committee consisting of two or more members shall be governed by the provisions herein contained for regulating the meetings and proceedings of the Directors including Articles 91 to 93 so far as the same are applicable thereto and arc not replaced by any regulations imposed by the Directors pursuant to Article 97.
  5. (A) All acts bona fide done by any meeting of the Directors or of a committee of Directors or by any person acting as a Director shall, notwithstanding that it be afterwards discovered that there was some defect in the appointment of any such Director or person acting as aforesaid or that they or any of them were or was disqualified, be as valid as if every such person had been duly appointed and was qualified to be a Director or member of such committee.

(B) The Company may by Ordinary Resolution suspend or relax the provisions of this Article to any extent or ratify any transaction not duly authorized by reason of a contravention of this Article.

Alternate Directors

  1. (A) A Director may at any time by notice in writing delivered to the Office or at a meeting of the Directors appoint any person (including another Director) to be an alternate Director in his place. Any person so appointed under this Article shall (except when absent from Hong Kong) be entitled to receive notices of and to attend and vote at meetings of the Directors and be counted towards a quorum and generally at such meetings to perform all the functions of his appointor as a Director and shall automatically vacate his office on the expiration of the term for or the happening of the event until which he is by the terms of his appointment to hold office or which, were he a Director, would cause him to vacate such office or if the appointor in writing revokes the appointment or himself ceases for any reason to hold office as a Director. An appointment of an alternate Director under this Article shall not prejudice the right of the appointor to receive notices of and to attend and vote at meetings of the Directors and the powers of the alternate Director shall automatically be suspended during such time as the Director appointing him is himself present in person at a meeting of the Directors.

(B) An alternate Director shall (subject to his giving to the Company an address a( which notices may be served on him) be entitled (in addition to his appointor) receive and (in lieu of his appointor) to waive notices of meetings of the Directors and of any committee of the Directors of which his appointor is a member and shall be entitled to attend and vote as a Director and be counted in the quomm at any such meeting at which his appointor is not personally present and generally at such meeting to perform all functions of his appointor as a Director and for the purposes of the proceedings at such meeting the provisions of these Articles shall apply as if he (instead of his appointor) were a Director. If he shall be himself a Director and shall attend any such meeting as an alternate for more than one Director, he shall be counted in the quorum separately in respect of himself (if a Director) and in respect of each Director for whom he is an alternate (but so that nothing in this provision shall enable a meeting to be constituted when only one person is physically present) and his voting rights shall be cumulative and he need not use all his votes or cast all the votes he uses in the same way. His signature to any resolution in writing of the Directors or of any such committee and his attestation of the affixing of the Seal shall be as effective as the signature and attestation of his appointor. An alternate Director shall not (save as aforesaid) have power to act as a Director nor shall he be deemed to be a Director for the purposes of these Articles.

  • An alternate Director shall be entitled to contract and be interested in and benefit from contracts or arrangements or transactions and to be repaid expenses and to be indemnified to the same extent mutatis mutandis as if he were a Director but he shall not be entitled to receive from the Company in respect of his appointment as alternate Director any remuneration except only such part (if any) of the remuneration otherwise payable to his appointor as such appointor may by notice in writing to the Company from time to time direct.
  • Section 153B(1) of the Ordinance shall not apply to an alternate Director appointed pursuant to these Articles.

Reserve Director

  1. (1) In case the Company has only one Member and that Member is the sole Director of the Company, subject to the Ordinance, the Company may in general meeting, notwithstanding anything in these Articles, nominate a person (other than a body corporate) who has attained the age of 18 years as a reserve Director of the Company to act in the place of the sole Director in the event of his death.
  • The nomination of a person as a reserve Director of the Company ceases to be valid if:
  • before the death of the Director in respect of whom he was nominated,
  • he resigns as reserve Director; or
  • the Company in general meeting revokes the nomination; or
  • the Director in respect of whom he was nominated ceases to be the sole Member and sole Director of the Company for any reason other than the death of that Director.
  • Subject to compliance with the conditions set out in Article 103(4), in the event of the death of the Director in respect of whom the reserve Director is nominated, the reserve Director shall be deemed to be a Director of the Company for all purposes until such time as:
  • a person is appointed as a Director of the Company in accordance with these Articles; or
  • he resigns from his office of Director, whichever is the earlier.
  • The conditions referred to in Article 103(3) are: (a) the nomination of the reserve Director has not ceased to be valid under Article 103(2); and

(b) the reserve Director is not prohibited by law from acting as a Director of the Company.

  • The provisions in these Articles relating to the resignation of Directors apply to a reserve Director appointed under this Article.

Secretary

  1. (A) The Secretary shall be appointed by the Directors for such term, at such remuneration and upon such conditions as they may think fit and any Secretary so appointed may be removed by them. Anything by the Ordinance or the Articles required or authorized to be done by or to the Secretary, may be done by or to any assistant or deputy secretary or if there is no assistant or deputy secretary capable of acting, by or to any officer of the Company authorized generally or specially in that behalf by the Directors. In the event that the Secretary appointed is a corporation, it may act and sign by the hand of any one or more of its Directors or officers duly authorized.
  • The Secretary shall, if an individual, ordinarily reside in Hong Kong and, if a body corporate, have its registered office or a place of business in Hong Kong. In case the Company has only one Director, the sole Director shall not also be the Secretary of the Company and the Company shall not have as its Secretary a body corporate the sole Director of which is the sole Director of the Company.
  • A provision of the Ordinance or the Articles reejuiring or authorizing a thing to be done by or to a Director and the Secretary shall not be satisfied by its being done by or to the same person acting both as Director and as, or in place of, the Secretary.

Cheques

  1. All cheques, promissory notes, drafts, bills of exchange, and other negotiable transferable instruments, and all receipts for moneys paid to the Company, shall be signed, drawn, accepted, endorsed or otherwise executed, as the case may be, in such manner as the Directors shall from time to time by resolution determine.

The Seal

  1. The Directors shall provide for safe custody of the Seal which shall only be used with the authority of the Directors or of a committee authorized by the Directors in that behalf; and every instrument to which the Seal shall be affixed shall be signed by one Director or the Secretary or by some other person appointed by the Directors for the purpose.
  2. The Company may exercise the powers conferred by the Ordinance with regard to having an official seal for use outside Hong Kong and such powers shall be vested in the Directors.

Dividends and Reserves

  1. The Company in general meeting may declare dividends, but no dividend shall exceed the amount recommended by the Directors.
  2. The Directors may from time to time pay to the Members such interim dividends as appear to the Directors to be justiBed by the profits of the Company.
  3. No dividend shall be paid otherwise than out of profits available for the purpose and in accordance with the Ordinance.
  4. The Company may upon the recommendation of the Directors by ordinary resolution direct payment of a dividend in whole or in part by the distribution of specific assets (and in particular of paid up shares or debentures of any other company) and the Directors shall give effect to such resolution: and where any difficulty arises in regard to such distribution: the Directors may settle the same as they think expedient and fix the value for distribution of such specific assets or any part thereof and may determine that cash payments shall be made to any Member upon the footing of the value so fixed in order to adjust the rights of all parties and may vest any such specific assets in trustees as may seem expedient to the Directors.

112 Subject to the rights of persons, if any, entitled to shares with special rights as to dividends all dividends shall be declared and paid according to the amounts paid or credited as paid on the shares in respect whereof the dividends paid, but no amount paid on a share in advance of calls shall be treated for the purposes of this Article as paid on the share. All dividends shall be apportioned and paid proportionately to the amounts paid or credited as paid the shares during any portion or portions of the period in respect of which the dividend is paid; but if any share is issued on terms providing that it shall rank for dividend as from a particular date such share shall rank for dividend accordingly. The Directors may deduct from any dividend payable to any Member all sums of money (if any) presently payable by him to the Company on account of calls or otherwise in relation to the shares of the Company.

  1. The Directors may, before recommending any dividend, set aside out of the profits of the Company such sums as they think proper as a reserve or reserves which shall, at the discretion of the Directors, be applicable for meeting contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for any other purpose to which the profits of the Company may be properly applied, and pending such application may, at the like discretion, either be employed in the business of the Company or be invested in such investments (other than shares of the Company) as the Director may from time to time think fit and the Directors may also without placing the same to reserve carry forward any profits.
  2. If several persons are registered as joint holders of any share, any one of them may give an effectual receipt for any dividend or other moneys payable on or in respect of the share.
  3. Any dividend may be paid by cheque or warrant sent through the post to the registered address of the Member or person entitled thereto or in the case of joint holders to any one of such joint holders at his registered address or to such person at such address as the Member or person entitled or such joint holders (as the case may be) may direct. Every such cheque or warrant shall be made payable to the order of the person to whom it is sent or to the order of such other person as the Member or person entitled or such joint holders (as the case may be) may direct.
  4. No dividend shall bear interest against the Company.
  5. The Directors may, with the sanction of a resolution of the Company, capitalise any sum standing (o the credit of any of the Company’s reserve accounts (including share premium account and capital redemption reserve fund) or any sum standing to the credit of any profit and loss account or otherwise available for distribution by appropriating such sum to the holders of shares in the proportions in which such sum would have been divisible amongst them had the same been a distribution of profits by way of dividend and applying such sum on their behalf in or towards paying up any amount for the time being unpaid on any shares held by them respectively or in paying up in full unissued shares (or, subject to any special rights previously conferred on any shares or class of shares for the time being issued, unissued shares of any other class not being redeemable, shares) for allotment and distribution credited as fully paid up to and amongst them in the proportion aforesaid, or partly in the one way and partly in the other. Notwithstanding 山e foregoing, the share premium account and a capital redemption reserve fund may, for the purposes of this Article, only be applied in the paying up of unissued shares to be allotted to Members as fully paid bonus shares. The Directors may do all acts and things considered necessary or expedient to give effect to any such capitalization, with full power to the Directors to make such provisions as they think fit for the case of shares becoming distributable in fractions (including provisions whereby the benefit of fractional entitlements accrue to the Company rather than to the Members concerned). The Directors may authorize any person enter on behalf of all the Members interested into an agreement with the Company providing for any such capitalization and matters incidental thereto and any agreement made under such authority shall be effective and binding on all concerned.

118 The payment by the Directors of any unclaimed dividend or other moneys payable on or in respect of a share into a separate account shall not constitute the Company a trustee in respect thereof and any dividend unclaimed after a period of 12 years from the date of declaration of such dividend shall be forfeited and shall revert to the Company.

Record Dates

  1. Notwithstanding any other provision of these Articles the Company or the Directors may fix any date as the record date for any dividend, distribution, allotment or issue and such record date may be on or at any time before or after any date on which such dividend, distribution, allotment or issue is declared, paid or made.

Accounts

  1. The Directors shall cause proper books of account to be kept with respect to:
  • all sums of money received and expended by the Company and the matters in respect of which the receipt and expenditure takes place;
  • all sales and purchases of goods by the Company; and
  • the assets and liabilities of the Company.

Proper books shall not be deemed to be kept if there are not kept such books of account as are necessary r to give a true and fair view of the state of the Compan/s affairs and to explain its transactions.

  1. The books of account shall be kept at the Office or, subject to the Ordinance, at such other place or places as the Directors think fit, and shall always be open to the inspection of any Director.
  2. The Directors shall from time to time determine whether and to what extent and at what times and places and under what conditions or regulations the accounts and books of the Company or any of them shall be open to the inspection of Members not being Directors, and no Member (not being a Director) shall have any right of inspecting any account or book or document of the Company except as conferred by statute or authorized by the Directors or by the Company in general meeting.
  3. The Directors shall from time to time, in accordance with sections 122, 124 and 129D of the Ordinance, cause to be prepared and to be laid before the Company in general meeting such profit and loss accounts, balance sheets, group accounts (if any) and reports as are referred to in those sections.
  4. Subject to section I29G of the Ordinance, a copy of every balance sheet (including every document required by law lo be annexed thereto) which is to be laid before the Company in general meeting, together with a copy of the Directors* report and a copy of the auditors* report, shall not less than 21 days before the date of the meeting be sent to every Member, and every holder of debentures of the Company and to all persons other than Members or holders of debentures of the Company, being persons entitled to receive notices of general meetings of the Company provided that this Article shall not require a copy of those documents to be sent to any person of whose address the Company is not aware or to more than one of the joint holders of any shares or debentures.

Branch Registers

  1. The Company may exercise the powers conferred by the Ordinance and may cause to be kept in any place outside Hong Kong a branch register of Members. The Board of Directors may, subject to the Ordinance, make or vary from time to time such provisions as it thinks fit respecting the keeping of any such branch register and the transfer of shares to, on or from any such branch register and shall comply with the requirements of any local law.

Audit

  1. Auditors shall be appointed and their duties regulated in accordance with the Ordinance.

Notices

  1. Any notice or other communication (except the appointment of a Secretary) between the Company, any Director or Member may be given personally or effected in writing or by any other means in the form of an electronic record at the recipients postal or electronic address. A Member who (having no registered address in Hong Kong) has not supplied to the Company an address, cable, telex, or electronic address for the service of notices shall not be entitled to receive notices from the Company.
  2. Where a notice is sent:
  • by post, service of the notice shall be deemed to be effected by properly addressing, prepaying, and posting a letter containing the notice, and to have been effected in the case of a notice of a meeting sent to a Member at his registered address in Hong Kong at the expiration of 48 hours after the letter containing the same is posted, and in any other case al the time at which the letter would be delivered in the ordinary course of post, provided always that notices dispatched to addresses outside Hong Kong shall be sent by air mail; or
  • by telex when dispatched with confirmed answerback (in the case of any notice made by telex); or
  • by telegraph or cable, 24 hours after delivery to the telegraph or cable company; or
  • by facsimile or electronic means, on transmission provided that the transmission records reveal that the facsimile or electronic means has no error or break.
  1. A notice may be given by the Company to the joint holders of a share by giving the notice to the joint holder named first in the Register in respect of the share.
  2. A notice may be given by the Company to the persons entitled to a share in consequence of the death or bankruptcy of a Member by sending it to them, or by the title of representatives of the deceased, or trustee of the bankrupt, or by any like descriptioiL by the means set out in Articles 127 and 128, supplied for the purpose by the persons claiming to be so entitled, or by giving the notice in any manner in which the same might have been given if the death or bankruptcy had not occurred.

131 . Any person who, by operation of law, transfer or other means whatsoever, becomes entitled to any share shall be bound by every notice in respect of such share which, prior to his name and address being entered in the Register, shall have been duly given to the person from whom he derived his title to such share.

Destruction of Documents

  1. The Company may destroy:
  • any share certificate which has been cancelled at any time after the expiry of one year from the date of such cancellation;
  • any dividend mandate or any variation or cancellation thereof or any notification of change of name or address at any time after the expiry of 2 years from the date of such mandate, variation, cancellation or notification was recorded by the Company;
  • any instrument of transfer of shares which has been registered at any time after the expiry of six years from the date of registration; and
  • any other document on the basis of which any entry in die Register is made al any time after the expiry of 6 years from the date an entry in the Register was first made in respect of it; and it shall conclusively be presumed in favour of the Company that every share certificate so destroyed was a valid certificate duly and properly cancelled and that every instrument of transfer so destroyed was a valid and effective instrument duly and properly registered and that every other document destroyed hereunder was a valid and effective document in accordance with the recorded particulars thereof in the books or records of the Company, provided always that:
  • the foregoing provisions of this Article shall apply only to the destruction of a document in good faith and without express notice to the Company that the preservation of such document was relevant to a claim;
  • nothing contained in this Article shall be construed as imposing upon the Company any liability in respect of the destruction of any such document earlier than as aforesaid or in any case where the conditions of proviso (a) above are not fulfilled; and
  • references in this Article to the destruction of any document include references to its disposal in any manner.

Winding Up

  1. If the Company is wound up and the assets available for distribution amongst the Members as such are insufficient to repay the whole of the paid-up capital, such assets shall be distributed so that as nearly as may be the losses shall be bome by the Members in proportion to the capital paid up or which ought to have been paid up at the commencement of (he winding up on the shares held by them respectively. If in a winding up the assets available for distribution among the Members are more than sufficient to repay the whole of the capital paid up at the commencement of the winding up, the excess shall be distributed amongst the Members in proportion to the capital at the commencement of the winding up paid up by them respectively. This Article shall not add to or detract from the rights of the holders of shares issued upon special terms and conditions.
  2. No fee or commission shall be paid by the Company to any Director or liquidator upon any sale or realization of the Company’s undertaking or assets or any part thereof except with the sanction of a general meeting convened by notice specifying the fee or commission proposed to be paid.

135 If the Company shall be wound up (whether voluntarily or otherwise) the liquidator may, with the sanction of a special resolution of the Company and any other sanction required by the Ordinance, divide amongst the Members in specie or kind the whole or any part of the assets of the Company (whether they shall consist of properly of the same kind or not) and may, for such purpose, set such value as he deems fair upon any property to be divided as aforesaid and may determine how such division shall be carried out as between the Members or different classes of Members. The liquidator may, with the like sanction, vest the whole or any part of such assets in trustees upon such trusts for the benefit of the contributories as the liquidator, with the like sanction, shall think fit, but so that no Member shall be compelled to accept any shares or other securities whereon there is any liability.

Indemnity

  1. (A) Subject to the provisions of and so far as may be permitted by the Ordinance, the Company may indemnify any officer of the Company against all costs, charges, losses, expenses and liabilities which he may sustain or incur in or about the execution and discharge of his duties or in relation thereto including any liability incurred by him:
  • in defending any proceedings, whether civil or criminal, in which judgment is given in his favour or in which he is acquitted; or
  • in connection with any application under section 358 Of the Ordinance in which relief is granted to him by the court.
  • The Company may purchase and maintain for any officer of the Company:
  • insurance against any liability to the Company, a related company or any other party in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust (save for fraud) of which he may be guilty in relation to the Company or a related company; and
  • insurance against any liability incurred by him in defending any proceedings, whether civil or criminal, taken against him for any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust (including fraud) of which he may be guilty in relation to the Company or a related company.
  • Subject to section 165 of the Ordinance, if any Director and/or other person shall become personally liable for the payment of any sum primarily due from the Company, the Directors may execute or cause to be executed any mortgage, charge, or security over or affecting the whole or any part of the assets of the Company by way of indemnity to secure the Director and/or person so becoming liable as aforesaid from any loss in respect of such liability.

第二:公司的注册地址是香港。

第三:成员责任为有限的。

第四:公司注册的股本为港币10000. 00元,总共分为10000股,每股港币1.00元。 不论该等股本是否附有优惠、优先权或特权,或是否受限于权利的延迟行使或其他任何 条件或任何限制,以致(发行条件另有规定的除外)每次股份发行均受限于上述权力, 不论所发行的股份是否被公布为优先股份或其他股份,公司有权增减上述股本及发行原 始或经增加的股本之任何部分,。

序文

  1. 除非本章程细则明确排除或修改《公司条例》附表1的表A (下称“A表”)中的 规定,否则表A中的规定适用丁公司。在表A所列规定与本章程细则互相冲突的情况下, 以本章程细则的规定为准。
  2. 公司是私人公司,由此:

(a) 转让股份的权利受下述条件的限制;

(b) 公司成员人数不超过五十人(不包括公司雇用的人士,并且也不包括之前被公司 雇用并R在雇用期间是公司额成员以及雇用结束之后仍然为公司成员的人上),但是根 据本条款,当两人或两人以上联名持有公司的一份或多份股份时,该等人士应视作一名 成员;

(c) 禁止任何邀请公众人士认购公司的任何股份或债权证的行为。

  1. 在无须任何理由的情况下,董事会可以拒绝登记向任何人转让的任何股份。每年的 年度股东大会召开之前21天内,萤事会可以暂时停止转让登记。萤事会有权拒绝登记 任何转让文书,除非(a)就此向公司支付不超过2美元的费用;(b)转让文书附有相 美股份证书以及董事会合理要求的其他证据,以证明转让人有权做出该等转让。
  2. 萤事会可选出会议主席并决定其任期。除非另有规定,每年必须举行一次主席选举。 如果未能选出主席,或是主席在任何会议约定时间半小时内仍未出席,则出席该次会议 的董事应在参加会议的所有董事中选出一人来担任会议主席。
  3. 除非公司在股东大会上另有决定,否则董事人数不得少于一人。必须由组织章程大 纲上的认购人书面提名第一任董事。
  4. 如果董事将要离开香港或己经不在香港,在得到萤事会其他大多数萤事的批准后, 可以提名任何人士代替其职位,替代期间,替代萤事有权接收董事会议通知,出席会议 以及行使表决权。如果委托人回到香港、离任或者委托人罢免替代董事,替代董事应当 自动离任。根据本条所作出的任何委任及罢免,必须由做出此举的董事亲笔以书面形式 或以电报形式发出通知,方可实施。董事会董事能够(按照上述规定)委任另一位董事 作为替代萤事,并旦该替代萤事有权在萤事会议上行使其本身作为萤事的表决权及委托 人的权利。
  5. 除永久董事外(如获委任),所有的堇事成员必须在通过本章程细则后的第一次公 司年度股东大会上及以后每年的股东大会上退任,但是可以连选连任。
  6. 禁止董事索取任何资格股。
  7. 如果有以下情形发生,董事应退任:
  • 以书面通知的形式向公司提出辞职:
  • 破产或与其债权人达成任何总体安排或和解:或者
  • 精神失常。
  1. (a)董事不会因为与公司订约而丧失出任董事的资格。该合约或者公司订立或代 表公司订立的任何合约亦不因与任何董事存在任何利益关系而失去效力,上述订约或存 在利益关系的任何萤事均不仅仅因为担任黄事或者由此成立的信托关系而有责任向公 司说明通过上述任何合约所实现的利润,但是如果在爸事会议上就合约做出决定时,该 董事与合约存在利益关系,该董事必须在董事会议上披露其利益性质;或者在其他任何 情况下,必须在其获得利益之后的第一次萤中会议上予以披露。董事可以就与其存在利 益关系的任何合约或安排进行表决。

(b)在该公司发起的任何公司中,公司董事可出任董事或以卖方、股东或其他身份 与该公司发生利益关系。该芾事无须向该公司说明其作为该公司芾事或股东所获得的利 益。

  1. 芾事可以举行会议处理事务、决定休会以及以其他董事认为合适的方式对规范会 议,并决定处理事务的法定人数。法定人数应为两人,公司只有一名黄事的情况下,法 定人数应为-•人,有另行规定的除外。
  2. 董事会出现任何临时空缺的情况下,其他董事可以填补空缺,但是所选黄事的退 填补的董事当选为萤事,该所选董事需于当日退任。
  3. 根据本章程细则第6条的规定,萤事会有资格任何时并且不定期地任命任何人为 额外董事,该董事应在接下来的股东大会上退任,但具有在公司大会上被公司选为额外 董事的资格。
  4. 公司可以通过普通决议罢免任何董事,而旦可以通过普通决议委任另一人代替其 出任董事。若该被委任董事替代的董事当选为董事,该被委任董事需于当日退任。
  5. 由大多数黄事签字的董事会书面决议均作为萤事会决议对公司董事具备效力和约 束力,不论公司萤事身在何处,但是对于那些根据其最近向公司注册办事处提供的地址 通知能方•便地联系到的公司所有董事,均应发出事先通知。
  6. 根据本章程细则、表A、《公司条例》或其他规则的规定,任何向公司任何董事或 任何成员发出的通知,如以电报的形式发出,视为有效。由公司董事或成员做出的赞同、 同意、通知或授权的通知,如以电报的形式发出,视为妥当及有效,即使电报和发送电 报的文件均未签名。本规定不适用于特别决议。
  7. 除本章程细则及其它明确赋予他们的权力及权限以外,董事可以行使公司在股东 大会上行使的所有权力,实施公司在股东大会上实施的所有行为和事务,但是必须符合

《公司条例》(第32章)、本章程细则及公司不定期在股东大会上订立的任何规定; 但是,董事会在未订立该等规定之前所做的一切行动不因该等规定的订立而失去效力。

  1. 在不影响上述细则赋予董事会的一般权力及本章程细则赋予董事会其他权力的情 况下,这里明确声明董事会具有下列权力:

(1) 支付发起、组建、创办及注册公司之前的以及由此产生的成本、费用与开支。

(2) 按黄事会认为合适的价格,以黄事会认为适当的条款及条件,为公司购买或以其 他方式收购公司有权取得的任何财产、权利或特权,或出售或以其他方式处置公司有权 取得的任何财产、权利或特权。

(3) 聘用、解雇公司员工或对公司员工进行停职,决定及变动公司员工的薪资或酬金。

(4) 对于公司或公司高管人员提起的或者向公司或公司高管人员提起的,或以其他形 式涉及公司事务的任何法律诉讼,有权提起、处理、进行辩护、和解或放弃;并且有权 达成和解并留下一定时间,以便支付或清偿任何到期债务以及公司提起或者向公司提起 的任何索赔或要求。

(5) 将公司提起任何索赔,或者向公司要求提交仲裁,遵守仲裁结果并履行裁决。

(6) 对于公司收到的应收款项及索偿与要求款项,应该出具收据,并对此予以免除或 进行其他方面的相关解除。

(7) 在符合公司组织章程大纲额情况下,以萤事会认为合适的方式投资、贷出或以其 他方式处理公司的资金或财产,并不定期地变更或兑现该等投资。

(8) 代表公司借入、质押、按揭、抵押公司的任何财产。

(9) 开立与董事之间的往来账户,在董事会认为合适的条件及条款的情况下给公司垫 款,对于该等垫款,可收取利息,也可不收取利息。

(10) 在萤事会认为有利于该公司业务发展,以及同上述事项有关的情况下,或者是出 于公司其他目的,以公司名义代表公司进行谈判、订立合约、撤销及更改合约,执行和 实施-•切行为、行动与事务。

(11) 从任何特定业务或交易所得的利润中抽取伽金作为佣金支付任何董事、高管人员 或公司雇用的其他人士,应将该抽取的佣金作为公司经营费用的一部分;对向公司介绍 业务、推动或服务于公司利益的任何人发放佣金及津贴(可利用公司一般利润的一部分 或以其他形式)。

(12) 售出、更改、管理、交换、租赁、出租、按揭或利用公司的全部或任何部分的土 地、财产、权利及特权。

(13) 按董事会认为合适的用途和方式,利用、投资或以其他方式处置储备金。

(14) 以为了本公司的利益而产生个人责任的用途和方•式董事或其他人士为受益人,以 公司名义并代表公司协议董事会认为合适的该公司财产(现在或将来)的按揭文件,任 何此等按揭文件可包括出售权以及约定的其他权利、承诺及条款。

(15) 不时制定,更改或废除规章及附则以便规范公司业务、高管人员及员工。

(16) 按董事认为合适的方式,为不时管理公司海外事务做好准备,具体包括按照董事 会认为合适的条件委任任何人为公司的代理人,并赋予该代理人董事会认为合适的权力

(包括转委托权)。

(17) 在董事会认为合适的时间将本章程细则中所列权力委托给其他黄事或其他人。

  1. 表A第81条不适用于本章程细则。
  2. 公司印章由策事会保管,在没有得到公司黄事会授权的情况下不得使用公司印章。
  3. 对于需要加盖公司印章的文件,如果已经加盖公司印章并经过董事会主席或董事 会不定期授权签字的人土签署,则该文件视方可视为己妥为签立。
  4. 所有支票、本票、票据、汇票及其他流通票据均应由萤事决议不定期授权的人士 制定、签署、开出、承兑、背书或以其他形式签立。
  5. 所有股东大会的法定人数应为两名,不论出于何种目的,该股东大会的成员要亲 自出席,并亲自持有或通过其代理人持有至少十分之一的公使实缴资本。如果公司只有 一名成员,则股东大会的法定人数为一名成员。除非出席人数达到必要的法定人数,否 则在任何股东大会上均不得处理事务。
  6. 经过全体股东签字,书面协议的效力和有效性即等同于正式召开的股东大会所通 过的决议。
  7. 所有成员表决任何事务,必须以投票方式进行。每一位亲自出席或通过代理人出 席的成员,以所持股份计,每股一票。
  8. 公司每年的净利润应用于建立储备金,以及按照董事会根据公司在股东大会上的 批准所作出的指示,支付股息和红利。
  9. 公司以公司利润支付股息,但是,关于股息公司不再支付利息。
  10. 在尚未登记股份转让之前,享有该等股份已公布股息的权利不得转让。
  11. 在两人或两人以上登记为任何股份的联名持有人的情况下,其中任何一人均可签 发有效收据证明已收到所持股份的股息或该股份其他应付款项。
  12. 董事会可以留存公司持有留置权的股份的股息,并可将该等股息用作清偿留置权 所涉及的债务、负债或债项。
  13. 对于公布后L年内无人领取的所有股息,在尚未被领取前,为了公司的利益,董 事会可将该等股息用于投资或以其他方式利用。
  14. 公司的首任秘书是XX有限公司,该公司可以在向公司辞职意愿通知后提出辞职, 该通知到期后辞职生效,或若公司在此前该接受辞职,则自该时刻起生效。
  15. 根据本章程细则的要求,向股东发出的任何通知均可以中文或英文书写,或者同 时以中文和英文两种语言书写。
  16. 本公司须备存登记,其中须记入该条例所规定的关于莆事、秘书及备任莆事的详情, 并应随时将按条例详情所发生的所有变化告知公司注册官。

策事的权利和职责

  1. 本公司业务应由董事管理,不受前述一般性的限制。董事支付成立及注册公司的所 有费用,行使本公司一切权力,如非本条例或细则所规定的,由本公司在股东大会上行 使,但需遵守本公司在股东大会上制定的、与本公司所有细则或条例条款一致的规定; 但由本公司在董事会上制定的所有规定都将一直有效,在该规定制定前,董事的行为有 效。本条所赋予的一般权力,不应受任何其他条款授予董事的特别权威或权力的限制或 约束。有足够法定人数出席的董事会议可行使所有董事权力。
  2. 对于现在或过去任何时候任职或服务于本公司、或本公司了公司或与本公司联盟或 联合的子公司的人员,或现在或过去任何时候为本公司或上述子公司的董事或高级职 员,或在本公司或上述其它公司拥有或己拥有受薪职位或职务的人员及上述人员的妻 子、彝妇、家卷等,董事可建立和维持或达成任何缴费型或非缴费型养老金或养老金基 金或死亡或伤残抚恤金的建立和维持,或给予或促使给予捐赠,退休金,养老金,津贴 或酬金。董事亦可计划地建立和补贴或捐助任何机构、协会、俱乐部或基金,以实现 本公司或上述其它公司或上述人员的利益,或促进上述的利益和福利,也可以支付上述 人员的保险,为慈善或仁爱的对象或任何展览或任何公共的、一殷的或有用的对象捐助 或保证资金。董事可单独或与上述任何其他公司一起执行全部或任何上述事宜。拥有此 类职位或职务的萤事均有权为其利益参与并保留上述任何捐赠,退休金,养老金,津贴 或酬金。
  3. 董事可随时通过授权书或其他方式委任任何公司、商号或人员或任何人员变动机构, 无论是否直接由董事提名,为本公司的律师,拥有此类权利、职权和酌情权(不超过董 事根据细则授予或行驶的权力),期限及服从的条款由其决定,此类授权书所包括的条 款应包含并方便董事认可的、处理此类授权的人员,并也授权此类律师代表授予其的全 部或任何权力、职权及酌量权。
  4. (A)董事可随时在该被决定的期限内根据此类条款向常务董事或联合管理董事办公 室委任一名或多名人员,但不得妨碍特例合同中的条款,并可随时撤销该委任。如果持 票人不再是董事,但不妨碍任何违反任何其与本公司之间的服务合同的损害赔偿要求 时,该委任须自动终止。

(B)董事可委托和授予常务董事或联合管理董事作为董事所行使的权力,条件或限制 由策事决定,芾事可共同行使权力或剥夺其自身的权力,并可随时撤销,撤回,改变或 更改全部或任何此类权力。常务芾事或联合管理芾事应按芾事的决定收到酬金(或以薪 金,仰金,分红或其他方式)。

  1. 董事须及时■将会议记录记录在记录簿上,包括:

(a) 由萤事做出的高级人员的委任;

(b) 参加董事会的董事姓名和董事委员会董事姓名;

(c) 由任一董事(特殊或一般)对其在任何合同或拟合同中的利益或对所持有的可能 产生职责或利益冲突的任何职务或财产所做出的所有声明或通知);及

(d) 本公司股东大会和董事会及任何董事委员会会议上的所有决议、书面记录和事项; 旦,本公司股东大会或董事会或任何萤事委员会会议的会议记录应由本次会议主席或下 次会议主席签字,旦签字应可作为其中所述事宜的表面证据。

偿债能力

  1. 董事可行使本公司一切权力来借款,担保,抵押或收取本公司的承诺,财产及未缴 资本,发行债券及其他有价证券,不论是全部还是本公司或任何第三方的债务、负责或 义务的附属担保。

董事利益

  1. (A)董事可为或成为董事或本公司设立的任何公司或本公司作为卖主、股东或其它 公司的其他高级职员或其他有关利益方。并且,根据本条例,此类董事不应因其作为董 事或此类其它公司高级职员或其利息而收到的酬金或福利而向公司负责,除非本公司另 有指示。董事可行使本公司持有或拥有的任何其他公司的股份所赋予的投票权或由作为 此类其它公司董事按其形式可行使的投票权(包括行使投票权赞成委任自己或该公司任 何董事或其他高级职员的决议),旦任一董事均可投票赞成以上述方式行使投票权,尽 管他可能是或即将成为董事:该公司委任的董事或其他高级职员对或可能将对以上述方 式行使投票权感兴趣。

(B)董事可任职于本公司任何其他职务或获利岗位(审查职位除外),同时在此期限 内任其董事职务,执行莆事确定的薪酬条款(以薪金,佣金,分红或以其他方式),任 何董事或未来董事均应具有本公司约定的职务的资格(包括职务或获利岗位,或作为卖 方、买方或其它的任期),不得避免任何此类合同或任何合同或安排由公司订立或由感 兴趣的芾事代表公司订立(不管此类合同或安排是否与有董事参与的任何人员,公司或 合伙企业签订),也不得由任何订约或感兴趣的董事因所任职务或信贷关系而负责实现 利润,该董事应按条例和细则的规定,立即披露其在任何其感兴趣的合同或安排中的利 益的性质。董事可向关于其在公司任职或在获利岗位的委任决议投票(包括其条款或终 止的安排或修订)。

  • 如果如前所述做出披露,董事应有权向其感兴趣的任何合同或安排投票,并应在 确定此类合同或安排的股东大会上有权计为法定人数。
  • 如果董事对任一合同或安排感兴趣,且该合同或安排随后可能由指定人员、公司 或企业制定,应向董事发出一般通知,该通知应为与制定的任一合同或安排相关的充分 利益说明,除非此类通知应在首次代表公司考虑关于合同或安排的问题之日前发出,否 则此类通知无效,旦此类说明应及时记录在公司会议记录中。
  • 任何董事以其自己或其公司的专业能力代表本公司,如其不是董事,且本条所载 无法授权董事或其公司为本公司审计员,其或其公司应有权获得专业劳务的报酬。
  • (1)根据第90条(F) (2)的规定,如果本公司只有一名成员,且与本公司订 立合同,该成员也是本公司的董事,除非合同是书面形式的,否则合同条款应在签订合 同后7天内以书面备忘录形式制定,该备忘录须与董事会会议纪要存放在相同的地方。
  • 第90条(F) (1)不适用于本公司日常业务中订立的合同。

董事会程序

  1. 黄事可聚集以调度业务,延期,并以其他规定的方式管理会议。在任何时候,任何 董事可以,或秘书经任L董事的要求应召集董事会议。任何董事可放弃任何会议的通知, 此类放弃可以是在事前或是事后。对于在任一会议上提出的问题,应通过简单多数通过 的决议来决定,若票数相等,主席不得投第二次或决定票。

92 (A)当前由全体董事签署的书面决议应视为合法和有•效,视为其已通过了正式召开 及举行的董事会议。任何此类决议应包括-•些文件,如由一个或多个董事签署的表格。

(B) (1)如果本公司只有一名董事,本应通过董事会做出的任何决定由该董事做出, 与在黄事会议上通过的决定具有同等效力,该莆事(除非该决定是通过书面决议的方式 做出的)须在根据该条例做出决定7日内,向本公司提供书面决定记录。

  • 只要芾事向本公司提供决定的书而纪录,该纪录须为芾事做出的决定的充足证据。
  • 本公司须建立书而纪录的记录,为本公司订立为记录簿,并以芾事会事项纪要相 同的方式保存。
  1. 董事会议可通过会议电话、视频会议,或通过此类合法的电子手段和萤事可能同意 的方式进行。关于萤事会细则的所有规定应在加以必要更改后适用。
  2. 除非董事另有决定,董事会议的法定人数应为2人。如果无其他萤事反对,且如果 董事法定人数不足,董事不再是黄事会的董事时,其应继续作为董事出席,也应计为法 定人数,直至董事会结束。
  3. 虽然留任董事可担任公司的任何空缺,但是,如果且只要董事数H减少并低于细则 规定的董事必需的法定人数,留任董事可以为增加萤事人数至规定的人数或召开本公司 股东大会而担任董事,其它目的除外。
  4. 董事可选举董事会议主席并决定其担任该职务的任期;但是,如果没有选出主席, 或者,在指定担任该职务10分钟内,主席未出席会议,出席的董事可以选择其中一人 为本次会议的主席。
  5. 董事可将其权力授予委员会,成员由董事决定;任何由此成立的委员会应在行使授 予的权力时符合董事制定的规定。
  6. 委员会可选举其会议主席;如果没有选出主席,或者,在指定担任该职务10分钟内, 主席未出席会议,出席的成员可以选择其中一人为本次会议的主席。
  7. 此类委员会做出的所有行为应符合有关规定并以执行其指定的目的,而非其他,并 应具有与董事做出的行为同等效力。经公司股东大会同意,董事应有权向任一特殊委员 会成员支付酬劳并向本公司的日常花费收取酬劳。
  8. 由两个或两个以上成员组成委员会,其会议及程序应遵守此处调节董事会议及程序 的规定,包括第91至93条,只要上述适用并旦不会被萤事制定的第97条规定所取代。
  9. (A)由任一董事会或董事委员会或担任董事的任何人员所做出的善意行为,尽管 事后发现,上述黄事或人员的任命有不足之处,人员不符合资格,但是其行为应作为正 式任命且具有董事或委员会成员资格的人员的行为对待。

(B)本公司可通过普通决议将本条的规定中止或放宽至任何程度或批准因违反本条规 定而未正式授权的任何事务。

候补策事

  1. (A)芾事可随时向办事处或在芾事会议上发出书而通知以任命人员(包括其它芾 事)为其候补董事。根据本条,被任命的人员(除非不在香港时)应有权收到董事会通 知并出席大会并于会上投票,并计入法定人数,一般在此类会议上行使其董事任命者的 所有职能,

旦应在任期到期时自动离职,或根据任命条款其将成为童事或以前为董事的情况使其离 职或任命者书面撤回任命或其自己因任何理由辞去董事职位。根据本条任命候补董事应 不损害任命者接收通知和参加董事会并在董事会上投票的权力,在董事指定其自己出席 董事会期间,候补董事的权力应自动终止。

(B) 候补董事应(将其交予公司的地址,作为向其送达通知的地址)有权(除了其任 命者)接收和(代替其委任)放弃董事会或其任命者为成员的董事委员会的通知,并应 有权在其任命者不亲自出席的会议上作为董事参加和投票并计为法定人数,并一般在此 类会议上行使其任命者作为董事的所有职能,根据此类会议程序的目的,这些条款规定 应将其(代替其任命者)作为董事对待。如果其自己是董事且应作为一个以上的董事的 备任董事参加此类会议,其应按其自己(如其是董事)及按其为备任董事的每个董事分 别应计入法定人数(但是,如果只有一位人员实际出席,根据此处的规定不得形成会议), 其投票权应累计,其无需以同一种方式使用其全部票数或进行投票。其对董事或任何委 员会的书面决议的签字及加盖公章的证明应同其任命者的签字和证明有同等效力。根据 细则,候补董事(除上述者外)不得拥有董事权力,亦不得被视为董事。

(C) 备任董事应有权签订、有兴趣于并受益于合同或安排或交易,有权被偿还费用和 获得作为董事相同程度的赔偿,但其无权作为备任董事从本公司获得酬金,但以其他方 式向其任命者支付的酬金部分(如有)除外,因其任命者可随时直接书而告知本公司。

(D) 条例第153B (1)条的规定不适用于根据这些条款任命的候补萤事。

备任董事

  1. (1)如果木公司只有一名成员而该成员是该公司的唯一董事,根据条例,虽然有 这些规定,但是本公司可通过股东大会任命一名年满18岁的人员(法人除外)为本公 司备任董事,在其死亡的情况下代替其作为唯一董事。

(2)本公司备任董事的任命停止有效,当:

(a) 在任命其的董事死亡前,

(i) 其辞去备任芾事;或

(ii) 在本公司股东大会上撤销该任命;或

(b) 任命其的董事因任何原因(除董事死亡外)不再是本公司唯一成员及唯一董事。

 

  • 根据第103 (4)条的规定,如果任命备任萤事的董事死亡,备任萤事应被视为本 公司的萤事,直至:
  • 根据这些条款,有人员被任命为本公司的董事;或
  • 其辞去董事职务,

以较早者为准。

  • 在第103 (3)条所指的条件是:
  • 根据第103 (2)条,备任萤事的任命仍然有效;旦
  • 法律未禁止备任董事作为本公司董事。
  • 在这些条款中,关于董事辞职的规定适用于根据木条获委任的备任董事。

秘书

  1. (A)秘书应由董事任命,任期、薪酬及条款由董事决定,获得任命的秘书可由董 事撤销。本条例或细则对秘书规定或授权的事务可由助理或代理秘书进行,如果没有助 理或代理秘书可以担任,应由董事将该事务-•般或特别授权给本公司职员进行。如果任 命的秘书是法人团体,其通过一个或多个萤事或正式授权职员行使职能并签署。
  • 如果秘书为个人,通常驻于香港,如为法人团体,其在香港应有注册办事处或营 业点。如果本公司只有一名董事,该唯一董事不得兼任公司秘书,本公司不得将法人团 体作为其秘书,该唯一黄事叩为本公司的唯一董事。
  • 根据本条例或章程的规定而规定或授权给董事及秘书的事务不得由董事兼任秘书 (或代理秘书)的同一人进行。

支票

  1. 所有支票、本票、汇票、票据及其他可流通可转让票据,以及向本公司支付款项所 有收据,应根据情况,按照董事随时通过决议决定的方式来签署、开出、承兑、背书或 其他方式执行。

公章

  1. 策事应对公章进行安全保管。仅芾事或芾事授权的委员会有权使用公章;应加盖公 章的每个票据均应由-名董事或秘书或董事专门指定的其他人签字。
  2. 本公司可行使该条例所赋予的权力,在香港以外使用公章,旦该权力应归属于董事。

 

股息和储备金

  1. 本公司股东大会可宣布股息,但股息不得超过董事建议金额。
  2. 董事可随时向股东支付期中股息,由董事根据公司利润调整。
  3. 根据条例的目的并按照条例的规定,股息必须来自利润。
  4. 本公司可经董事建议,通过普通决议立接以发行特定资产来支付全部或部分股息 (特别是己缴股份或任何其他公司的债券),黄事须落实有关决议:如果发行出现困难:

董事可紧急解决上述问题,并固定发行此类特定资产或其部分的价值,并可根据固定的 价值总额确定支付给成员的现金,以调整各方权力,并且,堇事可临时将此类特定资产 授权给受托人。

112根据对股息享有■特殊权力股份的人员的权力(如有),所有股息都应按股息支付或 存放的数额予以宣布和支付,但是,按本章程的规定,就未催缴股款的股份支息或存息, 其数额不得当做股份支付股息一样对待。所有股息都应按支付的股息数额的比例和支付 股息的时间比例予以支付;如股份发行条款规定该股份股息应从某一具体日期算起,该 股份股息分配应按规定办理。董事可•随时从分配给某股东的股息中扣除他可能因所催缴 的股款或因与股份有关的其他原因而现在应向公司支付的所有款项。

  1. 在建议分红之前,董事可从公司盈利中留存一笔其认为恰当的款项作为储备金,董 事可自由酌处将此笔款项用于会议事项,或股息年度均衡或公司盈利可以正当使用的任 何目的,且在如此使用之前,同样可经自由酌处将其用于公司的事务或用于爸事随时认 为恰当的投资(不是购买公司股份)。董事也可扣减股息作为储备金。
  2. 如果多人登记为股份的联名持有人,其中任一人可给出股息或其他应付款项或股份 相关的有效收据。
  3. 通过支票或付款单支付的股息可通过邮局邮寄至股东或有权人员的挂号地址,如果 是联合股东,则邮寄至其中一人的挂号地址或直接交予股东或有权人员或此类联合(视 情况而定)。所有支票和付款单的应付抬头人都必须是收单人或股东或有权人员或联合 股东(视情况而定)o

116 .计息不得有损公司利益。

117.通过公司决议的许可,董事可投资公司储备金账户金额(包括股份溢价账及资本赎 回储备基金)或利润和损失账户金额或以其他可行方式,通过向股份持有人按比例拨款 来分配,该款项可以以分红来分配利润的方式进行分配,或代表他们将此款项用于分别 支付他们所持有的未支付股票的金额,或支付全部未发行的股票(或,根据此时己发行 的任何股票,其它未被收回的未发行股票之前所被授予的特殊权力)以进行调配和分配, 全额或按上述比例向他们支付,或一部分用一种方式,一部分用另一种方式。尽管有上 述规定,根据本条的目的,股份溢价账户和资本赎回储备基金,在向股东支付将要分配 的未发行股票时,只能用做全额支付的分红股。董事可以将这些股本用于所有其认为必 要或临时的事务,并以黄事的所有权力,为股份分配做出其认为是对的规定(包括规定 分配权力利益归本公司所有,而不是股东)。董事可授权任何人代表所有相关利益的股 东签订协议,公司对任何资本和附带事宜做出的规定,及因权力而做出的协议应是有效 的并受相关约束。

118对任何无人认领的股息或其他股份应付款项,董事应另立账户支付,但不构成本公 司的委托,自宣布股息之日起,满12年后,任何无人认领的股息应失效并归本公司所 有。

记录日期

  1. 尽管在这些条款中有其他规定,本公司或董事可以固定任何日期为分红、分配、调 配或发行的记录日期,且该记录日期可以是此类分红、分配、调配或发行被宣布、支付 或作出日期之前或之后的任何日期。

账目

  1. 董事须建立适当的账簿并保存,账簿包括:
  • 本公司及涉及收支事项的所有收入及支出款项;
  • 本公司商品的销售和购买;及
  • 本公司的资产和负债。

如果没有此类账簿,不得视为妥善保存了记录,这些账簿十分必要,能够真实、客观评 价公司事务的状态并证明其交易。

  1. 账簿应保存在办事处,或根据条例,保存在其他地方或董事认为合适的地方,并须 随时能被董事检查。
  2. 董事须随时决定是否以及在何种程度上和在什么时间和地点,根据什么样的条款或 规定,本公司的账簿或部分应由非董事的股东检查,任何股东(不是董事)无权检查公 司任何账簿或文件,除非由条例授权或由董事或公司股东大会授权。
  3. 根据该条例第122、第124和第129D条,董事须随时在公司股东大会前安排拟备 及提交如利润和损益帐,资产负债表,集团账目(如有)及这些条中所提到的报告。
  4. 根据条例第129G条,资产负债表副本(包括法律规定所附的每个文件),应在公 司股东大会前提交,及董事报告副本和审计员报告副本都须在会议日期前不得少于21 天送交至有权收到公司董事会议的通知的每位股东,每位公司债券持有人及除股东或公 司债券外的所有人,前提是本条不要求将这些文件的副本送至本公司无其地址的人员或 送至股份或证券的一个以上的联合股东。

分支名册

25.本公司可行使该条例所赋予的权力并建立并保存在香港以外任何地方的分支股东名 册。根据本条例,董事会可随时适当作出或更改此类规定,这些规定有关于保存分支名 册和向、在或从此类分支转让股票,并应遵守当地法律的要求。

审计

  • 应按照条例任命审计人员并管理其职责。

通知

  1. 本公司、所有董事或股东之间的任何通知或其他通讯(委任秘书除外),可亲自或 以书面形式或任何其他方法电子记录收件人邮政或电子地址的形式送达。没有香港注册 地址,且没有提供给本公司通知的送达地址,电报,电传,或电子地址的股东无权从本 公司收到通知。
  2. 当送达通知时:

(i)通过邮寄,通过适当的定位、预付和邮寄含有通知的信函来进行的通知服务应被 视为有效,如果含有会议通知的信函被邮寄后满48小时,会议通知被送至股东在香港 的注册地址,该通知服务也是有效的,其它情况下,信函应使用普通邮寄,但通常派送 至香港外地址的信函应使用航空邮件;或

  • 通过电传,有确认应答(如用电传通知);或
  • 通过电报,向电报公司发送24小时后;或
  • 通过传真或电子手段,传输记录显示传真或电子手段没有错误或中断。
  1. 本公司向股份联名持有人发出通知时,可向股份登记的首个联名持有人发出通知。
  2. 向因股东死亡或破产而有权持有其股份的人递送通知时,本公司可向其递送,或以 死者代表的抬头或破产者受托人的抬头或以类似抬头,通过第127和第128条中的方法, 提供给声明享有此权力的人员,或者按未发生死亡或破产而使用的方式发出通知。
  3. 根据法律,如果通过转让或其他方式而有权持有股份的人员,其应受通知的约束, 在其名字和地址被登记前,此类通知就已由让出股份所有权的人员向其发出。

文件销毁

  1. 公司可销毁:
  • 从被撤销之前起满一年的股份证书;
  • 公司记录的从委托、更改、撤销或通知之日起满2年的任何股息委托书或其任何 更改或撤销或名称或地址更改的通知:
  • 从注册之日起满六年的经注册的可转让股份票据;及
  • 自肯次登记之日起满6年后,在任何时候登记的任何其他文件;根据公司记录的 详情,最终被推定为有利于本公司的每个被销毁的股票证明是正式并合理撤销的有效证 明,每个被销毁的转让票据为正式并合理登记的有效票据,每个其它被撤销的文件为有 效的,通常:
  • 本条上述规定应仅适用于销毁善意文件,旦没有向本公司明确说明因索赔而保存 此类文件;
  • 本条的任何内容不得被解释为是本公司早于上述销毁文件或不满足上述条件(a) 情况而负有责任的依据;及
  • 本条中对销毁文件的参考包括以其他任何方式处理的参考。

停业

  1. 如果公司停业旦可供股东分配的资产不足以偿还全部实收资本,应分配此类资产, 以便股东尽可能按支付的资本比例承担损失,而J1股东持有的股份的资本在开始停业时 己经付清。如果停业,且在开始停业时,可供股东分配的资产超过偿还全部实收资本, 多余部分应按开始停业时实收的资本比例,向股东分别支付。根据特别条款,本条不得 增加或减损己发行股份的持有人的权利。
  2. 公司不向任何董事或清盘人因本公司的业务或资产或其部分的出传或变现而支付 费用或佣金。除非经股东大会的许可,通过通知指明要支付的费用或佣金。

如果公司应停业(无论是自愿或其他),经公司专门决议认可或条例要求的其他认可, 财产清算人可将公司全部或部分资产按实物分给股东(不论资产是否由同一类实物构 成),只要清算人认为适当,他可就上述所分配的任何资产进行估价,并可决定如何在 股东或不同种类的股东之中进行分配。经同样认可,财产清算人可以将全部或任何部分 资产交受托人,只要清算人认为此种委托恰当且对分配有益,但不得强迫任何股东接受 任何附有义务的股份或其他证券。

赔偿

  1. (A)根据条例的规定和许可,对于本公司的任何职员可能因执行和履行其职责而 遭受或招致的或其所招致的有关债务而产生的成本、费用、损失、花费和债务,本公司 可进行赔偿,例如:

(a) 参与诉讼,不论是民事诉讼或是刑事诉讼,如果胜诉,或被开释:或

(b) 或法庭援引条例第358节,免除其责任。

(B) 本公司可为公司所有职员购买和维护:

(a) 本公司、相关公司或任何其他方因职员疏忽,过失行为,违反职责或违反信托(除 欺诈外)(可能因本公司或相关公司而犯法)而做出的责任保险;及

(b) 因职员对因其任何疏忽,失责,失职或违反信托(包括欺诈)(可能因本公司或 相关公司而犯法)而招致的诉讼(不论是民事或刑事的)进行辩护,因此产生的责任保 险。

(C) 根据条例第165条的规定,如果任何董事及/或其他人员应个人支付主要应由本公 司承担的款项,芾事可执行或安排进行任何按揭、收费或抵押或影响本公司资产的全部 或部分,以赔偿的方式确保应承担上述责任的芾事及/或人员个人免于遭受此类责任的 损失。

 

翻译报告

1翻译任务描述

1.1翻译项目简介

公司章程是由出资人或者股东共同制定的对双方进行约束的文件,需要股东的签名 盖章,一经注册登记,章程即发生法律效力。如果在公司运作过程中公司股东发生纠纷, 或者董事长与总经理之间发生职务冲突,或者其它内部纠纷,公司章程都是解决这些纠 纷的根本依据。

公司章程细则是约束公司权利、义务关系的基本法律文件,是公司设立的最主要条 件和最重要的文件,是公司组织和行为的基本规范,并且是公司对外进行经营交往的基 本法律依据,对公司有着举足轻重的作用。

本篇公司章程细则由公司委托译者翻译,译者在翻译后选择其中的一部分作为翻译 报告的材料。

1-2翻译文本特点分析

译者所选译本是法律英语,属于应用题材。法律英语的句法结构在很大情况下•都非 常复杂,尤其是对从句的连续性要求较高,以主谓结构为轴心,通过非谓语动词形式和 各种从句进行扩展和延伸,这种有形的连接使英语的句子达到相当的长度。在本篇公司 章程中,到处都存在若这种复合长句。

在译者翻译的过程中,这些复合长句给译者带来的很大的困难。这些复合长句中, 经常会出现定语后置,而有些句子在定语从句后面有会伴随状语从句或者定语从句,这 种环环相扣的结构和逻辑关系常常使译者陷入困境。但是仔细分析过后,会发现,最重 要的是要理清逻辑顺序,并且要思维清晰敏捷,分割意群,然后对意群进行重组。

另一个最显著的特点就是经常会使用被动句的语法结构,被动结构比主动结构更加 简洁,更能突出主要论证,而且主观色彩较少。公司章程是一种非常正式的公文,表述 时注重公正无私,客观准确,所以很注重被动语态的使用。

被动句有其明显的被动结构,主要是由be加过去分词构成,be的变化来表现相应 的时态;动作的发出者多用介词by引出,某些情况下,by短语是可以省略的。受英语 语言特点的限制,英语会普遍使用被动结构,而被动结构的特点乂使得法律英语这种文 体更是大量使用被动句结构。因此,在译者翻译的过程中,对被动句的翻译从英语和汉 语的思维逻辑、句法结构和表达习惯入手,根据具体的转换情况和技巧,对被动句进行 转换。

还有就是名词化现象普遍存在,而旦大量使用形容词和介词等,呈现出静态特征。 译者在翻译的过程中,也比较注重法律英语的这种表达特点,并根据汉语和英语的语言 特点,进行词性的转换,从而能使译文更符合汉语表达习惯,不会带有很浓的翻译腔。

了解本篇公司章程的这些特点,对于翻译过程有很大的指导作用,使我们在翻译时 注意分析语法语义,适当分析句子成分,来确定意群,明确翻译单位。同时,为了使译 文符合汉语的表达习惯,要常常使用词类转化、词汇增补等翻译技巧,将英语中的静态 表达向汉语动态表达转化,并且注意语态转换的问题。

2翻译过程

  1. 1译前准备

从广义上理解翻译,就是把-•种语言变成另一种语言,换句话说,翻译就是将-•种 语言文字的意义用另一种语言文字表达出来。翻译无时无刻不需要比较两种语言之间的 异同。

对于从事翻译活动的人来说,两种语言之间的相同之处越多,对于翻译活动的好处 就越大。本则翻译报告对中文和英文的相同之处不做过多分析,只若重分析一下两种语 言之间的不同之处。

汉语是一种“意合语言”,强调意合,短句较多,并且结构简单,主要靠的是句子 内部的逻辑联系,句子内部的连接或者句子之间的连接用的是语义手段,人们形象地将 这种语言结构称之为竹状结构,是在汉语的行文习惯中,常用动词来表意,经常会大量 使用动词。汉语在表达注重主体意识,因此,汉语常用人或物作主语,多用主动语态。

英语是-•种“形合语言”,句子内部的连接或者句子之间的连接采用的是这种语言 本身的语法手段、句法手段或词汇手段;强调形合,多长句并且结构复杂,被人们形象 地成为葡萄串结构或树状结构。

在英语中,名词化现象普遍存在,而且大量使用形容词和介词等,呈现出静态特征。 而旦英语中的名词化结构可以使语体获得正式、严肃、客观的效果。英语倾向于强调客 体多用非人称主语结构,多用被动句。

了解英语和汉语这两种语言之间的差别,对于翻译实践有很重要的指导作用。

  1. 2翻译过程中的辅助手段

译者在本次的翻译实践中,还利用了电了工具,尤其是网络资源来提高翻译质量 和翻译速度。翻译工作的特殊性要求译者不得不成为一个“杂家”,对要翻译的专业内 容都要有一定的了解,不能仅凭一点翻译技巧和翻译策略,因为在翻译的过程中常常会 遇到很多白己不懂的东西。这种情况下,译者就会认真的研究,并在网上搜索专业的表 达方法,然后再进行翻译,而不是想当然的按照字面翻译。

语言只是一种工具,对于语言而言,最重要的不是形式,而是它所传递的内容, 译者选择的文本专业性较强,而译者乂没有经过系统的学习和了解,并旦,在翻译的过 程中,翻译策略和翻译技巧并不是全部。在这种专业性很强的文本的翻译过程中,最常 见的一种情况是,译者能够分析出句子的结构,也W以通过词典查找到每个不熟悉的单 词的含义,但是还是无法理解其传达内容。如果译者无法了解原文内容,要想准确翻译 出来,几乎就不可能了。所以,洋者会利用网络资源查找这些陌生的概念和单词,帮助 译者理解,而理解之后,译者乂可以利用网络资源来印证自己翻译出的专业术语是否存 在,或者是翻译的内容是够存在,由此提高了译文的准确度。

同时,译者在翻译的过程中还参照了平行文本,所谓的平行文本,就是与原文内 容接近的任何参考资料。现在的网络非常发达,很容易在网上找到翻译资料的相关内容, 译者在翻译之前找到这些相近的资料,认真阅读,以获取专业知识和术语,学习专业的 表达方法和风格,对于翻译过程也很有帮助。

3翻译实例分析

3.1法律英语翻译原则

法律文件翻译是法律语言的转换,需要做到的是译入语准确无误地表达原语的真正 含义,在用词上及句子结构上都必须做到“信”和“忠实”,体现法律文件的权威性。 译者在本次翻译中的准则是:重视对原语言的理解,同时重视译入语的正确性。

  1. 2尤金-奈达及其“功能对等理论”

译者在本次翻译过程中坚持的翻译原则和使用的翻译策略与尤金-奈达的“功能对 等理论”非常吻合,是在“功能对等理论”指导下的一次翻译实践。

尤金•奈达是一位杰出的语言学家,他一生著作等身,此处不一一赘述。他的第一 本专著是《圣经翻译》,出版于1946年,在《圣经》翻译的过程中,他从自己的翻译实 际出发,发展出了一套自己的翻译理论,最终成为翻洋研究的经典之一。在翻译的过程 中,为使源语言和目的语的之间有一个转换标准,尤金•奈达从语言学的角度出发,根 据翻译的本质,提出了著名的“动态对等”翻译理论,即“功能对等”。

奈达对“功能对等”的定义是:Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terns of meaning and secondly in terms of style (翻译是用最切近、自然和对等的语言从语义到文 体再现源语的信息)。这个定义中包含了三个重耍的讯息,艮”“对等”,这是针对源语 信息来说的,它的意思是译文中的包含的信息要最大限度地与源语中的信息相对等;“自 然”,这是对译文提出的要求;“最切近”是以高度的相似性为基础将上述两点综合起来。

奈达的“功能对等”包含了四个方面,艮IJ:词汇对等、句法对等、篇章对等和文体 对等。

  1. 3实例分析

“功能对等”强调源语接收者和目标语接收者对于翻译产物的反映应该大致相同, 并且指明,翻译不仅仅要求词汇意义上要对等,还包括语义、风格和文体的对等。在这 四个方面中,奈达认为,意义是最重要的,形式其次。

译者在此次的翻译实践中坚持的是准确传达源语包含信息的原则,而结合法律文件 的语言特点和准确、忠实的翻译原则,在“功能对等”理论的指导下,译者在翻译的过 程中对词语采取了直译和意译的翻译方法,而对句子,尤其是长句则采用了顺译、逆译、 分译及综合译法等方法。

  1. 3. 1直译法

在法律英语的英译汉过程中,对词的理解是很关键的一点,在这种文体中,有大冕 的hereafterx hereof> hereto> thereof等词汇出现,在翻译过程中,只有了解了这些词汇 的深层含义,对于译文的理解才有可能准确。奈达的“功能对等”理论认为翻译的过程 是传达意义,因此,意义的对等是译者在本次翻译实践中坚持的首要原则。

对于能确切表达的词语,本篇论文中不做过多分析,只着重分析具有语境意义,需 根据上下文推敲的词语译法。

  1. 3. 2语境意义法

一个英语单词可能会存在很多含义,但是,在特定的语境环境中,它的含义是相 对固定的,也就是说,单词存在某种语境意义。语境意义具有两个方面的含义,一个方 而是词语在特定的语言环境中的意义,特定的语言环境对词的概念意义进行某种调节, 从而赋予它某种关联含义。另一方面是词语在特定的社会环境中的意义,指交际目的、 交际场合以及接受者因素富有与语义信息的感情色彩、情态和暗示意义等。法律英语中 经常使用的这种hereafterx hereof、heretothereof,这样做是为了避免赘述,使行文准 确、简练。翻洋的过程中,要注意分析这些词后的确切含义,也就是说,需要译者搞清 楚to、of、under等词语后面的含义。

案例1

The Share Capital of the Company is HK$ 10X)00.00 divided into I (),000 shares of HKS1.00 each with the power for the company to increase or reduce the said capital and to issue any part of its capital, original or increased, with or without preference, priority or special privileges, or subject to any postponement of rights or to any conditions or restrictions and so that, unless the conditions of issue shall otherwise expressly declare, every issue of shares, whether declared to be preference or otherwise, shall be subject to the power hereinbefore contained.

译文对照

公司的股本为港币10,000.00元,分为10,00()股,每股港币1.()()元。公司有•权增减 上述股本及发行原始或经增加的股本之任何部分,不论该等股本是否附有优惠、优先权 或特权,或是否受限于权利的延迟行使或任何条件或限制,以致(发行条件另有明文公 布除外)每次股份发行均受限于上述权力,不论所发行的股份是否被公布为优先股份或 其他股份。

分析

原文中的the power hereinbefore contained译为“上述权力”,根据上卜•文的含义, hereinbefore指的是前面的这些规定的权力,使用这个词语,目的是为了避免再次重述 前面规定的种种权力,在翻译的过程中,一定要把这层含义表述出来,而不能简单的译 为“受限于权力

案例2

Subject to the provisions of Article 6 hereof, the Directors shall have power at any time, and from time to time, to appoint a person as an additional Director who shall retire from office at the next following Annual General Meeting, but shall be eligible for election by the Company at that meeting as an additional Director.

译文对照

在不抵触本章程细则第6条的情况下,董事会有权在任何时间并不定期地任命任 何人为额外董事。而该董事必须在下次股东大会上退任,但其在该大会上有资格被公司 选为额外董事。

分析

原文中的the provisions of Article 6 hereof译为本章程细则第6条。此处的hereof示的是of this Memorandum and Article,使用这个单词的目的是为了不重复使用this Memorandum and Article.使行文简练。

案例3

the right to transfer shares is restricted in manner hereinafter prescribed;

译文对照

转让股份的权利受到下述限制;

分析

原文中manner hereinafter prescribed中的”hereinafter”是法律英语的正式用词, 表示的是”以下”、”在下文”等意义。这个单词一般与to be referred to as、referred to as、 called 等词连用, 组成 hereinafter to be referred to as…、hereinafter to referred to as…、 hereinafter called…等词组,作为一种固定用法,被译为“以下简称”。

法律英语还会使用大量的短语和词组,并且这些短语和词组会在文件中重复的出 现。在法律英语文件的翻洋过程中,译者研究了在法律英语中这些短语和词组的使用特 点,因为,这些词组和短语在法律文件中大量存在,并且大多有固定的含义,掌握了这 些特点,对于法律英语的翻译实践有这很重要的指导作用。

案例4

The Directors may elect a chairman of their meetings, and determine the period for which he is to hold office, and unless otherwise determined the chairman shall be elected annually.

译文对照

董事会可选出会议主席并决定其任期。除另有规定外,必须每年举行一次主席选 举。

分析

原文中 unless otherwise determined the chairman shall be elected annually 译为“除另 有规定外,必须每年举行一次主席选举”。此处的unless otherwise是法律英语中常见的 词组,它有两个同义词组成,译为“除非另……

案例5

the number of members of the company (exclusive of persons who arc in the employment of the company and of persons who having been formerly in the employment of the company were while in such employment and have continued after the determination of such employment to be members of the company) is limited to 50. Provided that where 2 or more persons hold one or more shares in the company jointly they shall for the purpose of this regulation be treated as a single member;

译文对照

公司成员人数不超过五十人(不包括公司雇用的人士,亦不包括先前受公司雇用并 且在雇用期间为公司成员以及雇用终止之后仍为公司成员的人士),但是当两人或两人 以上联名持有公司的-•份或多份股份时,就本款而言,该等人士应视作一名成员;

分析

原文中的Provided that是法律英语中常见的短语,通常译为“但规定”、”但该 词组在法律条款中常用在某一条款后,此条款对某件事情做出规定后,为了使条款的规 定更加准确、全而,需要做进-•步规定时,常常使用这个短语。

  1. 3. 3顺译法

顺洋法,乂被称作“顺序法”或“原序译法”,有些英语长句所叙述的一连申动作基本 按照动作发生的时间先后安排,也有些英语长句的内容是按照逻辑关系安排,这与汉语 的表达习愦颇为一致,基本可以按照原文语序依次译出,而无需做出太大的调整。

案例6

The Directors may decline to register any transfer of shares to any person without giving any reason therefore o

译文对照

董事会可以拒绝登记向任何人转让的任何股份,无须说明任何理由。

分析

这个句子是一个带有介词短语的比较长的简单句,它在表达上与汉语的逻辑关系 是基本一致的,因此,儿乎可以完全按照原句原来的顺序进行翻译和组织语言。

案例7

The Directors may elect a chairman of their meetings, and determine the period for which he is to hold office, and unless otherwise determined the chairman shall be elected annually.

译文对照

董事会可选出会议主席并决定其任期。除另有规定外,主席选举必须每年举行一

次。 4 A f 丁、|

分析 /.[ I . L/U111

这是一个夏合句,含有两个并列分句,第一个分句为the directors may…is to hold office,叙述的是董事的权利,第二个分句 and unless otherwise…be elected annually 补充 说明的是另外…利,情况,整个句子层次分明、逻辑清晰,顺序完全符合汉语的表达习惯, 翻译时可以按照原句的语序,将两个大的意群翻译出即可。

案例8

From time to time to make, vary or repeal rules and by-laws for the regulation of the business of the Company, its officers and servants.

译文对照

不时制定,更改或废除规章及附则以便规范公司业务、高管人员及员工。

分析

这个句子的结构也很清晰,谓语动词为make, vary or repeal,宾语为rules and

by-laws,整个句子的层次很分明,顺序完全符合汉语表达习惯,翻译时按照原文正常语 序翻译出即可。

  1. 3.4逆译法

逆译法,也有人称之为变序译法。汉语与英语在表达习惯上有很大的不同,英语 长句的特点是重点内容在前,次要内容在后,但是汉语恰恰相反。所以,在翻译有些长 句的时候,要采用逆译法,也就是说,先把整个句了的后一部分翻译出来,再依次向前 翻译。

案例9

lb purchase or otherwise acquire for the Company or sell or otherwise dispose of any property, rights or privileges which the Company is authorised to acquire at such price and generally on such terms and conditions as they shall think fit.

译文对照

按董事会认为合适的价格,并通常按照董事会认为适当的条款及条件,为公司购 买或以其他方式收购或出售或以其他方式处置公司有权取得的任何财产、权利或特权。

分析

这个复合句的结构稍微有点复杂,as they shall think fit修饰的是它之前的such price 和 such conditions,谓语部分是句子开头的单词 To purchase or otherwise acquire for the Company or sell or otherwise dispose of,宾语部分是 property, rights or privileges, which the Company is authorised to acquire则是对宾语部分的修饰。按照汉语的表达习惯,条件 一般在前,事实在后,因此,在翻译这个句子的时候,采用了逆译法。

同样,在下一个句子中,也采用了逆译法。

案例10

To employ, invest or otherwise deal with any Reserve Fund or Reserve Funds in such manner and for such purposes as the Directors may think fit.

译文对照

按董事会认为合适的方式和目的,利用、投资或以其他方式处置储备金。

分析

这个句子的谓语部分是 To employ, invest or otherwise deal with,宾语是 any Reserve Fund or Reserve Funds, as the Directors may think fit 是对它前面 such manner 和 such purposes的修饰,按照汉语表达习惯,这个句子也采用逆洋法,将条件放在前而,要执 行的动作放在后面。

案例11

A transfer of shares shall not pass the right to any dividend declared thereon before the registration of the transfer.

洋文对照

股份转让未登记前,享有该等股份已公布股息的权利不得转移。

分析

在这句话中,before the registration of the transfer是对整个句子的条件限定,按照 汉语的表达习惯,对这个句子采用逆译法。

  1. 3.5分译法

分译法也是英汉翻洋中比较常用的方法之一,有些英语长句结构复杂,包含多层 意思,翻译的过程中就会不拘泥于原文的形式,把原句中较长的句子成分,或者不易安 排的句子成分分出来另作处理,译成几个独立的短句。

案例12

The Seal of the Company shall be kept by the Board of Directors and shall not be used except with their authority.

译文对照

公司印章由堇事会保管,除得到堇事会授权外,不得使用。

分析

这是一个由and连接的并列句,全句共有两层意思,在翻译的时候,采用分译法, 将这两层意思分别用小分句表达出来。

案例13

All voting of members in respect of any matter or matters shall be by poll and every member present in person or by proxy shall have one vote for each share of which he is the holder.

译文对照

所有成员表决任何事务,必须以投票方式进行。每一位亲自出席或通过代理人出 席的成员,以所持股份计,每股一票。

分析

这也是一个由and连接的并列分句。第一个分句和第二个分句具有相对的独立性, 因此翻译时采用的分译法,将整个句子在and连接处断开,有把两个分句各自按照汉语 表达习惯断开翻译。

  1. 3.6综合译法

对于有些英语长句来说,无论是顺译或逆译都不恰当,分译也有难度,特别是这 种法律文体,会大量存在长句、复合句现象,逻辑关系环环相扣,任何一种单一的翻译 方法都无法准确翻译原文,这时■候就应该考虑将原文顺序打乱,把原文分成若干个语言 单位及意群,按照汉语的表达习惯,按照逻辑顺序或者时间顺序,有顺有•逆、有主有•次 的对全局进行综合处理。

案例14

A Director who is about to go away from or is absent from Hong kong may with the approval of the majority of the other Directors nominate any person to be his substitute and such substitute whilst he holds office as such shall be entitled to notice of Meetings of the Directors and to attend and vote thereat accordingly and he shall ipso facto vacate office if and when the appointor returns to Hong Kong or vacate office as a Director or removes the substitute from office and any appointment and removal under this Article shall be effected by notice in writing under the hand of or by cable from the Director making the same.

译文对照

如果董事将要离开香港或已经不在香港,在得到董事会其他大多数董事的批准后, 可以提名任何人士代替其职位,替代期间,替代董事有权接收芾事会议通知,出席会议 以及行使表决权。如果委托人回到香港、离任或者委托人罢免替代董事,替代董事应当 自动离任。根据本条所作出的任何委任及罢免,必须由做出此举的芾事亲笔以书而形式 或以电报形式发出通知,方可实施。

分析

这句话包含了 115个英语单词,是一个很长的句子。但其实细细读来,它的结构 并不夏杂。译者首先做的是理出句子的主干,也就是句子的意群。大致分析来看,这个 句子由两个大的并列成分组成,这两个并列成分的主语分别是A director和such

 

A Report on the Translation of The Memorandum and Articles of Company substitute,而它们分别表述的意义是director可以在什么情况下做什么事以及substitute 在什么情况下做什么事,译者就暂且将其规定为A部分和B部分。

A部分结构比较简单,主语是a director,谓语是nominate, who引导的从句是X、j director的修饰限定,由此译者得出第一个大的翻译单位的表达内容是一个怎样的 director在什么样的情况下nominate 一个substituteo B部分结构相对复杂,它包括三个 并列的小分句,每个小分句又存在有不同的从句,分析得知,第一个小分句such substitute whilst he holds office as such shall be entitled to notice of Meetings of the Directors and to attend and vote thereat accordingly 记为 B1,第二个小分句 he shall ipso facto vacate office if and when the appointor returns to Hong Kong or vacate office as a Director or removes the subslitute from office 记为 B2, any appointment and removal under this Article shall be effected by notice in writing under the hand of or by cable from the Director making the same 记为B3。这样分句B就被划分成了三个大的意群,分析得知,B1的主语为such substitute,谓语是be entitled,其它的句子成分便是对主语的限定或最为宾语成分进行说 明修饰。依次类推,译者根据这种划分意群和分析句子的方法来分析B2和B3。在得到 这些意群,并对其详细分析之后,译者按照中文表达习惯,将其意群重新组合,根据奈 达的翻译理论,对等表达原文所包含的意义,得出以下译文。

在整个文件的翻译过程中,对于长句,译者都会认真分析何个意群的句法结构, 透彻理解其详细含义,然后按照顺译、逆译、分译及综合译法等方法对意群进行汉语重 组,尺量对原文进行语义的对等传递。当然,在翻译的过程中,一些增词减词、分句合 句、英语的静态表达向汉语动态表达转换及英语被动句的翻译等翻译技巧和翻译策略, 是译者需时刻注意的,而且这些对于语义的对等传递非常有帮助。

4实践总结

本次翻译以尤金-奈达的“功能对等”理论为指导,从词汇、词组和长句的对等传 递出发,分析单词含义及长句结构,按照顺译、逆译、分译及综合译法等集组意群,以 符合汉语表达习惯的方式对原文进行对等传递。在这次的翻译实践过程中,译者得到了 如下儿点经验教训。

首先,实践的过程必须有理论进行指导。在对理论的学习中,译者曾经陷入困境,

 

认为翻译理论非常枯燥乏味,而且空洞,对于翻译实践而言没有价值可言。洋者曾经以 为,翻译水平的提高只需要大量的翻译实践,在实践中自己总结翻译技巧。但是,在后 来的翻译实践中,译者逐步发现,翻译理论对于翻译实践有着非常重要的作用。因为, 译者在翻译过程中总结的策略往往杂乱,没有条理,并且很多时候译者碰到的翻译难点 并不能仅仅通过查找单词含义和分析语法这样的方式解决。在学习翻译理论的过程中, 译者会经常发现自己头脑中存在的翻译策略得到了印证,或者是一些想不明白的问题得 到了解决。其实,译者之前对于翻译理论的误解主要是因为洋者的浮躁心理和急于求成 的心理,译者急于提高翻译水平,所以要求翻译理论对于翻译实践有立竿见影的指导作 用。事实上,翻译理论对于翻洋质量的提高是潜移默化的,在翻洋实践的过程中坚持学 习翻译理论,翻译理论翻译理论与翻译实践就会发生相互促进的作用,翻译水平和理论 修养也会得到逐步的提高。

其次是要广泛和深入了解与翻译材料相关的平行内容。学习翻译的人经常会面临 一个尴尬的境地,那就是只有工具,没有专业。语言是一种工具,语言翻译可以为不同 国界的人们的沟通搭建起一座桥梁,但是人们沟通的内容也是很重要的,也需要准确的 传递。译者在翻译的过程中,遇到很多专业的法律术语和金融术语,甚至有时候,这些 英语单词本身很普通,属于比较常见的类型,但是,在法律英语中,它会有特定的含义, 如果对这种专业知识不够了解,那么翻译就很可能会出现错误。还有一种情况就是,英 语单词或词组翻译而来的汉语表达方式也很常见,但是,在这种法律性的文件中,它们 也有不同于日常汉语的含义,这对译者是’个很大的考验,因为译者没有系统的学习过 这方面的专业知识,有时候可能会无法透彻理解英语原文,并旦有时候对自己翻译出来 的译文的理解也不是很透彻。为了解决这个困难,译者便搜集了很多与翻译文本相似的 材料,多多阅读,扩展背景知识,也搜索相关的术语和金融知识,边学习专业知识,边 做翻译。这样,翻译的过程会很慢,但是会提高译文的准确程度。

还有非常重要的一点就是,翻译人员的素质和责任感也非常重要。翻译人员的索 质包括其语言能力和知识面以及必备的翻译技巧。语言能力,不但包括英语,也包括母 语。外语对于翻译的重要性自然无需多说,倒是汉语应该值得重视。因为翻译人员会忽 略对汉语的学习,认为是自己的母语,不需要花费精力学习,其实是有误解的。母语在 翻译中是非常重要的,译者在翻译过程中就常常会碰到无法准确表达的问题,并且翻译 出来的汉语译文带有翻译腔,这是译者需要克服的问题之-。知识面也非常重要,对于

一个翻译人员来说,耍扩大tl己的知识而,必需要养成学习不同知识的习惯,做好终生 学习的准备。

我们提供的笔译服务始终如一、质量可靠、值得信赖。为帮助客户了解我们的质量,我们可以接受200字以内免费试译。客户拥有绝对的控制权。

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