Definition & Main Clauses

Contracts are agreement between equal natural persons, legal persons and other organizations for the purpose of establishing, altering and terminating mutual rights and obligations.

■合同是平等主体的自然人、法人和其他组织之间 建立、变更、终止民事权利和义务关系的协议。

  1. Main Clauses of a Contract
  • Definition and Interpretation nguage and Confidentiality Amendment and Alteration
  • Responsibility, Liability and Obligation
  • Insurance
  • Quantity and Quality
  • Terms of Payment
  • Survey and Inspection
  • Packing and Shipping and Delivery
  • Force Majeure
  • Claim
  • Arbitration
  • Termination
  1. Stylistic Features of a Contract
  • Archaic words: where, here, there等与as, at, by, 刑加after等构成的复合词

e.g. thereinafter —in that part which follows

  • Synonymous Words: (Accuracy & Completeness )
  • 1) able and willing
  • 2) agent and representative
  • 3) any part or parts of it
  • 4) arising or resulting from

. 5) be null and void and of no effect

. 6) loss, injury and damage w 11 I ■ w V I I I

  • 7) negligence, fault, or failure in the duties and obligations
  • 8) inadequate or improper…
  • 9) provisions and stipulations/terms and conditions
  • 10) use, misuse and abuse
  • 11) made and signed/entered by and between…
  • 12) negligence, fault or failure疏忽、过失或未履行(规定的责任和义务)


  • ships and vessels
  • support and maintenance
  • licenses and permits
  • charges, fees, costs and expenses
  • any and all
  • any duties, obligations or liabilities
  • control and management of the partnership
  • applicable laws, regulations, decrees, directives, and rules


This agreement is made and entered into

by and between Part A and Part B.

■ 本协议由甲方和乙方签订。

In consideration of you making a loan available to the Borrower:, we hereby issue this Guarantee for the account of the Borrower and agree as follows:

■鉴于你方向借款人:提供了一笔贷款,我 行特此为借款人出具保函并保证如下:


The headings and marginal notes in these conditions shall be deemed part thereof or be taken into consideration in the interpretation or construction thereof or the contract.

■本合同条件中的标题和旁注应视为本合同的一 部分,在合同条件或合同本身的理解或解释中 也应考虑在内(也应考虑这些标题和旁注。)

Contractor shall, without limiting his or the Employer’s obligations and resuonsibilities under Clause20z insure the Works, together with material and plant for incorporation therein, to the full replacement cost.

■在不限制第20条中规定的承包人和业主的义 务和责任的条件下,承包人应以全部重置成 本对工程,及用于工程中的材料和工程设备 进行保险。(投保)

The sellers shall be reliable for any rust attributable to inadequate or improper protective measures taken by the sellers in regard to the packing.

■凡由于包装问题保护措施不当而引起的锈损 应由卖方负责。

■卖方须对因在包装问题上采取不当的保护措 施而造成的锈损负责。

If the Contractor shall duly perform and observe all the terms, urovisions, conditions snd stipulations sf the said Contract, this obligation shall be mill and void but otherwise shall be and remain in full force and effect.

■如果承包人切实履行并遵守上述合同的所有条 款、条件及规定,所承担义务即告终止,否则 这种义务保持完全有效。


5.Commonly-Used Words:

Ishall:^ “强制性规范”,而should“提倡性,道德性规范” seller shall present the following documents to fill bank for negotiation.


All technical documents shall be handed over in compliance with the requirements of the Employer’s schedule for the works.


Party A shall not apply the contracted commodity to other buyers in the above-mentioned area. Direct enquiry, if any, shall be referred to Party B.

甲方不得向上述地区其他买主提供本合同项下的商品。如有 直琏商价音,应让他们而乙方询价。

(be) subject to: depending on …as a condition

provided that:表“当事人所希望的条件”,与if从句不同・

6.Key Features of Long Sentences in the Contract


■从句式的使用上来看,合同一般采用陈述句, 而不使用疑问句、祈使句或者感叹句。完整长 句的使用可以准确界定当事人在有关活动中的 权利而义务的关系,排除被曲鬲率或误解耐访能。

> ■商务合同具有句式讲究、用词严谨、条

q 理清晰、长而不乱、逻辑性强的特点。

/ 所以,将英语合同文本译成汉语时,应尽 可能保留合同语言的特点。

In accordance with the Law of the People’s ■■Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign “flldsoperative Joint Ventures and other relevant Chinese laws and regulations, Company and Company, in accordance

with the principle of equality and mutual benefit and through friendly consultations, agree to jointly set up a cooperative venture in r the People’s Republic China.

■中国—公司和—国(或地区)—公司,根据 《中华人民共和国中外合资经营企业法》和其他有 关法律、法规,本音平等互利的原则,通过友好协 商,同意在中华人民共和国—省—市,共同举 办/(建立)合作经营企业。

The Seller shall deliver the goods in the kind and quantity specified herein alongside the Buyer’s vessel(i), within the reach of its loading tackle(2)z at the appointed port of shipment(3).

■卖方应按本合同规定的种类和数量在指定的 装运港口⑶、买方的船边⑴、起重机钓钩能 达到的地方⑵交货。

The cooperative venture company shall establish a management office which shall be responsible for its daily management.



I 7.定语从句的翻译

. □伊 side which meets force majeure wrould notify the other side by fax or e- mail as soon as possible and give the other side the official certification by international express mail within two weeks.

■受不可抗力阻碍的(遭遇不可抗力的)一方应 在最短的时间内/尽快,用传真、电子邮件将 不可抗力的发生通知另一方,并在两周内,用 国际特快邮件将当地政府证明文件寄给另一方。

The Buyer agrees to buy from the Seller and Heragrees to sell to the Buyer quipment, materials design and technical umentations, license and know-how and IfeWmicaservices for a plant with a 54,000kw phosphorus electric furnace which has a production capability of 30,000(thirty thousand) metric tons of yellow phosphorus per year and 70A000(seventv thousand) metric tons of sodium tripolyphospnate per year with phosphate rock as material using the process stipulated in article 10.1 to the contract.

■买方同意向卖方购买,卖方同意向买方出售以磷酸岩 为原料,采用本合同10.1款所规定之工艺/流程,年 生产能力为黄磷30 000 (三万)公吨和三聚磷酸纳 70000 (七万)公吨的,拥有一座54000千瓦黄磷电 炉的工厂所需的设备、材料设计,以及技术文件、专 利使用权、专利技术和技术服务。 ►

The Buyer agrees to buy from the Seller

and the seller agrees to sell to the Buyer

equipment… fora plant

with a furnace

  • which has a production capability…
  • with phosphate rock as material
  • using the process

■买方同意向卖方购买,卖方同意向买方出售 以…为原料,采用…流程,年生产能力为…, 拥有一座电炉的工厂所需的设备…


The duration of patent right for utility models or exterior designs shall be five years, which shall be effective from the date of filling an application.

■自申请日起计算,使用模型和外观设计专利 权的期限为五年。V

■使用模型和外观设计专利权的期限为五年, 自申请日起计算。V (填申请时开始有效)

If any event of the Force Majeure occurs .i^aich causes damage to the Project or the -infrastructure project, then C or New Company shall not be obliged to reinstate the same, or, as the case may be, complete the same, until the parties hereto have agreed upon the terms for such reinstatement or completion.

■如不可抗力的发生损坏了工程或基础设施,C或新 公司没有义务重新恢复之,或完成其修建,但双方 就此恢复或完成的条件达成一致意见则除外。

■若因任何不可抗力引起工程和基础设施的损坏,C 或新公司无义务重新恢复之,或完成其修建,除非 双方就此恢复或完修的条件达成一致意见。


The Seller must deliver goods which are free from any right of claim of a third party based on industrial property or other intellectual property.

■卖方所交之货物,须是任何第三方不能根据工 业产权或其他知识产权享有任何所有权的货物。


  • International business has emerged as ■ ■ a separate branch of management
  • training7because the growing scale and complexity of business transactions across national boundaries give rise to new and unique problems or management and governmental policy that have received inadequate attention in traditional areas of business and economics.

■国际商务作为管理培训的一个分支出现,是由 于跨国界的商业交易日益增长的范围和复杂性 产生了新的、特殊的管理和政府政策方面的问 题。这些问题没有在传统的商业和经济领域里 受到足够的注意。(它们在传统的商业和经济 领域里并未受到足够的注意。)

[史火语从句的翻译 停


Tips of how to translate these clauses:

■一是将状语置于汉语的谓语动词前充当汉语句子中 的状语;


■英语中由介词短语引导的或是由状语从句引导的较 长的状语几乎从来不直接置于限定谓语动词的前面, 但可以置于句首、句中、句末。

■J i Unless otherwise stipulated in the credit, the expression “Shipment” used in stipulating an earliest and/or a latest shipment date will be understood to include the expression “loading on board” “dispatch” and “taking in charge”.

■除信用证另有规定外,用于规定最早及/ 或最迟装运期的“装运”…词应理解为 包括“装船”、“发运”利“接受监 管”O

Notwithstanding any reference to arbitration, both Parties shall continue to perform their respective obligations under the Contract unless otherwise agreed.

■除非另有规定,仲裁不得影响合同双方 继续履行合同所规定的义务O

Transfer to B zfree from any lien or encumbrance created by New Company and without the payment of any compensation ,all its right r title and interest in the infrastructure project, unless otherwise specified in the Agreement or any supplementary agreement. i

■在转让期,新公司应将基础设施的所有权利和利 益转让给B,新公司不应扣押、滞留,也不能要 求补偿,除非协议或补充协议中另有规定。

^/Vithin 30 days after the signing and ‘■oming into effect of this contract, the

Buyer shall proceed to pay the price for the goods to the seller by opening an irrevocable L/C for the full amount of USD30, 000 in favor of thn Seller through a bank at import port

■买方须于本合同签字并生效后三十天内通过 进口地银行开立以卖方为收益人的不可撤销 的信用证向卖方支付全部货款30000美元。

A party may suspend the performance of ■his obligation if, after the conclusion of ■the contract, it becomes apparent that the other party will not perform a substantial part of his obligations as a result of :(a) a serious deficiency in his ability to perform or in his creditworthiness; or (b) his conduct in preparing to perform or in performing the contract.

■如果订立合同后另一方当事人由于下列原因显然 将不履行其大部分重要义务,一方当事人可以中 止履行其义务:(a)他严重缺乏履行义务的能 力或信用;(b)他在准备履行合同或正在履行 合同中的行为。


&arrival of the goods at the port of destination, the Buyer shall apply to China Commodity Inspection Bureau (hereinafter referred to as CCIB) for a further inspection as to the specifications and quantity/weight of the goods.

■货到目的港后,买方将申请中国商品检验局 (以下简称商检局)对货物的规格和数量/ 重量进行进一步的检验。






1) The Seller shall not be responsible for the delay of shipment or non-delivery of the goods due to Force Majeure, which might occur during the process of manufacturing or in the course of loading or transit.

凡在制造或装载、运输过程中,因不可抗力导 致的延期交货或不交货时,卖方不负责。


!) With respect to those territories to which this Convention is not extended at the time of signature, ratification or accession, each State concerned shall consider the possibility of taking the necessary steps in order to extend the application or this Convention to such territories, subject, where necessary for constitutional reasons, to the consent of the Governments of such territories. . I PI. CO HTI

关于在签署、批准或者参加本公约的时候,主公约 所没有扩展到的地域,各有关国家应当考虑采取的 步骤的可能性,以便本公约的使用范围能够扩展到 这些区域。若由于宪法原因有必要时,应征得这些 地区的政府的同意。

3) Should either of the parties to the contract be prevented from executing the contract by force majeurez such as earthquake, typhoon, flood, fire, war or other unforeseen events, and their occurrence and Il ^consequences are unpreventable and unavoidable, dp the prevented party shall notify the other party by telegram without any delay, and within 15 days thereafter provide detailea information of the events and a valid document for evidence issued by the relevant public notary organization explaining the reason or its inability to execute or delay the execution of all or part of the contract.

因地震、台风、水灾、火灾、战争或其他不可预见事件并 且对其发生和后果无法阻止和避免的不可抗力事故,阻碍 合同的任何一方无法履行合同时,遭遇不可抗力的一方

(受阻碍方),应立即将事故情况电报通知对方,并应在 事发15天内提供事故的详细情况及不能履行或延期履行全 都食同或部分合同 的有效[冏f文件匕现诚明义件应、由事 关布具的肴薮症萌文祥;渤很术能履行或延期履行全部合 同或部分合同的原因)


4) All disputes, controversies, or differences which may arise between the parties, out of JxliLn relation to or in connection with this * agreement, or for the breach thereof shall be settled through amicable consultation. If three occasions of consultation fail to settle, Agreement through on Mutual Encouragement and Protection of Investment between the Government of the Peopled Republic of China and the Government of shall apply.

在执行本协议中产生的或关于违约的所有分歧,应经 过友好协商以解决,如经三次协商解决无效,应按 照《中华人民共和国政府和 国政府关于相互鼓


1 By Confirmed, Irrevocable, Transferable and Divisible L/C to be available by sight draft to reach the Seller before and to

remain valid for negotiation in China until after the Time of Shipment. The L/C must specify that transshipment and partial shipments are allowed.

买方须于—前将保兑的、不可撤销的、可转让 的、可分割的即期付款信用证开到卖方,该信用 证在中国的议付有效期延至装运期后—天,并 必须注明允许分批装运和转船。

_^10^Translation Practice

Notice of particulars of shipment shall be sent to Buyer at such time and by such means that the said notice shall be received by Buyer within 7 days after shipment.

■卖方须及时以适当的方式将装运详情通知买 方,以便买方在装运后7天内收到该通知氏

We hereby certify to the best of our knowledge that the foregoing statement is true and correct and all available information and data have been supplied herein, and that we agree to provide documentary proof upon your request.

.兹证明,据我们所知,上述声明(内容)真实、 正确无误,并提供了全部现有资料和数据,因此 我们同意应贵方要求出具证明文件。

uyer shall pay the Seller US $ 350,000 within 20 days after the Bank of China has received the following documents from the Seller and found them in order, but not earlier than 12 (twelve) months after the date the Contract Plant for the first time reached 95% of guaranteed capacity of the Whole Contract Plant according to the guaranteed Quality indices as per Annex VI to the Contract or 65 months after the date of signing the contract, which is earlier.

■买方须于中国银行收到卖方下列单据,并经审核无误后的二十天 内,向卖方支付三十五万美元,且不得早于合同工厂第一次达到 附件VI所规定之质量保证指标的95%后的十二个月,或本合同 签署后的六十五个月,以早到的日期为准。


After signina the contract_andbefore the delivery of trie preliminary design, the buyer shall have the right to send at his own expense his design liaison personnel to the sellers design ofrice to study with the sellers technical personnel various technical problems in relation to the contract, to see into the state of design work and exchange views in the design with the seller.

■本合同签订后提交初步设计前,买方须有权自费派 遣设计联络人员到卖方设计室与卖方技术人员研究 本合同有关的各种技术问题,了解设计情况,并与 卖方交换有关设计意见。

. it a written agreement for the extension of the period of existence of the JVC is not signed by three years prior to the expiration of the then current period existence, the JVC shall terminate at the end of such current period of existence and provisions of clauses 4.5 and 4.6 shall then apply.

.如不在本合资公司(JVC),现有合同期到期前3年签 订书面续约协议,自本合同到期之日起,本合资公司 即告终止,并将实施本协议第四条的第五、六款的规 定。(并将实施4.54.6款中的规定。)


■商务合同是一种特殊的应用文体,重在 记实,用词行文的一大特点就是准确与 严谨。

■ 一、酌情使用公文语惯用副词

二、 谨慎选用极易混淆的词语

三、 慎重处理合同的关键细目



丁商务合同属于法律性公文,所以英译时,有些词语要用公 文语词语、特别是酌情使用英语惯用的一套公文语副词, 就会起到使译文结构严谨、逻辑严密、言简意赅的作用。

■常用的这类副词是由herethere> where等副词分别加 二afterbyin> ofonto> underuponwith等 副词,构成一体化形式的公文语副词。

■例如:从此以后、今后:hereafter此后、以后: thereafter 在其上:thereon, thereupon 在其下: thereunder 对手这个:hereto 对于那个: whereto 在上文:hereinabove, hereinbefore 在下文:

hereinafter, hereinbelow 在上文中、在上一部分中: thereinbefore在下文中、在下一部分中: thereinafter.



This Contract shall come into force from the date of execution hereof by the Buyer and the Builder.



1. shipping advice shipping instructions

shipping advice是“装运通知”是由出口商(卖 主)发给进口商(买主)的。然而shipping instructions则是“装运须知”是旌口商(买主) 发给出口商(卖主)的。身夕卜要注意区分vendor

(卖主)与 vendee (买主)consignor (发货人) 与consignee (收货人)。上述这三对词语在英译时、 极易发生笔误。


. 2. abide by comply with

abide bycomply with都有“遵守”的意思.但 是当主彼是“人”时,英译“遵守”须用abide byo 当主语是非人祢时,则comply with英译“遵 守” O


Both parties Shall abide by/All the activities of both parties shall comply with the contractual stipulations.

  1. change A to B change A into B 英译“把A改为B”^change A to B \ 英译“把A折合成/兑换成B”“change A into B”两者不可混淆。


Both parties agree that change the time of shipment to August and change US dollar into Renminbi.

4- ex per

源自拉丁语的介词exper有各自不同的含义。英译由某 轮船“运来”的货物时用ex,由某轮船“运走”的货物用 per,而由某轮船“承运”用by(as per: “按照”)

例:由“维多利亚”轮运走/运来/承运的最后一批货将于 101日抵达伦敦。

The last batch per/ex/by S.S. “Victoria” will arrive in London on October 1st. (S.S. = Steamship)

in after

当英译“多少天之后”的时间时,往往是指“多少天之后” 的确切的一天,所以必须用介词in,而不能用after,因为 介词after指的是“多少天之后”的不确切的任何一天。

例:该货于1110日由“东风”轮运出,41天后抵达鹿 特丹港。

The good shall be shipped per MM “Dong Feng” on November 10 and are due to arrive at Rotterdam in 41 days. (M.V.= motor vessel)

6. on/upon after

当英译“……到后,就……”时,用介词一 on/upon,而不用after,因为after表示“之 后”何时间不明确。


The invoice value shall/is to be paid on/upon arrival of the goods.

7. by before

当英译终止时间时,比如“在某月某日之前”,如果包括 所写日期时,就用介词by如果不包括所写日期,即指 到所写日期的前一天为止,就要用介词beforeo 8卖方须在615日前将货交给买方。

The vendor shall deliver the goods to the vendee by June 15.(or: before June 16,说明含 6 15 日 在内。如果不含615日,就译by June 14或者 before June 15o )



实践证明,英译合同中容易出现差错的 地方,一般来说,不是大的陈述性条款。 而恰恰是一些关键的细日.比如:金钱、 时间、数量等。为了避免出差错,在英 译合同时,常常使用一些有限定作用的 结构来界定细目所指定的确切范围。




常用and/or英译合同中“甲和乙+甲或乙”的内容, 这样就可避免漏译其中的一部分。

例:如果上述货物对船舶和(或)船上其它货物造 成任何损害,托运人应负全责。

The shipper shall be liable for all damages caused by such goods to the ship and/or cargo on board.


  • 2) by and between

尚用by and between强调合同是由“双方”签订的, 因此双方必须严格履行合同所赋予的责任。

例:买卖双方同意按下述条款购买出售下列商品并签 订本合同。

  • This Contract is made by and between the Buyer and the Seller, whereby the Buyer agrees to buy and the Seller agrees to sell the under mentioned commodity subject to the terms and conditions stipulated below.


■ 双介词



Party A shall be unauthorized to accept any order or to collect any account on and after September 20.

例:我公司的条件是,3个月内,即不得晚于51日,支付 现金。

Our terms are cash within three months, i.e. on or before May 1.

. 2) not (no) later than

“not (no) later than+日期表达“不迟于某

月某日” o

例:本合同签字之日一个月内,即不迟于1215 日,乙方须将货物装船。

Party B shall ship the goods within one month of the date of signing this Contract, i.e. not later than December 15.

. 3) include的相应形式 常用include的相应形式:inclusiveincludingincluded,来限定含当日在内的时间。


  • This credit expires till Januaryl(indusive) for negotiation in Beijing.
  • This credit expires till and including Januaryl for negotiation in Beijing.

■如果不包括11日在内,英译为till and not including January 1

旱避免金额数量的差漏、伪造或涂改,英译时常用以下措 施严格把关。


翻译金额时须在小写之后,在括号内用大写文字重复该金 额,.即使原文合同中没有大写,英译,吐也有必要加上大写。






翻译金额时必须注意区分和正确使用各种不同的货币 名称符号。“$”既可代表“美元”,又可代表其他某 些地方的货币;而“ £”不仅代表“英镑”,又可代 表其他某些地方的货币。

必须注意:当金额用数字书写时,金额数字必须紧靠 货币符号。如:Can$891,568,不能写成:Can$ 891,568。另外,翻译时还要特别注意金额中是小数 点(・)还是分节号(,),因为这两个符号极易引起笔误, 稍有疏忽,其后果是不堪设想的。


C-E Translation Practice:

■当事人依法享有自愿订立合同的权利,任何单 位和个人不得非法干预。

  • Parties shall enjoy the right to sign contracts on their own according to law, and no unit or individual shall interfere illegally unless legally authorized to do s°-v oocin .conri
  • The parties shall, in accordance with the law, have the right to voluntarily conclude and enter into a contract. No unit or individual shall illegally interfere.


依法成立的合同,对当事人具有法律约束力。 入应当按照约定履行自己的义务,不得擅 自变更或者解除合同。依法成立的合同,受法 律保护。

. A contract concluded according to law shall be legally binding on the parties concerned. The parties shall perform the obligations stipulated in the contract. No party may unilaterally modify or rescind the contract. Contracts concluded legally are protected by law.