国际工程合同英语翻译

《国际工程合同英语翻译理论》参考资料

目 录

  • .国际商务英语合同翻译的准则 (8)
  • .英文合同常用实词 (8)
  • .合同结构常用术语 (13)
  • .英文合同通用条款及查询导引 (15)
  • .英文合同主体条款 (17)
  • .英文合同引言 (18)
  • .责任与义务 (20)
  • .合同文本生效有效期条款 (21)
  • .价格条款与支付条款 (24)
  • .英文合同保密竞业禁止条款 (25)
  • .不可抗力条款 (27)
  • .争议解决条款 (29)
  • .损害赔偿条款 (33)
  • .英文合同常用虚词 (34)
  • .陈述与保证条款 (39)
  • .引言和鉴于条款 (40)
  • .买卖合同中的索赔条款 (43)
  • .证明与签署 (44)
  • .货物验收与交付条款 (45)
  • .司法管辖 (46)

2L合同种类及英文名称规范翻译 (46)

  • .英文合同条款目录 (49)
  • .鉴于条款 (51)
  • .违约责任、处罚与免责条款 (51)
  • .英文合同一般性条款 (53)
  • .信用证条款 (55)
  • .进出口货物合同保险条款 (56)
  • .进出口合同索赔条款 (57)
  • .商检与质量条款 (57)
  • .关于 FIDIC 合同 (59)

3L英文合同的权利义务转让条款 (69)

8L法律英语的文本特点 (413)

 

  • .国际商务英语合同翻译的准则

为达到国际商务英语合同龌译时的功能对等,应坚持以下两个准则。

  • .准确严谨

由于国际商务合同的专业性和兼容性越来越强,因此,合同的内容也就日趋精确和完备。这就要求译 者在翻译时应把“准确严谨”作为首要标准,尤其是合同中的法律术语和关键词语的翻译更应予以特别重视, 仅仅忠实原文远远不够,而应严格贴近合同所涉及的专业性内容。以“。tier”一词为例,将它翻译为”提供、 提议”是正确的,但在国际商务合同种,offer一般只能译为“要约、报盘工 此外,为了避免产生歧义,有些 词语的翻译必须保持同一种译法,尤其是合同中的专业术语和关键词语都有着严格的法律涵义,糊译时一 定要透彻理解原文的内容耍求,准确完整地传达合同文件的精神实质。以“exclusive”为例,exclusive territory 应译为“独占区域”,表示许可方不得再把同样内容的技术许可协议授予该地域内的任何第三方。但是, exclusive contract则译为“专销合同”,表示制造商与转卖商之间签订的专销协议,规定转卖商不得同时经销 竞争对手的产品。

  • .规范通顺

所谓“规范通顺”,就是把理解了的东西,用规范通顺的、合乎合同语言要求的文字(中文)表达出来。因 此,要使合同语言“规范通顺”,译者就要特别注意合同的词语运用规范,符合合同文体中约定俗成的含义。 例如,将“documenlarybillalsighl”译为“即期付有单据的票据”,虽然表达的意思符合原文要求,但概念并不 清晰,因为“票据”本身的涵义是广义的,在国际商务合同中的票据主要指汇票,因此,应译为“跟单汇票二 此外,国际商务合同的译文不仅要符合合同语言的要求和规律,还应做到通顺,着重体现在条理清晰上。 国际商务合同的条款往往比较繁攵,翻译时应首先弄清全文的条例,对各条款间的制约关系和逻辑关系须 仔细琢磨,注意译文语言的语句结构,不拘泥于原文的词句结构和句法框框的限制。

  • .英文合同常用实词(Content Words)
  • 1) Represent, warrant, undertake, guarantee

在英文合同中这几个词都表示‘’保证”的含义。Represent往往和warranl连用,出现在合同的声明保证部分: 例如:Both the Seller and the Purchaser warrant and represent that no broker was involved in negotiating this purchase and sale, and both the Seller and the Purchaser agree to indemnify and hold each other harmless against any and all claims for brokerage.

买卖双方保证并声明没有•中介介入交易磋商,且保证赔偿对方因中介引起的索赔并使其免受损害。

例 I : Under FOB terms, the Seller shall undertake to load the contracted goods on board the vessel nominated by the Buyer on any date notified by the Buyer, within the time of shipment as stipulated in Clause 8 of this Contract. 根据离岸价格术语,卖方应保证根据在本合同第八条规定的时限内,按买方通知的日期,装运货物至买方 指定船只。

伊4 2: Party B guarantees that (he machines and equipment are unused, sophisticated and of best quality, and that the machines and equipment arc capable of manufacturing the steel wire rope.

乙方保证机器设备未经使用,性能良好、品质卓越而且该设备能生产出钢丝绳。

  • 2) Principal place of business (principal office), domicile, business premise, registered office

在英文合同中,这几个词的意思分别是:“主营业地”、“住所地”、“营业场所”、“注册地往往出现在前言 的“parties”部分。

例 1 : This Contract made on April 1, 19…,at, China, between ABC Co. with its principal office at, China (hereinafter called Party A), and XYZ Co. with its principal office at, USA (hereinafter called Party B).

本合同于19**年4月1日于中国*秘签订,合同双方为ABC公司(以下简称甲方),其主营业地位于中国秘*, 和XYZ公司(以下简称乙方),其主营业地为美国

例J 2: If franchisee is declared in default of the agreement, the franchiser has the right to conclude the terms of the agreement and also has the right, without notice to execute any dutiful and authorized acts, on the business premise necessary.

如被特许方承认违约,许可方则有权终止该协议且有权未经通知在必要的营业场所采取任何尽责和授权行 为。

例 3: EMPLOYMENT AGREEMENT is made and entered into on day of(month),

(year), by and between:(hereinafter referred to as the “Company”),a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the Stale of , with its registered office located at . and  (hereinafter referred to as the “Employee”),an individual, with nationality of(Passport No.) residing at.

本聘用协议订立于*年*月*日,协议双方为***(以下本公司),其按*州法律组织设立,注册地为***,和***, 自然人,国籍为*国,护照号码为***,住址为***。例如:The Arbitration shall be conducted in (he country of the domicile of the defendant.本仲裁应在被申请人住所地的国家进行。

  • .Chapter article, section, clause, paragraph, subparagraph

英文合同中的“章”、”条”、”款项”分别用 chapter, article/section/clause, paragraph, subparagraph 表示。

例 I : The Boitowcf further irrevocably consents to service of process upon it out of said courts in any such action or proceeding by mailing copies thereof by United Staled registered air mail, postage prepaid, to the Borrower at the address specified in Section 10. 5 hereof.

借款人进一步不可撤消同意上述法院就该事宜诉讼或程序的送达,接受按照本合同第十条第五款指定的借 款人地址寄来的美国航空挂号信,邮资已付邮件中的副本。

  • .Have the right to do, be entitled to, may do. reserve the right lo do, be (duly) authorized to do, have the authority to do, do sth at one’s option or/and discretion, be liberty to do

这•组短语是都表示”有权做Be enlilled lo表示to give sb. the right to sth.(to sth.)体现该权利法律上的强制 性。Reserve (he right to do 表示 to have a specified power of right in law 体现法律上规定的权利;而 be authorized to do, have the authority to do 指经授权而有的权利,至于 do sth. at onc?s option or/and discretion 则指行为人白 主决定的权利。

例 I : The Buyer shall nevertheless have the right to cancel in part or in whole of the contract without prejudice to the Buyefs right to claim compensations.

尽管如此,买方有权撤消合同的全部或部分,概不妨碍买方索赔权之行使。

例 2: In circumstance provided above in Clause 14.1 C or New Company shall, at its sole option and discretion, be entitled to transfer to B all or part of C or New Company’s proprietary rights and ownership of the infrastructure project, under construction or after Completion Date, as liquidated damages, in lieu of computing and compensating the actual damages provided that such transfer shall be conducted of C’s own free will or rendered in the arbitration award as stipulated in clause

 

在上述第卜四条第一款规定的情形下,丙方或新公司自行选择决断有权向乙方转让丙方或新公司的所有权 及在建或竣工后基础设施的所有权的全部或部分作为约定的固定数额的违约金来替代计算赔偿实际损害, 但该转让应为丙方自己自愿实施的行为或根据二十三条的规定基于仲裁裁决的处分.

例 3: The Buyer shall establish the covering letter of credit before the date specified in Clause Three of this Sales Confirmation, failing which the Seller reserves the right to rescind without further notice, or to accept whole or any part of this Sales Confirmation not fulfilled by the Buyer, or to lodge a claim for losses sustained, if any•买方须于 销出确认书第三条所规定的日期之前开出本批交易的信用证。否则,伐方有权不经通知取消本确认书,或 接受买方对本销售确认书未履行的全部或一部分,或对因此遭受的损失提出索赔。

例 4: The supervision personnel appointed by Party A and its representative shall have the authority to supervise the progress of work and give instruction.

甲方任命的监管人员及其代表应有权监督工程进度并发出指令。

5、Perform, fulfill, execute, implement

英文合同表示合同履行时经常用到这几个词,perform表示to do what one party is obliged to do by a contract 泛指双方履行合同的各项责任和义务,而fulfill表示to do everything which is promised in a contrac【强调合同 一方具体履行合同的义务。Execute, implement表示则强调具体实施,execute也有■签约、生效的用法。

例 1 : With respect to the outstanding 180 M/T of low-density polyethylene NY2-11 under Contract No. 79hp-106, we insist that you must open the covering letter of credit the soonest possible to secure the performance of ihe contract. We hereby would like to call your attention to the fact that the Adviser Inc., who purchased LDPE NY2-11 from us al the same time as you did have fulfilled their commitment under (he previous Contract not long after wc offered our regulated price and signed a new contract covering substantial quality.

有关第79hp-106号合同项下180公吨的低密度聚乙烯(NY2-11)未付款项,我方坚持要求贵方尽快开立信 用证以保证合同的履行。我方在此提请贵方注意该事实,同时从我公司购买低密度聚乙烯(NY2-U)的 Adviser公司已经按先前的合同履行完义务,不久后,我方就提供了调整的价格并签订了一份产品品质优良 的新合同。

例 2: Each of the parties to this Agreement shall use its reasonable best efforts to effect the transactions contemplated hereby and to fulfill and cause to be fulfilled the conditions to Closing under this Agreement including, without limitation, Parent using reasonable best efforts (o obtain the Parent Stockholder Approval at the meeting of Parent’s stockholders scheduled to be held on June 25, 1999 or at any adjournment or postponement thereof (the ”June 25 Meeting1,). Each party hereto, at the reasonable request of another party hereto, shall execute and deliver such other instillments and do and perform, such other acts and things as may be necessary or desirable for effecting completely the consummation of this Agreement and the transactions contemplated hereby.

合同任一方应竭尽全力来完成在此预期的交易并按本协议履行或促使交易的成交条件的履行。包括但不限 于母公司尽力按日程在1999年6月25日召开的母公司股东会或该日期延后或休会期间通过母公司股东批 准,本合同一方应在他方合理的要求下,应签署并交付其他文件并切实履行本协议和预期交易完全成就所 必需或需要的行为和事宜。

例J 3: All disputes arising in connection with this contract or in the execution thereof, should be settled amicably through negotiations.

所有与合同或合同.履行有关的争议,应通过友好协商解决。

例如: All expenses of keeping the books and records of the Company and the preparation of financial statements required to implement the provisions of this Agreement or otherwise needed for the conduct of the Company’s business shall be bomc by the Company.

有履行本协议规定所要求的或其他本公司经营所需要的保存本公司账册记录和准备财务报表的费用由本公 司承担。

6、Abide by, observe, obey, comply with

几个词在英文合同中都表示“遵守,服从,”的意思。Comply with的主语通常是Sth.而observe和abide by则 的主语通常是Sb.

例如:The delivered equipment shall be installed and tested by Party B and shall fully comply with the technical requirements and processing quality of the contract.

所交付的设备应由乙方安装调试,应完全符合本合同的技术要求和工艺质量。

例如:The Contractor shall observe and abide by all applicable laws, Riles and 3[4Y0regulations in connection with 【he Work.承包人必须遵守和服从与该工程有关的一切适用法律规章和条例。

  • have the legal obligation to do, be obliged/obligated to, shall do, be under the obligation to do,be liable/responsible to do, be liable/responsible

在英文合同中这一组短语都表达’,有责任、有义务Shall do slh.在第二章英文合同特点时,己经述及,在此 不再赘述。其他短语的用法,参看下例:

例 1: The Company has no legal obligation, absolute or contingent, to any other Person to sell any material portion of the assets of the Company, to sell any material portion of the capital stock or other ownership interests of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or to effect any merger, consolidation or other reorganization of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or to enter into any agreement with respect thereto.

本公司没有完全或随附的任何法律义务向任何他人出售公司资产的任何重要部分,出售股本的任何重要部 分或本公司或其任一子公司的其他所有权权益,或实现本公司或任一子公司的并购、合并或其他的重组或 签订有关以上事项的协议。

例 2: RCII is not under any legal obligation, whether written or oral to do any of the foregoing. RCII 公司没有任 何书面或口头上的法律义务来做以上的任何一项。

In the case of dangerous and/or poisonous cargo (es), the Seller is obliged/obligated

take care to ensure that the nature and the generally adopted symbol shall be marked conspicuously on each package.在危险或有毒货物的情况下,卖方有义务照管确保其属性安全且应在每一包装上标注通常采用的标 识。

the time as notified by (he Buyer, after its arrival at the port of shipment the Seller shall be fully liable to the Buyer and responsible for all losses and expenses such as dead freight, demurrage.

在买方通知的时限内,抵达装运港后,卖方应对买方承担全部责任并对诸如空仓费、延滞费等所有损失和 费用负责。

Seller shall not be held liable for failure or delay in delivery of the entire lot or a portion of the goods under this Sales Contract in consequence of any Force Majeure incidents.

卖方对因任何不可抗力事件导致本买卖合同项下整批或部分货物未能交付或延误概不承担责任。

  • effect, come into effect, in effect

在基础英语中,effect 一般作名词,指效果、影响,英文合同中如:come into effect表示生效,sth. in effect 表示生效的法律文件。除了这些基本用法外,effecl还常用作动词表示“实现”、“完成”的意思。例如: This contract shall come into effect on the date when it is signed by both parties.

本合同从双方签字之日起生效。

Buyer shall accept the bill of exchange immediately upon the first presentation of the bill of exchange and the required documents and shall effect the payment on the maturity date of the bill of exchange.泞:票——经承兑交单, 买方应在汇票到期时完成支付。此外,当表达实际上,事实上的含义时,英文合同常用in effect,而不是in fact.

  • Counterpart, copy, duplicate, original

在英文合同中,Counterpart, copy, duplicate, original 都用作表示合同一式几份° Counterpart, copy 和 duplicate 指副本,而original指的是正本,而且duplicate就有双重双份的意思,也常见in duplicaie的用法,与此类 似的还有 in triplicate (一式三份)9 in quadruplicate (一式四份),inquintuplicate (一式五份),in sextuplicate (一式六份in septuplicate(一式七份),in octuplicatc (一式八份),in nonuplicatc (一式九份),in dccuplicatc (一式十份)等等。

例如:This Agreement may be executed simultaneously in two or more counterparts. Each counterpart shall be deemed an original and all of the counterparts together shall constitute but one and (he same instrument.

本协议文本可同时签署两份或多份副本。每i副本应视为一份原件,所有副本一起应构成唯一同一文件。

英文合同中incur指“招致,引起“,相当于基础英语中的cause。通常以过去分词incurred形式出现。

例如:In case her age exceeds 15 years, the extra average insurance premium (hus incurred shall be borne by the Seller.

如果她的年龄超过15岁,则由买方承担因此产生的平均保险费以外的费用。

例如:No costs incurred in the manufacture, sale, distribution or exploitation of the articles shall be deducted from any royalty payable by Licensee.

产品的生产、销售、分销或开发引起的花费不得从被许可方的使用费中扣除。

作为法律专用语,lo-wil的意思为“即“,相当于基础英语中的“hat is t。say (i.e.)

例如:WITNESSETH: That for and in consideration of the sum of One Million Eleven Thousand One Hundred Fifty Dollars ($1,011,150.00) cash in hand paid by (he party of the second part to the party of the first part and other good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of all of which are hereby acknowledged, the said party of the first part does hereby bargain, sell, grant and convey, in fee simple, with general warranty of title, unto the party of the second part, the following,

兹证明(通常省略不译):兹以乙方支付甲方的一百零一万一千一百五十美元现金和其他为约因,特此确认 充分并予接受,上述甲方由此交易、出售、转让***,对所有权向乙方作一般保证如下,即: Sanction, approval, examination

英文合同表示审批、批准时,常常使用这几个词,sanction尤其专用于合同。例如:The amendment of the contract or other appendices shall come into force only after a written agreement has been signed by Party A and Party B and approved by the original examination and approval authority.本合同的修改或其他附件当仅当甲乙 双方签署完书面协议后并经原审批机关批准后方能生效。

例如: This sanction is lifted prospectively upon the filing of a proper registration.

妥当的登记申请才会提交审批。

此外,sanclion在英文合同中也常作”制裁”解。

例如:If Licensee is joined in such proceeding, Licensor shall indemnify and

%frV;manyX0hold hannlcss Licensee from and against any claim, sanction, liability, damages, attorney^ fees, judgments or orders of any kind arising out of such proceeding.

如果被许可方参加该诉讼,许可方则应保证赔偿许可方由该诉讼导致的任何索赔、制裁、债务、损害赔偿、 律师费、判决或任何裁令并保证免除被许可方有关责任。

Do sth. in its entirety

英文合同中do sth. in its entirely相当于基础英语中的do sth. totally或do sth. as a whole»表示完全彻底地做 某事。

例如:The Aggregate Revolving Commitment (and the Revolving Commitment of each Bank) shall terminate in its entirety on April 15, 1998 unless the Closing Date shall have occuned on or prior to such date.联合周转协议(及各 银行的周转协议)应在1998年4月15日完全终止,除非结算发生在当天或先于该日期。

  1. encumbrance, mortgage, charge, pledge, security, lien, security

mortgage相当于我国法律的抵押:pledge相当于质押,lien相当于留置,security相当于担保,保证; encumbrance: A liability or claim which burdens property, c.g., a lease, mortgage, easement, restrictive covenant, rcntchargc… (Dictionary of I-aw, 6th edition, L.B.Curzon)指在财产上设定的债务或债权,如:租赁、抵押、 地役、限制性契约,收租。试译为他物权。

charge: …4. An encumbrance, eg, on land, which secures payments for money…(Idem) ——种担保物权, 如: 土 地上设定的用于付款的担保,保证。

例如:Seller warranls that the goods are now free, and that at the lime of delivery shall be free from any security interest or other lien or encumbrance.

卖方保证货物现无约束,交付时应没有设定担保物权、其他留置权或债权。

例如:During the joint venture tenn of the Joint Venture Company, Without Party B,s written consent, Party A shall not create any option, right to acquire, mortgage, charge, pledge, lien, or any other form. of security or encumbrance on, oven or affecting the whole or any pari of its equity interest in the Joint Venture Company.

ua c]/F U6B0本合资公司合营期间,未经乙方书面同意,甲方不得对本合资公司所有或部分股权设定期权、 购并权、抵押权、保证、抵押权、留置权、或其他任何形式的担保或债权,或因以上设定影响本合资公司 的所有或部分股权。

这两个词都是作为形容词”有关的,相关的”含义,出现在英文合同中,pertinent似乎较relevant更为正式。 例如: All aclivities of the Cooperative venture company shall be governed by ihe laws, decrees and pertinent Riles and regulations of the Peoples Republic of China.

合作经营企业的一切活动均应受中华人民共和国的法律、法令及有关规定和规章约制。

再如:In accordance with the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Cooperative Joint Ventures and other relevant Chinese laws and regulations, ABC Company and XYZ Company, in accordance with the principle of equality and mutual benefit and (hrough friendly consultations, agree to jointly scl up a Cooperative venture in Beijing, the Peoples Republic of China.

N;u/j.s2W*?SGbniT0根据中华人民共和国中外合作企业法及有关法律法规,ABC公司与XYZ公司,本着 平等互利的原则,经过友好协商,同意共同在中华人民共和国北京设立合作企业。

  1. Seek recourse M resortto在英文合同中都表示“求助于,诉诸于”的含义。

例如:The arbitration shall take place in Beijing and the decision of the Arbitration Commission shall be final and binding upon both parties; neither party shall seek recourse to a law court or other authorities to appeal for revision of the decision. Arbitration fee shall be borne by the losing party.

仲裁应在北京进行。仲裁委员会的裁定应为终局性,对双方均有约束力。任一方不得诉诸于法院或其他机 构上诉寻求修正该裁定。仲裁费应由败诉方承担。

又如:The exercise of a remedy does not waive the right of either party to resort lo arbitration or reference•任——方 行使补救权利不放弃其诉诸仲裁或仲裁程序的权利。

  • .合同结构常用术语

必备条款 essential clauses / provisions

一般条款 general provisions

特殊条款 special provisions

章、条、款、项、目(英文合同25)

首部non-operative part (当事人部分parties陈述部分recital)

正文 operative part

陈述部分recital (包括:鉴于条款whereas clause和约因consideration)

尾部 closing part (证明部分 attestation 签字 signature 附件 appendix)

当事人的名称、姓名和住所name and domicile of the parlies

适格主体 competent parties

标的 contract object, subject matter

数量 quantity 质量 quality

价款或者报酬 price or remuneration

对价 consideration

履行时效、地点和方式 time limit, place and method of performance

违约责任 defauk / liability for breach of contract

除外规定exception

解决争议的方法 methods to settle disputes

变更 modificalion 终止 terminalion 撤销 cancellalion 解除 rescission

主体的变更或权利义务的整体转让novation

通知notice

违约责任 default / breach of contract

救济 remedies

责任的免除exception

不可抗力force majuere

争议的解决 settlement of disputes

合同的生效 effectiveness / validity

合同份数counterpart

合同的整体性entirety合同的可分割性severability合同的完整性entirety

文字效力language

法律适用 applicable law / governing law

保密规定 confidentiality

副本 copies / counterparts

性别与单复数 gender and singular / plural

合同尾部 closing clauses / final clause

(包括:证明条款 attestation 签字部分 testimonium / signature 附件部分 addendum)

合同通常涉及一些内容:

1、要约和绝*j接受 offer and absolute and unqualified acceptance

2、意思一致 consensus and idem 或者 meeting of minds

3、建立合同关系的意愿 intention to create legal relations

4、同意的真实性 genuineness of consent

  • ‘与事人的履约能力 contractual capacity of the parties

6、标的物的合法性legality of object

7履行的可能性 possibility of performance

8、条款的确定性certainty of terms

9、等价有偿 valuable consideration

  • .英文合同通用条款及查询导引

说明:查询导引指本网站内发表的文章,读者可以根据括号中的“见”条指引在本站内相关文内查找。

中国合同法第十二条规定了八项一般条款,分别是:

  • .当事人名称、姓名和住所name and domicile of the parties
  • . 标的 contract object
  • .数量quanli【y
  • .质量 quality
  • .价款或者报酬price or remuneration
  • . 履行时效、地点和方式 time limit place and method of performance
  • . 违约责任 liability for breach of contract
  • .解决争议的方式 methods to settle disputes

Preliminary Statement

  1. Definitions 定义
  2. Parties to the Contract; Representations and WaiTanties 合同各方;陈述及保证
    • Parties to the Contract合同各方主体身份

(见:英文合同常用实词2;英文合同主体条款)

  • Representations and Warranties 陈述及保证
  • Consequences of Inaccuracy in Representations 陈述不实的后果
  • recital引言(见条款分类:英文合同引言)
  1. Operative Clauses具体权利义务条款

(见:义务条款)

  • 各方对履行义务的保证和承诺(见:英文合同常川实词1)

合同履行(见:英文合同常用实词5)

  • 各方权利(”有权做”见:英文合同常用实词4)

price and paymcni价格与支付条款 (见条款分类:价格与支付条款)

  1. Term合同期限
    • Term合同期限
    • Extension合同期限的续展(见条款分类:合同有效期条款)
  2. modification, teminatiion, concellation and rescission 合同变更终止撤销解除
    • Termination 合同终止
    • Continuing Obligations 各方持续的义务
  3. Confidentiality保密义务(见条款分类:英文合同保密条款)
    • Scope of Confidentiality 保密义务的范围
    • Exceptions保密义务不适用的情形
    • Confidentiality Rules and Regulations 保密制度
    • Return of Confidential Information 保密资料的归还
  4. Breach of Contract 违约(或者:违约责任 defauh/breach of contract)
    • Remedies for Breach of Contract 违约救济措施
    • Limitation on Liability 责任限制
    • Indcmnificaiion损害赔偿(见条款分类:损害赔偿)
    • exceptions 除外规定
  5. Force Majeure 不可抗力
    • Definition of Force Majeure不可抗力的定义(见条款分类:不可抗力条款)
    • Consequences of Force Majeure 不可抗力的后果
  6. Settlement of Disputes 争议的解决
    • Friendly Consultations 友好协商
    • Arbitration 仲裁
    • Continuing Rights and Obligations 持续的权利和义务
    • Enforcement of Award 裁决的执行
    • Injunctive Relief申请制止侵权、违约行为的权利
  7. Applicable I-aw 适用法律
  8. Miscellaneous Provisions 其他规定
    • Independent Contractor Relationship 合同各方之间的独立关系
    • Binding Effect合同拘束力的范围
    • Party Entitled to Enforcement 合同权利人范围
    • Amendment 修改
    • No Publicity合同内容保密
    • No Solicitation禁止招揽对方雇员
    • severability合同的可分割性
    • entirety合同的完整性
    • gender and singular/plural 性另lj 与单复数
    • Notices 通知
    • Waiver不放弃权利
    • Assignability 可转让性
    • Severability 可分割性
    • Entire Agreement 全部协议
    • Schedules and Annexes 附录以及附件
    • Language, copies/counlerparts 文本和副本
    • Execution
  9. governing law/applicable law 法律的适用
  10. validity/effectiveness 生效
  • .英文合同主体条款contracting parties

主体条款,主要就是指明当事人的名称与住所,与中国合同法规定有所不同的是,应当明确说明合同主体的 类型,如个人公司(sole corporation)、股份公司(Incorporation)^两合公司(责任有限股东与责任无限股东 合资型公司)、无限责任公司(Corporalion)、有限责任公司(LLC, Liability Limited Corporation)等等,应 当明确说明。主要内容包括:

a、名称或姓名(Name)

b、主体的类型(Type of entity of each party)如:公司(Corporation )>,有限责任公司(LLC)等。

c、注册地址(Address):

例:

需方全称: (以下简称甲方)

公司地址:

电话:

传真

BUYER:MOV1NG TECHNOLOGY (SHEN ZHEN) CO.. LTD. (abbreviated: Party A)

ADD:

TEL:

FAX:

供方全称: (以下简称乙方)

公司地址:

Seller: Dong guan Wei Hong 11 are ware plastic Co., Ltd (abbreviated: Party B)

ADD: No. 188th, Ping Shan, Tang xia, Dongguan City

TEL:

FAX:

签约方、签约时间和地点

序言部分主要包括签约方、签约时间、签约地点和签约背景。在大多数情况下,i份英文合同的开篇几乎 雷打不动的会是下面这样一段话:

This CONTRACT is made on the day of, 2006 at [place] by and between the following parlies:

X Co., a limited liability company incorporated under the laws of the People’s Republic of China, with its register ed address at (hereinafter referred to as “PARTY A”): and

Y Co., a limited liability company incorporated under ihe laws of England, with its registered address at (hereinaf ter referred to as “PARTY B”).

PARTY A and PARTY B arc hereinafter referred to as a “PARTY” individually and as “PARTIES” collectively.

本合同由以下双方于2006年月日在[地点]签署:

X公司,一家依据中华人民共和国法律注册成立的有限责任公司,其注册地址为(以下简称“甲方”);和 Y公司,一家依据英格兰法律注册成立的有限责任公司,其注册地址为(以下简称“乙方 甲方和乙方以下单独称“一方”,合称“双方”。

或者(如果签约方不止两方)

 

This XX AGREEMENT (hereinafter refeiTed to as “AGREEMENT”) is made and entered into in

[name of place] as of the date (DD)(MM)(YY) by and between:

XXX COMPANY, established and existing under the law of [ name of the country or the state), having its headqu arters domiciled in Beijing, the People碳s Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as “PARTY A”) as one part; and XXX CORPORATION, established and existing under the law of [ name of the country or the state ] having its headquarters domiciled in [name of the place] (hereinafter referred to as 八PARTY B”);and XXX CO. LTD., a company incoiporaled and existing under the Law of [ name of the country or the state 1 whose registered office is at [name of the place] (hereinafter referred to as “PARTY C”) as the other part.

PARTY A, PARTY B and PARTY C may be referred to as a PARTY individually or PARTIES collectively.

本合同由以下各方于[年][月][日]在[地点]签署:

某公司,一家根据[某国或州]法律设立并存续,其主营业地在[地名]的公司(以下简称“甲方”)为一 方:和某集团公司,一家根据[某国或州]法律设立并存续,其总部在[地名]的公司(以下简称“乙方”): 和某有限责任公司,一家根据[某国或州]法律设立并存续,其注册地址在[地名]的公司(以下简称“丙 方“)为另一方。

上述签约方单独称为“一方”或统称为“各方”。

  • .英文合同引言(recitals)

引言部分是作为合同的一个辅助工具,其使用的目的,是使合同内容能够更加清晰化、更容易理解。引言 部分的基本内容通常包括:

a> 合同的背景(background of agreement)

b、双方缔约的目的(purpose for entering into the contract)

c、合同的主耍目标或31 耍设想(key assumptions for the contract)

引言,通常总是居于合同开始处,当事人条款之后一在中国合同法中,也属于组成合同的“首部”的最后一 个段落,通常是以“鉴于(whereas) ”开始,到“双方特约定如下(the parties agree as follow) ”结束。任何 一个合同的签订,都有特定的目的,如:特定的经济目的或者其他合法的目的。引言,主要就是陈述合同 签订的目的,同时也说明必要的合同签订的背景资料和有关信息。必须注意:引言,不是具有强制执行力 的合同内容,合同具有法律效力的部分都是在引言的结束语一“双方特约定如下(the parties agree as follow) ”之后开始的。所以,如果在引言中确定了某些具有执行内容的约定,就应当在合同主文中重复 出现。因为引言部分没有强制执行的效力,有些合同甚至完全跳过引言直接进入合同主体部分。

例1:专利技术使用许可合同

在国际许可证协议中,双方当事人应就订约的目的、希望和意图作出陈述性说明。如供方就供方的职业背 景、转让技术的合法性和实际经验等作的说明。接受方对其接受标的的要求和目标所作的说明等。一旦发 生争论,“鉴于”条款对于双方订约的目的与意图以及解释某些具体条款会起一定的作用。因此应当慎重对待 “鉴于”条款,努力使鉴于条款的原则与具体条款的内容相一致。

Whereas Party B has the right and agrees to grant Party A the rights to use. manufacture and sell the Contract Products of Patented Technology;

Whereas Party A desires to use the Patented Technology of Party B to manufacture and sell the Contract Products; The Representatives authorized by the Parties to this Contract have, through friendly negotiation, agreed to enter into this Contract under the terms, conditions and provisions specified as follows:

参考译文:

鉴于乙方有权并同意将专利技术的合同产品的使用权、制造权和销售权授予甲方

鉴于甲方希望利用乙方的专利技术制造并销售合同的产品;

经友好协商,双方授权代表同意就以下条款签订本合同:

例2:不得分析(标的物)的协议

华持公司(公司名字是虚构的)生产一种叫PDA300的材料,这个产品用的是公司自行研制开发的配方。

华持公司声称这种材料有好些优点。ABC集团打算向华持公司采购PDA300材料用于制作0己的产品。ABC 集团会先向华持公司索取这种PDA300材料的样品去做试验或者测验,以确认是否真的具有华持公司自己 声称的那些优点。为了保护自己的商业秘密,华持公司在提供样品前,会耍求和ABC集团签订一份协议, 一般称为“不得分析(标的物〉的协议二协议中规定,禁止ABC集团通过对材料样品的分析获取产品中的 技术秘密。

WHEREAS, HUAC is a supplier of PDA300 (hereinafter, referred to as “MATERIALS”) which ABC Group believes may be capable of providing desirable properties in ABC Group products;

WHEREAS, ABC GROUP desires to perfonn certain tests relating to the performance of MATERIALS. In order io perform these tests, it will be necessary for HUAC to disclose to ABC GROUP samples of MATERIALS, which HUAC considers proprietary and confidential;

WHEREAS,! IU AC is willing to give samples of MATERIALS to ABC GROUP provided that HUAC is given assurances that ABC GROUP will use MATERIALS only for the purpose of performing certain tests relating to perfonnance of MATERIALS;

NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of ihe mutual covenants recited herein, and for other good and valuable consideration, the Parties agree as follows:

参考译文:

鉴于:华持是PDA300 (以下简称“材料”)供应商,ABC集团认为该材料能够为其产品带来满意效果。

鉴于:ABC集团希望能够针对材料的性能进行某些试验。为了进行这些试验,华持需向ABC集团提供材料 的样品,华持认为:该材料是其所有的,是绝密的。

鉴于:ABC集团保证,材料样品仅用于与材料性能相关的某些试验之目的,以此为前提,华持愿意向ABC 集团提供材料样品。

为此,以双方诬此共同陈述的保证为约因,加上其它一些善意及有价值的约因,双方同意签定如下协议:

例3:合资经营公司

Whereas Party A and Party B, adhering to the principle of equality and mutual benefit and through friendly consultation, agree to jointly invest to establish a new joint venture company in China (hereinafter referred as “Joint Venture”). The Contract heieunder is made and concluded.

参考译文:

鉴于:按照平等互利的原则,甲方与乙方经过友好协商,决定共同投资在中国建立合资经营公司(以下称“合 资企业”),为此达成如下合同。

例4.工程劳务承包

WHEREAS the Employer is desirous that manpower can be rendered available for the constmction of High-Rise Residential Complex in Baghdad, Iraq;

WHEREAS the Contractor is desirous to provide the manpower for the Works;

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parlies have executed this Contract in duplicate by their duly authorized representatives on the date first above written.

参考译文:

鉴于:雇主想要雇请劳动力建造伊拉克巴格达的高层住宅综合大楼;

鉴于:承包人想为此工程提供劳动力;

作为所协议事项的证据,双方授权代表于上面首次写明的日期正式签订本协议一式两份°

例5:贷款合同

Whereas the Borrower has requested the Bank to extend to the Borrower a term loan in the principal amount of One Million US Dollars (US $1,000,000) under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement; and

Whereas the Bank is prepared to make such a loan available to the Borrower under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreemenl;

Now Therefore, in consideration of the mutual promises contained herein, the Parties hereto do hereby agree on the contents of the agreement as fol lows <, 参考译文:

鉴于:根据本协议规定的条件和款项,借款人业已向银行要求为借款人提供一笔本金为100万美元

(US$ 1,000,000)的定期贷款;

鉴于:根据本协议规定的条件和款项,银行已准备向借款人提供此项定期贷款; 据此,以双方相互承诺为对价,合同双方诬就下述内容达成一致意见。

  • .责任与义务(obligations of the parties)条款

各方义务(obligations of the parties)条款:

义务条款,是当事人合同义务的根本约定,是合同的核心部分,其主要内容应当包括:

a、双方必须履行的义务范I韦I (what each side to be required to do):合同当事人主要义务的具体内容

b、合同履行时间(date of the obligations performed):各合同当事人履行相应合同义务的具体时间约定。

c、合同履行的质量标准(quality standards of the obligalions):产品质量或服务质量。d^运输条款,i隹负 责运输安排V谁负担运费(the delivery obligation and the transportation cost):合同如果是异地履行的,必然 涉及运输问题,本条款处理运输责任与费用问题。

e、保险及费用(insurances and its cost):保险费的承担,也是常发生的。

 

这是最经常发生争议并进行诉讼的合同条款,反过来说,就是对这些内容的争议在合同诉讼中的发生率最 高。

义务条款,是当事人合同义务的根本约定,是合同的核心部分,其主要内容应当包括:

a、双方必须履行的义务范围(what each side to be required to do):合同当事人主要义务的具体内容。

例:第十二条投保方应当按照约定的期限,交付保险费,如不按期交付保险费,保险方可以分别情况要求 其交付保险费及利息或者终止保险合同。 Article 12. The Insured shall pay the insurance premium within the

specified time. If he fails (o do so, the Insurer inay, depending on specific circumstances either require the Insured to pay the premium due with interest or terminate the contract of insurance.

b、合同履行时间(dale of the obligations pcrfomicd):各合同当事人履行相应合同义务的具体时间约定。

c>合同履行的质量标准(quality standards of the obligations):产品质量或服务质量。

d、运输条款,谁负责运输安排与谁负担运费(lhe delivery obligation and the【ransportalion cost):合同如果是 异地履行的,必然涉及运输问题,本条款处理运输责任与费用问题。

e、保险及费用(insurances and its cost):保险费的承担,也是常发生的。

8•合同有效期条款(terms of contract)

合同文本及份数

The contract is made per in two originals in English and Chinese. Each party keeps one

original.

本合同正本两份,用中英文书写就,双方各执一份。

The contract is made out in English and Chinese languages in quadruplicate, both texts being equally authentic, and each Party shall hold two copies of each icxl. II本合同用英文和中文两种文字写成,一式四份。双方执英文本和 中文本各一式两份,两种文字具有同等效力。

合同有效[叼:contract life I duration of contract I terms of conlract I period of conlract 例:

  • .本合同有效期自合同生效之日起为3年。

Contract shall be valid and remain in force for 3 years from the Date of Effectiveness.

  • .合同有效期和/或有关履行合同的预定的期限相应延长。

The validity period of Contract and/or the scheduled period for relative execution of Contract shall be extended correspondingly.

  • .第二十五条监理人的责任期即本合同有效期(合同期),包括维护期。

Article 25 The Supervisors liability period is the valid period of the Contract (Contract Period), including the maintenance period.

4、Conlract shall be valid and remain in force for() years from ihe Date of Effectiveness. 本合同有效期自合同生效之日起为 年。

5、The rent cannot be increased during the term of this tenancy Agreement.

在本合同有效期内,租金不予调整。

6、The lease have only six month to run . 该租赁合同有效期为6个月。

7^ The validity period of Contract and/or the scheduled period for relative execution of Contract shall be extended correspondingly.

合同有效期和/或有关履行合同的预定的期限相应延长。

8、“During the duration of a contract, proprietary rights to improvements made to the technology, including applications for patent rights, shall belong to the party which made the improvements/1

在合同有效期内,改进技术所有权,包括申请专利的权力,属于改进方。

9> The term of validity of a contract shall not exceed ten years. The contract may be renewed on expiration of that term.

合同的有效期限不超过十年。合同期满可以续订。

10、The contract shall come into effect as soon as it is duly signed by both parties and shall remain effective for two years.

本合同经双方签字生效,有效期两年。

11、Licensor agrees that during the validity of this Contract

许可方同意在合同的有效期内

12、The contract shall be valid for a period of years form the date of coming into force of the Contract. The

contract shall become null and void automatically after the expiration of the said period.

本合同的有效期从合同生效日算起共一年,有效期满后本合同自动失效。

13、The Contract shall be valid for a period of years from the date of the effectiveness of the Contract. The

Contract shall become null and void automatically after the expiration of the said period.

本合同的有效期从合同生效日起算共 年,有效期满后,本合同自动失效。

14、security of tenure

合同在期限内持续有效的保证

  • Arlicle26 The term of validity of a contract shall not exceed ten years. The contract may be renewed on expiration of that term.

第二十六条合同的有效期限不超过十年。合同期满可以续订。

  • The period of effectiveness an authorizing contract may not exceed 10 years. When the period is complete, the contract may be extended.

许可合同的有效期限一次不得超过十年。合同期满可以续订。

17、However, a more efficient way is to buy a gold futures contract.

不过,一个更有效率的方式是吸购黄金期货合同。

18、”Within the validity period of the Contract, the communication between Both parties shall be made in English,1 在合同的行效期内,双方通讯以英文进行

19、Article 26 The term of validity of a contract shall not exceed ten years. 第二十六条合同的有效期限不超过十年。

20Validity Analysis of Retained Ownership Installment Contract;

分期付款所有权保留买卖合同效力分析

21 > Article 1(). Once a contract of insurance is concluded, the Insurer shall not terminate it during its currency. 第卜条保险合同一经成立,保险方不得在保险有效期内终止合同。

本合同用英文和中文两种文字写成,一式四份。双方执英文本和中文本各一式两份,两种文字具有同等效 力。

The contract is made out in English and Chinese languages in quadruplicate, both texts being equally authentic, and each Party shall hold two copies of each text.

22、本合同由双方代表于1999年12月9 rl签订。合同签订后,由各方分别向本国政府当局申请批准,以 最后一方的批准日期为本合同的生效日期,双方应力争在60天内获得批准,用电传通知对方,并用信件确 认。若本合同日签字之日起,6个月仍不能生效,双方有权解除本合同。This contract is signed by the authorized representatives of both parties on Dec. 9, 1999. After signing the contract, both parties shall apply to their respective Government Authorities for ratification. The date of ratification last obtained shall be taken as the effective date of the Contract. Both parlies shall exert iheir utmost efforts to obtain the ratification within 60 days and shall advise the other party by telex and thereafter send a registered letter for confirmation.

23、木合同有效期从合同生效之日算起共10年,有效期满后,本合同自动失效。The contract shall be valid for 10 years from the effective date of the contract, on the expiry of the validity term of contract, the contract shall automatically become null and void. 4、本合同期限届满时,双方发生的未了债权和债务不受合同期满的影响, 债务人应向债权人继续偿付未了债务。

24、生效 Effectiveness

本合同自各方正式授权的代表签署之日起生效。

This Contract shall lake effect from the dale of its execution by the duly authorized representatives of the parlies.

合同有效期的延长(extension of a contract ) I > extension of a contract 合同有效期的延长

2、prolong the contracts period of validity 延长合同的有效期

3、extension of validily 有效期的延长

4、extended fixed tenn

延长的定期合同

5、prolong the period of validity 延长有效期

6、extension of availability 有效期延长

7合同有效期和/或有关履行合同的预定的期限相应延长.

The validity period of Contract and/or the scheduled period for relative execution of Contract shall be extended correspondingly.

8、延长其有效期 extend the period of validity

9.价格(price)条款与支付(payment terms)条款

价格条款(price)

价格条款,指的是合同的总价位。必须注意的是,在这一条款中,也应当明确本合同涉及的税费种类,除 法定必须由特定主体支付的以外,必须明确约定是由哪一方最终承担税费支付贲任。

a、标的总额,或产品、服务的总价(the price for the product or service)

b、实行固定价,或者约定价格的计算方法(Is it a fixed price, determined by

a formula, by a project fee, or some other manner)

c> 税费的种类及支付责任(what kind of taxes should be paid? And who will pay)。

例:

I “合同设备”总价为人民币 元,详细分项价格见附表1。本合同设备总价为不变总价。

The total amount of contract facilities is yuan RMB , a detailed breakdown of prices see Schedule 1. The total price of facilities herebo is fixed total price.

2 “合同设备”价格的组成包括:设备设计费.制造费.设备出厂前预装费.涂漆包装费.配套件费.技术费料 费.设备运达“合同工厂”现场的运保费,现场服务费以及国家规定的应交税款等各项费用。

The price of equipment in the contract include that equipment design fee, manufacturing costs,factory pre-installed costs, paint packaging costs, supporting pieces charges, infonnalion costs,carrying and insurance fee, on-site delivery fee,, as well as state taxes and other fees rulled by stated.

支付条件条款:(paymenl terms)

主要是约定支付合同价款或酬金的时间与方式,以及是否计算利息、愈期付款的处罚方式等等。主要须 约定的内容有:

a、何时支付开始(when is payment due)

b、分期支付还是全额支付(will【here be some installment payments)

c> 是否计算利息(Will interest be charged)

d、愈期支付处罚(penalty foi“ late payment)

1合同签订后20个工作日内,买方向卖方支付合同总价的10%,计人民币 万元( 整人民币)作为 合同预付款。

Within the contract after the signing of 20 working days, the buyer should pay 10% of the total contract price to seller, including 10,000 yuan (RMB as a whole) as advance payment of the contract.

2在设备基本设计审查结束后15个工作日内,买方向卖方支付合同总价的10%,计人民币 万元人民币。 Within 15 working days upon the end of the review on equipment design , the buyer should pay 10% of the total contract price to the seller, total sum of yuan RMB.

3保兑的不可撤消的无追索权的以中国远洋运输公司为受益人的信用证,合同货物全部货款为美元,凭即期 汇票并附运输单据向装运港的中国银行议付。

By confirmed, irrevocable L/C without recourse in favour of COSCO for the total value of the contracted goods in USD, payable at sight against presentation of shipping documents to the Bank of China in the port of loading.

10.保密条款与竞业条款

保密条款(confidentiality),主要内容如下。

a 保密义务的范围(what confidentiality obligations arc there) b 保密义务的例夕卜(What are the exclusions from confidentiality) c 违反保密义务的处罚(penalty to default of confidentiality) 例

合同有效期内,双方应采取适当措施对本专有技术和技术资料予以严格保密,未经许可方的书面同意,被 许可方不得将本专有技术泄露给任何第三方。

Within ihe validity period of Contract, Both parties shall lake proper measures to keep Know-how and Technical Documentation strictly confidential. Licensee shall not disclose or divulge Know-how to any third party without prior written consent of Licensor.

一方和其技术人员在履行合同过程中所获得或接触到的任何保密信息,另一方有义务予以保密,未经其书 面同意,任何一方不得使用或泄露从他方获得的上述保密信息。

Either party shall be obliged to keep confidential any secret information of the other party which either party and its personnel may obtain or be accessible to in the course of the performance of Contract. Either party shall not make use of or disclose such secret information obtained from the other party without prior written permission issued by the other party.

保密义务不适用于下列信息:

The confidential obligation shall not apply to (he information which:

A.现在或以后进入公共领域;

now or hereafter enters ihe public domain; or

B.可以证明该技术在泄露时自己就拥有,并不是以前从对方直接或间接获得的;

can be proved to have been in the possession of the party at the time of disclosure and which was not previously obtained, directly or indirectly, from the other party hereto; or

c.任何一方从第三方处合法获得的。

otherwise lawfully becomes available to either party from a third parly under no obligation of confidentiality.

材料的机密性。双方承认,在履行此项协议的过程中,或者在讨论或协商作品或/和展品声明或耒来协议的过 程中,一方可能获知涉及另一方或者第三方的机密、商业秘密、或者专有信息。该方有义务予以保密(“机密 信息获得机密信息的一方被认为是“接受方”,而透露机密信息的一方被认为是“透露方

Confidentiality of Materials. Each party acknowledges that in the course of performing under this Agreement, or in the course of discussing or negotiating Statement of Work(s) and/or any Exhibits or future agreements between the parties, a party may learn confidential, trade secret, or proprietary information concerning the other party or third parties to whom the other party has obligations of confidentiality ^Confidential Information”). The party receiving Confidential Information will be rctciTcd to as the “Receiving Party,“ and the party disclosing its Confidential Information will be referred to as the “Disclosing Party.

〃机密信息”指的是透露方、PVTC或者他们的代理以口头或者书面形式透漏给接受方的以下任何信息: ^Confidential Information55 means any and all information disclosed to the Receiving Party by the Disclosing Party, PVTC or their Agents either orally or in writing:

⑶组成或者同以下内容相关的技术或概念性的信息:数据库、软件、软件文档、电脑测试传输系统、系统 、产品、服务或者由透露方拥有、开发或者正在开发的零件,包括但不仅限于从计划、制图、图表、草图 、模型或程序说明中获得的信息,从设备的检瓷中,及从电脑程序、数据库、软件、电脑硬件组件或者其 他类似零件中获得的信息;

(a) of a technical or conceptual nature consisting of or relating to the databases, software, software documentation, computer based test delivery system, systems, products, services or component parts owned, developed or being developed by the Disclosing Party, including, wilhoul limilalion, the information ascertained from plans, drawings, schematics, sketches, models or descriptions of processes, or from an inspection of facilities, or from computer programs, databases, software, computer hardware components, or other components of a similar nature;

(b)有关透露方的商业计划、营销计划或商机的信息;

relating lo business plans, marketing plans or business opportunities of the Disclosing Parly;

(c)有关透露方的财务、业务、或业务操作方法和方法提议的信息;或者

  • relating to the Disclosing Party ‘s finances, business, or methods or proposed methods of doing business; or

(d)由于图例和其他标记、透露条件或者信息本身的性质,接受方理应为透露方保密的其他信息。机密信息 明确地包括一方专有信息中的任何信息和本协议中的条款和条件。本公司的机密信息包括本协议中规定的 所有软件。各方承认,协议有效期间,协议一方只能根据本协议规定的条件使用机密信息,任何一方不得 获得另一方机密信息的拥有权。

  • other information that should reasonably have been understood by the Receiving Party, because of legends or other markings, the circumslances of disclosure, or the nature of the infonnation itself, to be confidential to ihe Disclosing Party. Confidential Information shall expressly include any and all information derived from a party’s proprietary information and the terms and conditions of this Agreement. This company’s Confidential Information shall include any software provided herein. Each party acknowledges that it acquires only the right to use the Confidential Information of the other party under the terms and conditions of this Agreement for as long as this Agreement Is in cfleet and that neither party shall acquire any rights of ownership or title in the other party’s Confidential Information.

竞业禁止条款

In consideration of the mutual benefits and premises made herein, the hiring of the employee by ( company) ,as well as the salary paid from time to time for the employees? sendees, (company) and the employee agree with each other as follows:

Employee agrees that for a period of ( months) after resignation or termination with or without cause that he/she will not be employed by or associated with any competitive business or enteiprise .

考虑到双方的利益和公司对员工的聘用以及薪金支付等前提条件、公司与员工一致同意如下:

无论有无原因,员工同意在辞职或与公司终止合同后一一个月(竞业禁止期限)内,不直接或间接为公司 的竞争对手工作。

11.不可抗力条款Force Majeure

FORCE MAJEURE不可抗力

例I买卖双方除履行付款义务外,因以下事由造成买卖任一方无法履行合同规定的义务或履行延误的,买 卖任一方均不对此承担任何责任,事由具体内容如下:因不可抗力所致超出买卖任一方力合理控制范围内 的不可抗力事件,不可抗力发生,及出现的不可抗力情况,包括不影响前述事由的一般情况;天灾,罢工,火 灾.洪水,材料损毁;事故,恶劣天气所致无法履行义务或造成义务履行延误;海难,禁运,事故,政府当局公 布的限制规定(包括配给,优先事项,征用,报价和价格控制等等)造成义务无法履行或义务履行延误.

Neither seller nor buyer shall be liable in damages or otherwise for any failure or delay in performance of any obligation hereunder other than obligation to make payment, where such failure or delays is caused by force majeure, being any event, occurrence of circumstance reasonably beyond the conlral of that party, including without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, failure or delay caused by or resulting from acts of god, strikes, fires, floods destruction of the material delays of carriers due to breakdown or adverse weather, perils of the sea, embargoes, accidents, restrictions imposed by any governmental authority (including allocations, priorities, requisitions, quotas and price controls).

例2因前述条款说明的事由所致,造成发货期货物交货延迟或无法交货、合同规定的卖方发货和买方接收 货物的时间在此交货期则应顺延,顺延期:30(叁拾)日.

The time of seller to make, or buyer to receive, delivery hereunder shall be extanded during any period in which delivery shall be delayed or prevented by reason of any of the foregoing clauses. Up to a total of thirty (30) days.

例3合同规定的交货若交货延迟或无法交货达30(叁拾)日以上,买卖任一方就此情况向合同另一方出具书 面通知书之后,有权终止本合同.

If any delivery hereunder shall be so delayed or prevented for more than thirty (30) days, either seller or buyer may terminate this contract with respect to such delivery upon written notice to the other party.

例4如果遭遇无法控制的时间或情况应视为不可抗力,但不限于火灾、风灾、水灾、地宸、爆炸、叛乱、 传染、检疫、隔离。如要是不可抗力一方不能履行合同规定下义务,另一方应将段行合同的时间延长,所 延长的时间应于不可抗力事件的时间相等。 Any event or circumstance beyond control shall be regarded as

Force Majeure but not restricted to fire, wind, flood, earthquake, explosion, rebellion, epidemic, quarantine and segregation. In case either party that encounters Force Majeure fails to fulfill the obligation under the contract, the other party should extend the performance time by period equal to the time that Fore Majeure will last.

例5如果不可抗力持续6个月以上,合同双方应尽快通过友好协商的方式调整继续履行合同事宜。如果双 方不能达成协议,则根据合同中笫12条款通过仲裁决定。 If the Force Majeure last over 6 months, the two parties of the contract should settle the case of continuing the contract by friendly negotiation as soon as possible. Should the two parties fail to reach an agreement will be settled by arbitration according to Clause 12 of the contract thereof.

例6如果遭遇无法控制的时间或情况应视为不可抗力,但不限于火灾、风灾、水灾、地震、爆炸、叛乱、 传染、检疫、隔离。如耍是不可抗力一方不能履行合同规定下义务,另一方应将履行合同的时间延长,所

 

延长的时间应于不可抗力事件的时间相等。

Any event or circumstance beyond control shall be regarded as Force Majeure but not restricted to fire, wind, flood, earthquake, explosion, rebellion, epidemic, quarantine and segregation. In case either party that encounters Force Majeure fails to fulfill the obligation under the contract, the other party should extend the performance time by period equal to the time that Fore Majeure will last.

例7如果不可抗力持续6个月以上,合同双方应尽快通过友好协商的方式调整继续履行合同事宜。如果双 方不能达成协议,则根据合同中第12条款通过仲裁决定。

If the Force Majeure last over 6 months, the two parties of the contract should settle the case of continuing the contract by friendly negotiation as soon as possible. Should the two parlies fail to reach an agreement will be settled by arbitration according to Clause 12 of the contract thereof.

例8因人力不可抗拒事故使卖方不能在本出货合约规定期限内交货或不能交货,卖方不负责任,但是卖方 必须立即以电报通知买方。如果买方提出要求,卖方应以挂号函向买方提供由中国国际贸易促进委员会或 有关机构出具的证明,证明事故的存在。买方不能领到进口许可证,不能被认为系属人力不可抗拒范围。 The Sellers shall not be held responsible if they fail, owing to Force Majeure cause or causes, to make delivery within the time stipulated in this Sales Contract or cannot deliver (he goods. However, the Sellers shall inform immediately the Buyers by cable. The Sellers shall deliver to the Buyers by registered letter, if it is requested by the Buyers, a certificate issued by the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade or by any competent authorities, attesting the existence of the said cause or causes. The Buyers, ftiilure to obtain the relative Import Licence is not to be treated as Force Majeure.

例9如果任何一方由于自然灾害、战争、类似于战争的情况、禁令、骚乱、罢工、封锁和其他不可预见和 不受控制的、若没有额外的成本和时间是不能得到解决的意外事故,而不能履行或迟延履行本合同的义务, 则该方不应对另一方承担任何责任。

如果发生了不可抗力,受影响方应在不可抗力发生后的7天内及时通知另一方,并在不可抗力发生后的15 天内提交由当地相关部门印发的用于证明不可抗力发生的文件材料。双方当事人应当协商并形成最佳解决 方案,用于解决因不可抗力而导致的对本合同的迟延和中断履行。如果不可抗力持续严重影响本合同项下 重要义务的履行达3个月之久,则任何一方均有权以书面形式提前30天通知终止本合同。

7 cany Party does not or delays lo fulfil (he obligations in this Contract directly or indirectly due to natural disaster, wars, situations similar to war. embargo, disturbance, strike, blockade and other unpredictable and uncontrollable accidents which may not be solved without additional cost and time, this Party shall not bear any responsibility for the other Party.

In case of force majeure, the affected Party shall inform the other Party within seven days after occurring of such case and submit documents issued by local relevant department used to prove the occunence of force majeure within 15 days after occurring of such case. Both parties shall negotiate and reach an optimal solution used to solve the delay and intemiption problem of this Contract due to force majeure. If the force majeure continues to seriously impact implementation of ciucial obligation under this Contract for three months, either of the Party shall have the right to terminate this Contract by written notice 30 days in advance.

如果合同一方由于不可抗力因素而不能履行合同,比如地震、台风、洪水、火灾、战争及其他无法预见的 事件,其发生和后果也无法阻止、无法避免的,该方,应立刻以电报通知对方,并在其后十五天内提交公证 机关出具的详细的事件描述及有效文件,用以解释其无法履行合同全部或部分条款的原因。双方应通过协 商,根据事件对履行合同的影响程度,确定是终止合同或是免除履行合同的责任,或延长合同的履行。 Should either of the parties to the contract be prevented from executing (he contract by force majeure. such as earthquake, typhoon, flood, fire and war and other unforeseen events and their happening and consequences are unprevcntablc and unavoidable, the prevented party shall, by cable, notify the other party without any delay, and shall, within 15 days thereafter, provide the detailed information of the events and a valid document for evidence issued by the relevant public notary organization for explaining the reason of its inability to execute or delay the execution of all or part of the contract. The parlies to the contract shall, through consultations, in accordance with the effects of the events on the performance of the contract, decide whether to terminate the contract or to exempt the part of obligations for implementation of the contract or whether to delay the execution of (he contract.

12.合同争议解决(Disputes)条款

如果合同双方产生争议,往往有以下几种解决方法:

I ) Negotiation协商,也是最好的解决方式。

2) Consultation/Mediation调解,这个时候会有第三方的介入。

3)Arbitration仲裁,会有组织或者机构的介入。

  • Litigation起诉,会耗费较多的精力、时间甚至金钱。

a 解决争议的方式 诉讼、调解或仲裁(how are disputes to be handled-liligation, mediation, or arbitration)

b 仲裁时,仲裁规则的选择 If arbitration, what rules will govern? (e.g., JAMS/Endispute or the

American Arbitration Association)

c 仲裁时,仲裁员数量及产生办法 If arbitration, how many arbitrators and how will they be picked?

d 仲裁时,调杳程序及有关仲裁员职责 If arbitration, will there be procedures for discovery and what the

arbitrator can and can’t do?

e 如果选择诉讼时,诉讼地的约定 If arbitration, where can or must the litigation be brought?

ARBITRATION仲裁条款例句

  • . AH disputes arising from the execution of, or in connection with, this contract shall be settled amicably through friendly negotiation. In case no settlement can be reached through negotiation, the case shall then be submitted for arbitration. The location of arbitration shall be in the country where the defendant has his domicile. If in China, the arbitration shall be conducted by China Inleniational Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (CIETAC) Shanghai Sub-commission in accordance with its Rules of Procedure. If in (country) the arbitration shall be

conducted by in accordance with its arbitral nilcs of procedure. The arbitral award is final and binding upon

both parties.

凡因执行本合同所发生的或与本合同有关的一•切争议,双方应通过友好协商解决。协商不能解决的应提交 仲裁,仲裁地点为被告户籍所在地。在中国,由中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会上海分会根据该会仲裁规则 进行仲裁。在一国(国名)则由—根据该组织的仲裁程序规则进行仲裁。仲裁裁决是终局的,对双方 都有约束力。

  • . All disputes arising from the execution of, or in connection with, this contract shall be settled amicably through friendly negotiation. In case no settlement can be reached through negotiation. The case shall be then submitted to

(a third party), in accordance with its arbitral rules of procedure. The decision shall be accepted as final and binding upon both parties.

凡因执行本合同所发生的或与本合同有关的一切争议,双方应通过友好协商解决。协商不能解决的应提交 —(第三国名称)仲裁机构,根据该仲裁组织的仲裁程序规则进行仲裁。仲裁裁决是终局的,双方都有

约束力.

  • . AH disputes arising in connection with this Agreement shall be submitted to arbitration by any party and any dispute so submitted to arbitration shall be finally settled under the rules of the(name of arbitration association) by three arbitrators appointed in accordance with such rules. Arbitration shall be held in(place). The award of the arbitration shall be final and binding on the parties. Application may be made to any court having jurisdiction for an order of enforcement.

所有与本协议有关的争议都可由任何一方提交仲裁,任何提交仲裁的争议依 (仲裁协会会名)的仲裁 规则由指定的3名仲裁员作终局裁定。仲裁在—(地名)举行,仲裁员的裁定是终局的,对双方都有约束力。 申请人可向有管辖权的法院申请强制执行。

  • . Unless otherwise settled by the parties hereto, any dispute or difference which may arise between (he parties out of or in relation to or in connection with this Agreement shall be finally settled by arbitration, either in(place) or in(place) pursuant to the Rules of(name) Arbitration Association.

除当事人各方ri行解决的外,当事人之间的任何出于本协议或与本协议有关或有联系的争议和分歧将依 一(仲裁协会名称)的规则在一(地名)或—(地名)进行最终仲裁解决。

  • . All disputes arising from the execution of, or in connection with this contract shall be settled through friendly negotiation between both panics hereto, in case no settlement to disputes can be reached through friendly negotiation, the disputes shall be submitted to the china inlernalional economic and trade arbitration commission shanghai branch for arbitration in accordance with the arbitration rules and the procedure for the said commission. 因履行合同或合同所致引起的任何争议,买卖双方均应通过友好协商予以解决.争议如通过友好协商无法解 决,买卖双方应根据仲裁规定和前述商事的规程,上呈中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会上海仲裁分会前述争议 予以仲裁.
  • .仲裁:凡因执行本合同所发上的或与合同有关的一切争议,双方应友好协商解决。如果协商不能解决应 提交中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会,根据该委员会的有关仲裁程序暂行规则在中国进行仲裁的、仲裁裁决 是终局的,时双方都有约束力。仲裁费用除另有裁决外由败诉一方承担。

ARBITRATION: All disputes in connection with the contract or the execution thereof, shall be settled amicable by negoliation. In case no settlement can be reached, the case under dispute may then be submitted to the “China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission“ fbr arbitration. The arbitration shall take place in China and shall be executed in accordance with (he provisional rules of Procedure of the said Commission and the decision made by the Commission shall be accepted as final binding upon both parties for setting the dispute. The fees, for arbitration shall be bonic by the losing party unless otherwise awarded.

  • .与合同有关的所有争议应先通过友好协商解决。协商不成,可以向中国国际贸易促进会外贸仲裁委员会 申请仲裁。仲裁应在上海进行,仲裁委员会做出的裁决为最终结果,双方需共同遵守。任何一方不得到法 院或其他部门修改仲裁裁决。仲裁费用由败诉方承担

All disputes in connection with the Contract or the execution thereof shall be settled through friendly negotiations. In case no settlement can be reached through negotiations, the case should then be submitted for arbitration to the Foreign Trade Arbitration Commission of the China Council for the Proniolion of International Trade. The arbitration shall take place in Shanghai and the decision rendered by the Commission shall be final and binding upon both parties; neither party shall seek resource to the law court or other authorities for revising the decision.

The arbitration fee shall be borne by the losing party.

  • .仲裁裁定为终局,旦对买卖双方均构成约束力,买卖任一方不得另寻法院援助再行诉讼或依据法律修改前 述仲裁裁定判决.除前述仲裁机构仲裁裁定另有规定外,仲裁费应由败诉方承担.买卖双方应根据时间限定 的规定完全履行仲裁裁定.若买卖任一方在前述时间限定期内未履行仲裁裁定,合同另一方有权向司法管辖 区所在地的法院提出要求(未履行方)完全履行的申请.仲裁期间,除仲裁受理中的合同部分之外,买卖双方仍 应继续履行合同.

The arbitration award shall be final and binding upon both contracting parties. Neither party shall seek recourse from a court of law for revising the decision. The arbitration expenses shall be borne by the losing party unless otherwise awarded by the said arbitration organization. Both parties shall fufill the arbitration award in accordance with the time limit stipulated. Should one of the parties not fulfill the award after this time limit, the other party shall have the right to apply for fulfillment to court at a place of jurisdiction. In the course of arbitration, this contract shall he continuously executed by both parties except the part of this contract which is under arbitration.

  • .因本合同产生的或履行本合同引起的任何争议,各方应通过友好协商解决。任何一方不愿意协商解决,或 在协商开始后的90日内不能解决的,应将争议提交中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会,根据该会的仲裁程序和 规则在北京进行仲裁。各方同意共同委托仲裁委员会主席指定的一名仲裁员作为独任仲裁员,成立仲裁庭, 单独审理案件。

Any dispute arising out of this contract or from its performance shall be resolved through consultation between the parties. If any Party is unwilling to resolve a dispute through consultation, or if the dispute cannot be resolved within ninety (90) days of the commencement of consultation, the dispute shall be submitted to the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Coniiniitcc to be arbitrated in Beijing in accordance with its arbitration procedures and rules. The parties agree to jointly appoint one (1) arbitrator designated by the chairman of the arbitration committee as the sole arbitrator in the arbitral tribunal to try the case alone.

  • .双方因本合同弓I起的或与本合同有关的一切争议(包括但不限于有关本合同的效力、解释和履行的争议、 分歧或权利主张),应首先通过友好协商予以解决。如果一方将争议事项书面通知另一方后2个月内,争议 不能通过协商解决,则任何一方均可将争议提交中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会(以下简称仲裁委员会),按 其仲裁规则由三名仲裁员进行仲裁。仲裁员应从仲裁委员会的仲裁员名册中选定,每一方各选一名仲裁员, 第三名仲裁员由仲裁委员会主席指定,并由其担任首席仲裁员。

All disputes between (he Parties that arise from this Contract or arc related to this Contract (including but not limited to dispute» controversies or claims with respect to its effectiveness♦ interpretation and perfonnance) shall first be resolved through friendly consultation. If a dispute cannot be resolved through friendly consultation within two (2) months after a Party has notified in writing the other parly of the issue in dispute, then any party may at any time submit the dispute to the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Committee (thefc4Arbitration Committee”) to be arbitrated in accordance with its arbitration rules by three (3) arbitrators, who shall be selected from the panel of the Arbitration Committee. Each party shall select one (I) arbitratort and the chairman of the Arbitration Committee shall select the third arbitrator to be the chief arbitrator.

AH disputes arising out of or in connection with the contract (including wiihout limited the disputest discrepancy or claims of the validity, interpretation, and implementation of the contract) shall be settled at first through friendly consultation between the parties. If such disputes can not be settled within two (2) months after a party has deliver written notice about the dispute to the other party > any of the party may submit such dispute to the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (hereinafter referred to as ”Arbitration Commission”) to be arbitrated by three arbitrators in accordance with arbitration rules. The arbitrators shall be selected among the arbitrator lists of the commission, each party selects one arbitrator. The third arbitrator shall be appointed by the chairman of arbitration commission, and shall be the chief arbilrator.

  • .仲裁地点为中国上海,仲裁以中文进行。如一方在仲裁庭开庭过程中需要译员或要求将仲裁文书译成英 文,可请求仲裁委员会秘书处给予必耍的协助,但应自行承担所发生的费用。

The place of arbitration shall be Shanghai, China, and the arbitration shall be conducted in Chinese. If a party requires and interpreter in the course of the arbitration proceedings or an English translation of the arbitration instruments» in may request the secretariat of the Arbitration Committee to provide the necessary assistance, provided that i( shall undertake to bear the costs incurred.

The arbitration shall be conducted in Shanghai, China in Chinese. When a party needs interpreter or the arbitration documents to be translated into English during the period of arbitration, it shall, at its own expense» ask the secretariat of arbitration commission to offer necessary assistant.

  • .仲裁裁决是终局的,对双方均有约束力。除非仲裁裁决另有规定,仲裁费用由败诉一方承担。

The arbitration award shall be final and binding upon the parties. Unless otherwise specified in the arbitration award, the arbitration fees shall be bom by the losing party.

  • .在解决争议过程中,双方除有争议的事项外,须继续全面履行本合同。

During the period when a dispute is being resolved • the Parties shall continue to perform this contract in all respects other than the issue in dispute.

14在非正式协商开始30天后,如果双方仍不能友好地解决合同争端,任何一方都可以要求将争端提交仲裁 解决。

If, after 30 days from the commencement of such informal consultations, the parties fail to resolve amicably a conlractdispute , either party hereto may require that ihe dispute by submitted to arbitration for resolution.

15

仲裁:凡因执行本合约或有关本合约所发生的一切争执,双方应以友好方式协商解决;如果协商不能解决, 应提交中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会,根据该会的仲裁规则进行仲裁。仲裁裁决是终局的,对双方都有约 束力。

Arbitration: All disputes arising in connection with this Sales Contract or the execution thereof shall be settled by way of amicable negotiation. In case no settlement can be reached, the case at issue shall then be submitted for arbitration to the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission in accordance with the provisions of the said Commission. The award by the said Commission shall be deemed as final and binding upon both parties.

16 a single arbitrator who failing agreement shall by appointed by the chairman for the time being of THE LONDON COMMON LAW BAR association under THE LANDON BAR arbitration scheme.

提交由一名仲裁员独立审理,如双方当事人就该仲裁员的指定不能达成协议,可临时由伦敦普通法律师协 会主席按伦敦律师仲裁规程指定。

Any disputes arising form the execution of or in connection with the contract shall be settled through mutual consultations between the parties thereto. In case no settlement can be reached through consultations, the disputes in question shall be submitted for arbitration. The arbitration shall take place in shanghai, china, and shall, in accordance with its rules of procedure, be conducted by the Foreign Economic and Trade Arbitration commission of the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade. The arbitration award shall be final and binding on

the parties thereto. The cost of arbitration shall be borne by the losing party.

17在履行合同时合同双方如发生争议,双方应通过相互协商解决。如协商不成,则仲裁解决。仲裁应在中 国上海进行,由中国国际贸易促进会对外经济贸易仲裁委员根据其仲裁程序进行仲裁。仲裁裁决是终局的, 对双方都有约束力。仲裁费由败诉方承担。

注:

International chamber of commerce (ICC) in Geneva, Switzerland 设在瑞士日内瓦的国际商会

The Arbitration Institute of Stockholm Chamber of Commerce 斯德哥尔摩商会仲裁院

The disputes shall be resolved through litigation. Any party can bring such dispute to the court. The parties agree that the place of performance of this contract and forum of adjudication shall be the place where party A is located. 争议应通过法院诉讼解决,任何一方有权提起诉讼。合同双主同意合同履行地和管辖法院所在地为甲方所 在地。

  • .损害赔偿(indemnification)条款

例2:如果合资一方未能按本合同第5条规定按期付款,违约方应在逾期后一个月付给另一方10%的利息。 如果违约方逾期3个月仍未如资,合同另一方根据本合同第53条规定有权终止合同并向违约方索赔损失。

Should either joint-venturer fails to pay the contribution on schedule according to Clause 5, ihe default party should pay the other 10% of the interest one month after the dead line. The other party shall hold right to terminate the contract or to claim the damage against / (o him according to Clause 53 thereof, if the default party has not done so three months after the deadline.

损害赔偿(indemnification)条款,是减少合同风险的第二个重要条款。该条款主要约定在第三者对合同提 出权利主张时,另一缔约方应当对此承担责任。通常情况下,另一缔约方必须支付全部的防御性诉讼费用, 以及全部的支付给第三者的和解费用或者第三者胜诉后造成的所布•损失。实际上,本条款是将第三人造成 的风险从合同的一方当事人转移给另一方当事人。其次,本条款也可以约定合同的另一缔约方有其他不当 的作为时,应当进行损害赔偿。包括

a 违约补偿的范围约定(is there indemnification for certain breaches or problems)

b 取得补偿的程序 What is the procedure required to obtain indemnification.

c 补偿上限或补偿例外 is there a cap on or exclusions from indemnification.

例 1 : Supplier agrees to defend and indemnify Client and its subcontractors from and against all claims, demands, actions, damages, losses and expenses, including court costs and reasonable attorneys* fees, for liabilities for injury to, or death of employees of Supplier or its subcontractors, or damage caused to Supplier’s property or personnel, or the property or personnel of its subcontractors arising out ofor in connection with the supply by Supplier of Services whether or not the negligence or breach of duty of Client or its subcontractors caused or contributed to such injuiy death or damage except willful misconduct of Client or its subcontractors.

供应商同意赔偿客户及其转包商所有由于供应商及其转承包商为提供服务或其它原因导致的其雇员人身伤 害和死亡、财产或人身损害而产生的(向客户提出的)主张、要求、损害、损失和费用(无论是否由于客户及 其转包商的过失或违约所导致),包括诉讼费和合理的律师费,除非这些主张、要求、损害、损失和费用的 产生是由于客户及其转包商的故意所导致。

例2:如果合资一方未能按本合同第5条规定按期付款,违约方应在逾期后一个月付给另一方10%的利息。

如果违约方逾期3个月仍未如资,合同另一方根据本合同第53条规定有权终止合同并向违约方索赔损失。

Should either joint-venturer fails to pay (lie contribution on schedule according to Clause 5, the default party should pay the other 10% of the interest one month after the dead line. The other party shall hold right to terminate the contract or to claim the damage against / to him according to Clause 53 thereof, if the default party has not done so three months after the deadline.

  • .英文合同常用虚词(Usual Function Words)
  1. Here/there/where+介词构成的古体词

基本规则:Here 代表 this, there 代表 that, where 代表 which 或 what 即 here/lhere/where+介词=介词 +this/that/which or what

Hereby: by means of; by reason of this.特此,由此.兹等意。

例句:The Buyer hereby orders from the Seller the undermentioned goods subject to the following conditions:买方 向卖方订购下列商品,条件如下:

Herein: in thiso 此中,于此。

例句:The minimum royalty herein specified shall be paid by Party B to Party A.在此规定的最低特许权使用费 应由乙方付给甲方。

Hereinafter: later in the same Contract.以卜,在 卜文。通常与 lo be referred lo as, referred as, called 连用。

例句:This Agreement is made and concluded on, (date)(year), by and between(hereinafter called Party A) on the one hand and(hereinafter called Parly B) on the other hand.本协议书于 年

月一日由 (以下简称甲方)为一方,与 (以下简称乙方)为另一方签订。

Hereof: of this关于此点,在本文件中。Hereunder: under this.本文件规定。

例]句:Both parties agree to attempt to resolve all disputes between the parties with respect to the application or inteipretation of any term hereof of transaction hereunder, through amicable negotiation.合同双方•就本合同规定 交易任一条款的适用和解释所产生的所有争议同意力求通过友好协商予以解决。

Hereto: lo this.本文件的。Thereof: of that.它的,其。Thereto: to that 与之,向那里。

例句:”Licensed Products” means the devices and products described in Schedule 1 annexed hereto together with all improvement and modification thereof or development with respect thereto.“特许产品”系指在本协议附件 1 中所述的装置和产品,及其全部改进和修改的产品和与之相关的产品。

Herewith: with this.与此,附此。Thereby: by that means.因此》由此,从而

例句:In any one or more of the provisions contained in this Contract or any document executed in connection herewith shall be invalid of unenforceable in any respect under any applicable law, the validity and enforceability of the remaining provisions contained herein shall not in any way be affected (hereby,如果根据现行法律,本合同 及与此有关文件中有•项或多项条款被视为无效或不能履行,本合同其余条款的效力和履行将不因此受影

Thereafter: after that, afterwards.此后。

例句:The Conlract for ihe contractual joint venture shall continue from a period o two years Ihereafle匚本合作经营 企业合同,此后应持续有效两年。

Therein: in that; in that particukir context; in that respect,在那里;在那点上;在那方面。

例句:The Leased Premises are deemed to be fit for occupation when the building therein is substantially completed. 当在那里的建筑物实质完成时,该租赁房屋才认为适合占有居住。

Therewith: with that.以此;此外。

例句: The Employer shall indemnify and save harmless the Contractor against and from the same and against and from all claims, proceedings, damages, costs, charges and expenses whatsoever arising there out or in connection iherewilh.业主应赔偿所有索赔、诉讼、损害赔偿、支出、花费、费用,不论因《合同产生或与其相关,并 保证承包人免于承担上述责任。

Whereby: by the agreement; by the following terms and conditions, etc.凭此协议,凭此条款等。

例句:This Agreement is made and concluded by and between AA Corporation (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and BB Company (hereinafter referred to as Party B) whereby the Parties hereto agree to enter into the compensation trade under the terms and conditions set forth below:本协议由 AA 公司(以下简称甲方)和 BB 公司(以下简称乙方)签订。双方同意按下列条款进行补偿贸易。(本句中省略未译)

WITNESSETH, Whereas, Now Therefore, NOW THESE PRESENTS WITNESS, Know All Men by these presents. In witness Whereof, In Testimony Whereof. Undersigned.

WITHNESSETII, Whereas, Now Therefore用于英文合同前言部分,In witness Whereof用于合同结尾证明部分, 在第二章篇章结构特点中已有涉及,恕不赘述。

In Testimony Whereof: in Witness Whereof,以此为证,特立此证。

例句:In Testimony Whereof we have hereto signed this Document on(date) accepted on(dale),我方 于_年_月_日签署本文件,并于_年_月一日接受该文件,特此为证。

NOW THESE PRESENTS WITNESS:兹特立约为据,本句话也是用于WHEREAS条款之后引出具体协议事 项。

例句:NOW THESE PRESENTS WITNESS ihal it is hereby agreed between ihe parlies hereto as follows:兹特立 约为据,并由订约双方协议如下:

KNOW ALL MEN by these presents:根据本文件,特此宣布。(通常用于前言部分)

例句:KNOW ALL MEN by these presents that wc(bank’s namc)having our registered office at

(hereinafter called “the Bank”)will be bound unto(the Owner’s name)(hereinafter called “the Owner”)in the sum of for payment well and tmly to be made to the said Owner, the Bank will bind itself, its successors and

bciicr assignee by ihcsc presents.根据本文件,兹宣布,我行,(银行名称),其注册地点在(以下简称本银行) 向(业主名称)(以下简称木业主)立约担保支付(金额数)的保证金。木保证书对本银行及其继受人和受 让人均具有约束力。

Undersigned:法律文件末尾的签名者,前而加定冠词the,是指文件签署者的自称。

例句:The undersigned Seller and Buyer have agreed to close the following transaction in accordance with the

terms and conditions stipulated as follows:兹经签约的买卖双方同意,按下列条款,达成这笔交易.

Notwithstanding: in spite of, despite.即使,尽管。

例J I: Notwithstanding any other provisions to the contrary herein, insurance coverage and limits shall be subject to approval of all the parties.即使有与本合同相悖的规定,保险范围和责任限制应以合同各方同意为准。

例 2: Notwilhstanding Article 2.2, the parties may agree to extend the Expiration date lo such date as is reasonable in the circumstances if any of the conditions precedent referred to in Article 2.1 is not satisfied or waived on or before (he Expiration Date, any such agreement or waiver to be in writing.尽管有本合同第二条第二款规定,如 上述第二条第一款规定的先决条件在合同期满日之前既未实现乂未放弃,合同各方亦可根据具体情况,约 定合理延长合同的期满日。

As

合同英语中as出现的频率极高,而且用法灵活多变,是典型的自由人。在某种意义上讲,as使用的熟练程 度可以衡量合同英语的造诣。具体用法和含义见以下实例:

As放在代表规定的provide, stipulate, set forth, prescribe等词的过去分词前,含义为“依照某某规定

例 1 : For purpose of this. Capital Account shall be adjusted hypothetically as provided for in Section 4.6 herein.基 于此,应依照本合同第四条第六款调整资金账户。

例 2: based on their respective Venture interests as set forth in Section 5.2 hereof.基于本合同第五条第二款规定 的各方在合资公司中的权益。

另有Except as otherwise provided结构,表示“除非本文/某条款另有规定

例句:Except as otherwise provided herein, all notices or demands sent by registered airmail shall be deemed received 8 days after they have been sent and notices or demands sent by telex shall be deemed received at the time of ihe dispatch (hereof.除非本合同另有规定,所有通知和请求以航空挂号信寄出则发出后8日应视为送达收 悉,以电传方式发出则在发送时视为收悉。

As 构成 as the case may be (视具体情况而定),as the case may require (视具体要求而定)和 as the Venturers may determine 等短语。

例句:The Venture may relocate its office from time to time or have additional offices as the Venturers may determine.该合资公司视投资者决策,可随时迁址或增添营业场所。

As构成as of the date of— (date)短语是英语合同中表示“自某年某月某日起“最正式的表达。

份!)句:In witness whereof, the parties have caused this instrument to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.合同双方签订本文件,该文件自以上书就日期即时生效,特此为证。

As还用在as soon as practical短语中,意义用法相当于as soon as possible.

例1句:During the Employment Period, the Company agrees that it shall recommend to the Board the election of the Employee as a Director of the Company on (he Commencement Date or as soon as practical thereafter. 本公司 |司 意在聘用期间,应自本协议开始或其后尽早的时间向董事会推选受聘方为本公司董事。

As与such连用是英文合同中一大特色,参看本书第二章第三节部分,在此不在赘述。

・ foregoing, aforesaid, the said, aforementioned, above-mentioned, in question

Foregoing, aforesaid, the said, aforementioned, above-mentioned 一族,一般放在名词前作限定,意为“前述的” 或“上述的”,为避免重复已经提到的姓名或名称。

例 1 : The Bank shall give prompt written or telex notice to the Borrower of the Interest Rate in effect from time to rime in accordance with the foregoing sentence.本银行将根据前述的句子以H面或电传形式随时及时通知借款 方生效的利率。

仞2: The contract shall be written in Chinese and in. Both language versions arc equally authentic. In the event of any discrepancy between the two aforementioned versions, the Chinese version shall prevail.本合 I司 应以中文和—文书就,具同等法律效力。前述两种文本如有歧异,以中文文本为准。

In question: under consideration; being talk about.通常表示“在考虑或讨论中的“某件事或某个问题,可译为“这” 或“该”问题。

例句:All prices to be paid by the Buyer under its obligations of the buyback/counter-purchase Contract shall be the world market prices taking into account the other deliver}7 terms for the goods in question.买方根据返销或回购货 物合同的义务所支付的价格应为世界市场价格,结合考虑该货物的其他交货条件。

.follows, as below, the following

这一族都表示“下列“,一般放在动词后,而the following作为“下歹/在英文合同中用的较少。这样的例子俯 手皆是,恐怕每个英文合同都少不了的。

NOW THEREFORE, the parties hereby covenant and agree as follows;

为此,双方达成契约,约定如下:

NOW THEREFORE, it is hereby agreed as below.

为此,双方约定如下:

Now therefore, in consideration of the premises and covenants described hereinafter. Party A and Party B agree as follows:

兹以上述各点和契约所我条款为约因,订约双方协议如下:

, according to, under, subject to, in accordance with, as per, as provided in, pursuant to, in compliance with 这一族都表示”依照,根据“合同的约定或者法律的规定。其中尤以“according 2”最不正式,白然用的最少了, 而“in accordance with”最为常见。

例如:In case no settlement can be reached, the case may then be submilled for arbitration to China International Economic And Trade Arbitration Commission in accordance with the provisional Rules of Procedures promulgated by the said Arbitration Commission.如未能达成和解,该案件可提交中国国际贸易仲裁委员会根据该仲裁委员 会颁布的仲裁程序暂行规定进行仲裁。

又如:A Photoslat copy of the Acceptance Certificate of the Contract Plant signed by the representatives of both parties as per Chapter 9 of the present Contract.该合同设备的验收证书的影印副本由双方代表按照该合同第九 章签收。

再如:Both Parties shall each contribute their paid in capital in compliance with the items specified in the appendix to the Contract.合同双方应按照本合同附件中载明的项目进行出资。

.Including but not limited to 与 including, without limitation 以及 including by way of illustration but not limitation 英文合同表达“包括但不限于“时,就会用到这儿个短语。

例如:The time for ihe performance of the Seller’s obligations set forth in this Contract shall be automatically extended for a period equal to the duration of any nonperformance arising directly or indirectly from Force Majeure events including but not limited to fire, flood, earthquake, typhoon, natural catastrophe, and all other contingencies and circumstances whatsoever beyond ihe Seller’s reasonable conlrol preventing, hindering or inlerfering with the performance (hereof.本合同规定卖方履行义务的时间应自动延长等同于由于立接或间接由于不可抗力事件导 致的不能履行的期间。不可抗力事件包括但不限于火灾、洪水、地震、台风、自然灾害和卖方无论怎样也 无法合理控制的阻止、妨碍、干扰本合同履行的其他风险和情形。

.prior to, no later than, on or before ♦ on and after

prior。on or before, no later than, on or afier常用在英文合同中限定日期,prior to表示“某日之前,提前多 少日on or before, no(not) later ihan,表示“不迟于”,On and after 表示“从某 0 起

例如:Party A shall be unauthorized to accept any order sort to collect any account on and after September 20. fl 9 月20日起,甲方已无权接受任何定单或收据。

例如:Our terms are cash within three months, i.e. on or before May 1.

我公司的条件是,3个月内,即不得晚于5月1日,支付现金。

例如: Party B shall ship the goods within one month of the date of signing this Contract, i.c. not later than December.本合同签字之口一个月内,即不迟于12月15日,你方须将货物装船。

例如:10-15 days prior to the date of shipment, the Buyer shall inform the Seller by cable or telex of the contract number, name of vessel, ETA of vessel, quantity to be loaded and the name of shipping agent, so as to enable the Seller to contact (he shipping agent direct and arrange the shipment of the goods.装运前 10 天到 15 天, 买方应以 电报或电传方式通知卖方合同编号、装运船名,预计到达时间,装载数号和承运代理商名称,以便能使卖 方直接联系承运代理商安排货物装运。

此外,为限定时间更为明确,还常用inclusive、including和included,来限定含当日在内的时间。

例如: This credit expires till January 1 (inclusive) for negoliation in Beijing. (or:This credit expires till and including JanuarjrI for negotiation in Beijing.)本证在北京议付,有效期至1月1日。如果不包括1月1日在 内,则为 till and not including January 1 0

Without prejudice to

Without prejudice l。,常用于英文合同中,表示在“不损害某规定/情况下

例如:The Buyer shall nevertheless have the right (o cancel in part or in whole of the contract without prejudice to ihe Buyer’s right to claim compensalions.不妨害买方索赔权,买方仍有权取消合同的部分或全部。

Attributable to, due to, owing to, by virtue of, in view of, because of, on account of, considering, in consideration

of

这一组短语出现在英文合同中都表示“因为“,其中due to, owing to. because of较不正式,很少使用。

  • . 陈述与保证条款(representations and warranties)

陈述与保证是指合同各方当事人的一种声明。这是关于与合同有关的各种事实与问题的情况声明。例如: 在设备购买合同中,卖方对设备的品质与性能进行一般的、非技术性的保证,在供货后如发现非如其所述, 则可以获得救济或赔偿,比如退货并取回货款等。

a、 防;述与保i正内容(what representation and warranties are to be made by the parties) ?

b、保证的否认(warranties disclaim)。

c、保证的有效期限(How long will these warranties be good for)

英语合同中的陈述与保证条款(representations and warranties)示例:

例1

Party A hereby represents and wan ants that Party A is legal owner of the leased property and has the necessaiy legal capacity to lease the property to Party B. Party A has also obtained all the necessary authorizations from all relevant authorities in the People’s Republic of China in respect of this Agreement and the leasing of the property to Party B, including government approval and/or mortgagee consent (if applicable) Party A shall be liable to Keep Party B be fully indemnified against any costs, expenses, losses and damages incurred to suffered by Party B as a result of any breach of Party A’s representations or warranties herein ( including but not limited to legal costs)

甲方谛在此声明及保证甲方为出租房屋的合法拥有人并有合法地位出租此房屋予乙方。就本合同及出租 此历屋予以乙方之事,甲方已取得所有有关机构的批准,包括政府批准及抵押权人的同意。甲方于本合同 所做出的声明及保证,如有错误或违反者,甲方须就因此而引起的任何损失、损害、支出及费用做出全部 补偿。

例2

WARRANTIES 质量保证条款

The Seller guarantee that the Equipment supplied under this Contract is made of the best quality materials with first class workmanship, brand new, up to standard in all respects and in good condition.

卖方保证提供的设备是全新制造的,用最好的材料及新设计,符合各方面的标准并状况良好。 例3

The Seller hereby represents and warrants as to itself that:

  • it is a duly organized legal entity, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of ihe People’s Republic of China;
  • its Board of Directors has taken all necessary action to duly authorize the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement which actions are reflected in the minutes book of the corporation; and
  • its entry in【o and pcrfonnancc of its obligations under this Agreement do not violate any legal requirements in the People’s Republic of China as of the date hereof or any material agreements to which it is a party.

卖方谨此保证卜冽事项属实:

 

(i)本公司为依中华人民共和国法律合法组织存在、享有良好商誉之法律主体;

(ii)本公司第事会己依法授权本公司进行与本合约相关的订立与履行事宜,并记载于董事会记录中;

(iii)本公司订立本合约及履行因本合约所致生之义务,不违反订约时之任何中国法令,或违反其它任何本 公司为当事人的合约。

例4

The Licensor shall guarantee (hat the Technical D(x:umentation and Software supplied by the Licensor to the Licensee in accordance with the Contract shall be of the latest and well-proved technical Documentation and Software which arc actually used by the Licensor and that the improved, modified and developed Technical Documentation and Software shall be supplied in time by the Licensor to the Licensee in the course of implemenlalion of the Contract, wilhoul charge.

让与人将保证按合同要求向引进方提供的技术资料和软件是让与人实际使用的和最新的并被证实了的技术 资料和软件,并保证在合同执行过程中及时向引进方免费提供改进、修改和开发的新的技术资料和软件。

  • .引言和“鉴于”条款(recitals)

英语合同,在主体条款之后,往往会有一段“引言所谓主体条款,主要是指明当事人的名称与住所等基本 情况。

英语合同的“引言”部分,通常是以“鉴于(whereas)”开始,至U“双方特约定如b (the parties agree as follow)” 结束。

“鉴于”条款,又称为“叙述性条款”,是由双方当事人就合同的背景(background of agreement)、订约的目的 (purpose for entering into the contract) > 合同的主要目标、希望或意图(key assumptions for the contract)等 作出陈述性说明。

引言部分是作为合同的一个辅助工具,其使用的目的,是使合同内容能够更加清晰化、更容易理解。引 言部分的基本内容通常包括:

a、合同的背景(background of agreement)

b、双方缔约的 hl 的(purpose for entering into the contract)

c、合同的主要目标或.重耍设想(key assumptions for the contract)

例1:专利技术使用许可合同

在国际许可证协议中,双方当事人应就订约的目的、希望和意图作出陈述性说明。如供方就供方的职业背 景、转让技术的合法性和实际经验等作的说明。接受方对其接受标的的要求和目标所作的说明等。一且发 生争论,“鉴于”条款对于双方订约的目的与意图以及解释某些具体条款会起一定的作用。因此应当慎重对待 “鉴于”条款,努力使鉴于条款的原则与具体条款的内容相一致。

Whereas Party B has the right and agrees to grant Parly A (he rights to use, manufaclure and sell ihe Contract Prcxlucts of Patented Technology;

Whereas Party A desires to use the Patented Technology of Party B to manufacture and sell the Contract Pnxlucts; The Representatives authorized by the Parties to this Contract have, through friendly negotiation, agreed lo enter into this Contract under the terms, conditions and provisions specified as follows: 参考译文:

鉴于乙方有权并同意将专利技术的合同产品的使用权、制造权和销售权授予甲方: 鉴于甲方希望利用乙方的专利技术制造并销售合同的产品:

经友好协商,双方授权代表同意就以下条款签订本合同:

例2:不得分析(标的物)的协议

华持公司(公司名字是虚构的)生产一种叫PDA300的材料,这个产品用的是公司自行研制开发的配方。 华持公司声称这种材料布•好些优点。ABC集团打算向华持公司采购PDA300材料用于制作自己的产品。ABC 集团会先向华持公司索取这种PDA300材料的样品去做试验或者测验,以确认是否真的具有华持公司自己 声称的那些优点。为了保护自己的商业秘密,华持公司在提供样品前,会要求和ABC集团签订一份协议, 一般称为“不得分析(标的物〉的协议二协议中规定,禁止ABC集团通过对材料样品的分析获取产品中的 技术秘密。

WHEREAS JIUAC is a supplier of PDA3(X) (hereinafter, referred to as “MATERIALS“)which ABC Group believes may be capable of providing desirable properties in ABC Group products;

WHEREAS, ABC GROUP desires to perform certain tests relating to the performance of MATERIALS. In order to perfonn these tests, il will be necessary for HUAC lo disclose to ABC GROUP samples of MATERIALS, which HUAC considers proprietary and confidential;

WHEREAS, HUAC is willing to give samples of MATERIALS lo ABC GROUP provided that HUAC is given assurances that ABC GROUP will use MATERIALS only for the purpose of performing certain tests relating to perfonnance of MATERIALS;

NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of the mutual covenants recited herein, and for other good and valuable consideration, the Parties agree as follows: 参考译文:

鉴于:华持是PDA300 (以下简称“材料”)供应商,ABC集团认为该材料能够为其产品带来满意效果。

鉴于:ABC集团希望能够针对材料的性能进行某些试验。为了进行这些试验,华持需向ABC集团提供材料 的样品,华持认为:该材料是其所有的,是绝密的。

鉴于:ABC集团保证,材料样品仅用于与材料性能相关的某些试验之目的,以此为前提,华持愿意向ABC 集团提供材料样品。

为此,以双方谨此共同陈述的保证为约因,加上其它一些善意及有价值的约因,双方同意签定如下协议:

例3:合资经营公司

Whereas Party A and Party B, adhering to the principle of equality and mutual benefit and through friendly consultation, agree (o jointly invest to establish a new joint venture company in China (hereinafter referred as “Joint Venture”). The Contract hereunder is made and concluded.

参考译文:

鉴于:按照平等互利的原则,甲方与乙方经过友好协商,决定共同投资在中国建立合资经营公司(以下称“合 资企业”),为此达成如下合同。

例4.工程劳务承包

WHEREAS the Employer is desirous that manpower can be rendered available for the construction of High-Rise Residential Complex in Baghdad, Iraq;

WHEREAS the Contractor is desirous to provide the manpower for the Works;

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Contract in duplicate by their duly authorized representatives on the date first above written.

参考译文:

鉴于:雇主想要雇请劳动力建造伊拉克已格达的高层住宅综合大楼;

鉴于:承包人想为此工程提供劳动力;

作为所协议事项的证据,双方授权代表于上面首次写明的日期正式签订本协议一式两份。

例5:贷款合同

Whereas the Borrower has requested the Bank to extend to the Borrower a term loan in the principal amount of One Million US Dollars (US $1,000,000) under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement; and

Whereas the Bank is prepared to make such a loan available to the Borrower under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement;

Now Therefore, in consideration of the mutual promises contained herein, the Parties hereto do hereby agree on the contents of the agreement as follows。

参考译文:

鉴F:根据本协议规定的条件和款项,借款人业已向银行要求为借款人提供一簿本金为10。万美元 (US$ 1,000,000)的定期贷款;

鉴于:根据本协议规定的条件和款项,银行已准备向借款人提供此项定期贷款;

据此,以双方相互承诺为对价,合同双方谨就下述内容达成一致意见。

更多例句:

为在平等互利的基础上发展贸易,有关方按下列条件签订本协议:

This Agreement is entered into between the parties concerned on the basis of equality and mutual benefit to develop business on terms and conditions mutually agreed upon as follows:

兹经买卖双方同意按照以下条款由买方购进,卖方售出以下商品:

This conlract is made by and between the Buyers and the Sellers; whereby the Buyers agree to buy and the Sellers agree to sell the undermentioned goods subject to the terms and conditions as stipulated hereinafter:

In accordance with the u law of the people’s republic of china on Chinese-foreign equity joint ventures,f and other relevant Chinese law and regulations, A company and B company , adhering to the principle of equality and mutual benefit and through amicable consultation, agreed to jointly invest and set up a joint venture enterprise in shanghai, the people’ s of china. The parties to this contract hereby signed and concluded this contract.

A公司与B公司,根据《中华人民共和国中外合资企业法》和中国其他有关法律,本着平等互利的原则, 通过友好协商,同意在中华人民共和国上海,共同投资建立合资经企业,特订立本合同。

This contract is made and entered into ,on the 5th day of inarch, 2007, in shanghai, by and between AAA company , a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the people’ s republic of china with its place of business at (hereinafter referred to as ” party A ”)and BBB company , a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of USA with its place of business at (hereinafter referred to as “ party B “).

Whereas party A desires to appoint Party B as the exclusive distributor in the territory stipulated in the contract to sell party A’ s products and party B accept party Ar s appointment.

Therefore, it is hereby agreed terms and conditions as follows:

本合同由AAA公司,一家依据中华人民共和国法律成立和组织的并在 有营业地的公司(下称甲方)

与BBB公司,一家依据美国法律成立和组成的并在 有营业地的公司(下称乙方),在2007年3月

21日在上海签订。

鉴于甲方拟授权乙方在合同规定的区域内独家经销甲方产品且乙方也接受该授权。

因此,双方订立合同条款如下:

  • .买卖合同中的索赔条款 (Claim)
  1. Any claims of whatever nature regarding the goods sold hereunder shall be notified to the Seller within days after the arrival of the goods at the destination specified in the bills of lading. Full particulars of such claim, together with sworn surveyor’s written report, shall be made and forwarded within days after the said

notification to the seller.

按本合同所得货物各种性质的索赔应在货物运抵提货单指定的目的地后 天通知卖方。这种索赔的详细

情况和宣誓鉴定人的书面报告在上述索赔通知卖方后 天内用航空挂号寄给卖方。

  1. Upon ihe arrival of the goods al place of delivery, the Buyer shall immediately inspect the goods and shall give written notice of any claim to (he Seller within days after their arrival. Claims for losses or damages will not

be considered unless supported by railroad agent’s acknowledgement on freight bill. The failure to give such notice shall constitute irrevocable acceptance of the goods by the Buyer, and he shall be bound to pay the price of ihe goods in accordance with the terms of the Agreement.

货物运抵交货地点后,买方应立即检验货物并在货到后 日内向卖方提出书面索赔通知。除非有铁路运

输代理人对货运单的认可证明,否则,卖方将不考虑货物短失或损坏索赔。如未提出这样的通知,则表示 买方无争议地接受了货物并应据本合同条款支付货款。

  1. In case discrepancy on the quality of the goods is found by the buyers after the arrival of the goods at the port of destination, claim maybe lodged against the Seller within 30 days after the arrival of the goods at the port of destination being supported by Inspection Certificate issued by a reputable public surveyor. The seller then shall consider the claim in light of actual circumstances. For the loss or losses due to the natural causes within the responsibilities of the Shipowners or the Underwriters, the Seller shall not consider any claim for compensation. 货物抵达目的港后,买方发现质量不符合耍求的,可在30 口持享有信誉的公共检查员开具的检验证明向卖 方提出索赔。卖方应根据实际情况考虑索赔要求。在船主或保险商责任范围内由自然原因造成的丢失和损 耗,卖方将不考虑任何损失赔偿。
  2. Withindays after arrival of the goods at destination, should the quality, specification, or the quantity be

found nol in conformily with ihe stipulations of the Contract except those claims for which the insurance company or the owners of the vessels are liable, the Buyer shall, on the strength of Inspection Certificate issued by,
have the right to claim for replacement with new goods, or for compensation, and all the expenses (such as inspection charges, freight for returning the goods and fbr sending the replacement, insurance premium, storage and loading and unloading charges, etc.) shall be borne by the Seller.

货物抵达目的港后 日内,除应由保险公司和船主负责的索赔外,如果发现货物的质量、规格和数量与

本合同规定不符,买方凭 出具的检验证书,有权要去更换新货,或要求补偿。所有的费用(如检验费、

退回不合格货物和运送替换货物的运费、保险费、仓储费和装卸费,等等)应由卖方负担。

  • .证明与签署

证明 WITNESS

在合同前文中常用作首句的谓语动

词:This Agreenien, made by WITNESSESWHEREAS , it is agreed as follows:

本协议由……签订证明:鉴于……特此达成协议如下IN WITNESS WHEREOF作为所协议事项的证据, 该短语常用于合同的结尾条

款:IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parlies have executed this Contract in duplicate by their duly authorized repres entatives on the date first above written.作为所协议事项的证据,双方授权代表「上面帘欠写明的U期正式 签订本协议一式两份。

签署 signalurcs

英文合约架构中的最后一个部份就是结尾辞与当事人的签名。所谓“结尾辞”指的是在当事人签名之前经常会 出现一段文字,除了表明签名人确实有签名的iE当权限外,还会载明签名的日期。至于签名栏的部份,如 果当事人是公司的话,除了要盖公司印鉴以外,还要有代表人的签名,并通常会注明代表人的职位(title)。

a、签署职权条件 whal authority is required for one party to sign the contract (e.g.. Board of Directors

approval).

b、签署数量:How many signatures arc required?

c、 iE确的签署)笈式 Arc the signature blocks correct? For corporations, this is a typical appropriate

signature block:

例:

IN WITNESS WHEREOF&. the parlies hereto have caused this Agreemenl to be executed by duly authorized representatives & of both parties on the date and year first written above.

By: By:

Title: Title:

本约由被授权之人,于本约序文所记载日期,代表双方当事人缔结之,特此为证。

代表人: 职位:

  • .货物验收与交付条款

L甲方验收时,如果发现乙方产品货物不符合本合同约定时,应妥善保管产品货物,在7天之内向乙方提出 书面异议,如中方未按规定期限提出书面异议的,则视为乙方所提交的产品货物符合本合同约定,甲方不 得以其他理由拒绝支付乙方产品货款。

If Party B , s Products fail to meet the standard and requirements provided in this Contract during the Inspection and Acceptance undertaking by Party A, Party A shall, while keeping such products in secure and good condition, notify Party B its objection in written within 7 days of receipt of Party B’ s Products. If Party A fails to notify Party B its objection on such products in written prior to the expiration of the above time limit, all products delivered by Party B shall be deemed eligible and qualified under ihis Contract and subsequently Party A shall have no reason to withhold the payment of Party B’ s Products.

2.因甲方人为操作使用不当,保管、保养不善等导致产品货物质量下降或产品毁损的,甲方不得提出质量异 议,由此产生的经济损失和维修、更换费用开支由甲方自行承担。

Party A shall have no claim on quality decline or damage of Party B’ s products if such decline or damage is caused by Party A’ s inappropriate using, keeping and maintenance of the products and all damages, maintenance and replacemenl costs arising from the said inappropriate acts of Party A shall be at its own expense.

3:乙方在接到甲方书面异议后,应在7天之内负责处理,逾期视为默认甲方提出的异议和处理意见。

Party B shall deal with Party A? s written objection within 7 days upon its receipt and failure to meet such time limit by Party B shall be deemed as Party B’ s acquiescence of Party A’ s objection and disposal suggestion.

4.甲方若无正当理由未在本合同约定时间内付清款项,应承担支付给乙方逾期未付款每天1/1000的利息并 承担逾期付款每天1/1000的违约金,甲方必须在当期应付帐款中加入支付;

If Party A fails to clean the payment within ihe time limit agreed upon without any justified reasons, both interest on and liquidated damages of the total overdue value shall be chargeable at one per millc (I%o) per day from the date on which the payment is overdue until repayment in full and such interest and damages shall be paid by Party A along with current account payable.

5:未经乙方同意,在本合同签署生效之后甲方无正当合法理由擅自终止或解除本合同, 除乙方有权收回

已交付甲方之产品货物外,甲方同意另支付本合同总价款金额的90%的相关损失费用给乙方:

甲方无正当理由拒绝接货或者逾期接货的,甲方应当承担产品货物毁损、灭失的风险和由此产生的保管费 用等一切费用,并支付乙方本合同总价款的90%的违约金:

你这一百分真是太超值了

If this Contract is terminated or dissolved by Party A after it has come into force upon signature without any justified and legitimate reasons and the approval from Party B. wiihout prejudice to the right of Party B lo retrieve all the products delivered to Party A, Party A shall agree to indemnify Party B for its losses in the amount of 90% of the total value of this Contract.

If Party A refuses lo accept the products or fails to receive the products at agreed lime, it shall take the risk of its being damaged or lost and bear all-expense, such as storage cost, arising from its refusal or failure and shall pay Party B in the amount of 90% of the total value of this Contract as default fine.

20.司法管辖 jurisdiction

1、本合同之签署,合同的有效性,合同释义,合同履行,修订,终止以及合同仲裁均按照中华人民共 和国的法律规管.

The signing, validity, interpretation, execution, amendments, tennination and arbitration to this contract shall be governed by the laws of the people’s republic of china.

2、合营企业合同的订立、效力、解释、履行及其争议的解决,适用中华人民共和国法律。

The conclusion. validity t interpretation, and perfonnance of the contract of a joint venture and settlement of disputes in connection therewith shall be governed by the laws of the People’s Republic of China.

3、.国家依法保护合作企业和中外合作者的合法权益。合作企业必须遵守中国的法律、 法规不得损害中国的社会公共利益。国家有关机关依法对合作企业实行监督。

The State will protect the legitimate rights and interests of the cooperative joint venture and the Chinese and foreign parties it according to law. Cooperative joint ventures must abide by Chinese laws and regulations, and must not jeopardize the public interests of China. The State authorities concerned shall exercise supervision over cooperative joint ventures according to law.

4、本合同的订立、生效、解释、履行及与本合同有关的争议解决,均受中国法律管辖。

The conclusion, effectiveness, interpretation and performance of this contract and the settlement of disputes in connection with this contract shall be governed by the laws of Chinao

  • .合同的种类及英文名称规范翻译

一、我国合同法第9章到第23章就合同种类做了概况:

买卖合同 sale contract

电、水、气、热力供应合同 contracts for supply of power, water, gas or heat

赠与合同 gify conrract

借款合同 contract for loan of money

租赁合同 Icasiing contract

融资租赁合同 financial leasing contract

承揽合同 work-for-hire contract

建设工程合同 contract for construction projects

运输合同 carriage contract

技术合同 technology contract

保管合同 safe-keeping contract

仓储合同 warehousing contract

委托代理合同 agency 叩poinlment contract

委托合同 trading trust contract

行纪合同和居间合同brokerage contract

二、但是在实际合同工作中,我们见到的合同、协议远不止这些,还有: 劳动合同 labour contract

保密协议 confidentiality agreement

竞业禁止协议 non-compctc agreement

人事代理协议 human agency agreement

遗赠抚养协议 legacy-support agreement

离婚协议 divorce agreement

收养协议 adoption agreement

商品房买卖合同 contract of sale for commodity house

土地使用权出让、出租、转让合同 contract for assignment, lease and transfer of the right to the use of land

抵押合同 mortgage contract

贷款合同loan contract

物业管理合同 property management contract

建筑工程建设安装承包合同 constrction engineering and installation contract

采购合同 purchase contract

运输合 同 carriage/transportatioii/forwarding contract

进出 口合同 import and export contract

补偿贸易合同 contract for compensation trade

供应合同 supply agreement

技术服务合同 technical service contract

技术咨询协议 technical consulting agreement

技术开发协议 technical development agreement

技术转让协议 lechnical transfer agreement

许 可协议 licensing agreement

保险合同 insurance contract

提存协议 sccrow/dcposil agreement

服务合同 service agreement

风险投资管理协议 venture capital mangement agreement

合伙协议 partnership agreement

股权转让协议 share transfer agreement

Agreement on assignment of equity interests

和解协议 composition agreement

法律顾问协议 employment contract for legal consultant

合资企业合同 join〔 venture contract

公司 设立 备忘录 memorandum of incorporation

备忘录(合作备忘录) memorandum

公司设立协议 aricles fo incorporation

公司设立章程 articles of association

意向书 letter of intent

意向性协议,框架性协议heads of agreement

初步协议 preliminary agreement

三、按照行业性质分,还有:

劳动人事方面 包括:劳动合同(labor contract)>保密协议(confidentiality agreement)、竞业禁止协议

(non-compete agreement)人事代理协议 (human agency agreement):

不动产方而 包括:商品房买卖合同(conlacl of sale of commodity houses)、租赁协议(lenancy agreement、 土地使用权出让、出租、转让合同(contract for assignment, lease and transfer of the right to the use of land )、 抵押合同(morlgage conlracl)、贷款合同(loan contract)物’止管理合同(properly management conlracl)、 建设工程承包、安装合同(contract for construction engineering and installation of project);

服务类 包括:技术服务(technical service agreement )s 咨询(technical consultant agreement)

开发 (technical development agreement)> 转让 (technical transfer agreement

许可协议(licensing agreement)s 代理协议(agency agreement、保险合同(insurance contract)s

融资协议(financing agreement风险投资管理协议(ventrure capital management agreement)^

法律顾问协议(employment contract for legal consultant):

公司方面 包括:合资企业(joint venture contract)、章程(articles of association, corporate bylaw )、

合伙协议(pannership agreement、股权转让协议(agreemeni on assignmenl of equity inleresis)、

和解协议(composition agreement);

 

物流方面包括:

买卖合同(salescontact)> 采购合同(purchasecontact)、运输合同(carriagecontact)、

进出 I」合同(imporl and export contact

仓储保管合同(warehousing and safe-keeping contact)补偿贸易合同(contact for compensation)

人身方面 包括:遗赠抚养协议(legacy-support agreemenl)、离婚协议(divorce agreement)

  • .英文合同条款目录
  1. Definitions 定义
  2. Parties to the Contract; Representations and Warranties

合同各方;陈述及保证

  • Parties to the Contract 合同各方
  • Representations and Warranties

陈述及保证

  • Consequences of Inaccuracy in Representations

陈述不实的后果

  1. [Operative Clauses]具体权利义务条款
  2. Term合同期限
    • Term合同期限
    • Extension合同期限的续展
  3. Termination 合同终止
    • Termination 合同终止
    • Continuing Obligations 各方持续的义务
  4. Confidentiality 保密义务
    • Scope of Confidentiality 保密义务的范围
    • Exceptions保密义务不适用的情形
    • Confidentiality Rules and Regulations 保密制度
    • Return of Confidential Information 保密资料的归还
    • Remedies for Breach of Contract 违约救济措施
    • Limitation on Liability 责任限制
  5. Force Majeure 不可抗力
    • Definition of Force Majeure 不可抗力的定义
    • Consequences of Force Majeure 不可抗力的后果
  6. Settlement of Disputes 争议的解决
    • Friendly Consultations 友好协商
    • Arbitration 仲裁
    • Continuing Rights and Obligations 持续的权利和义务
    • Enforcement of Award 裁决的执行
    • Injunctive Relief申请制止侵权、违约行为的权利
  7. Applicable Law 适用法律
  8. Miscellaneous Provisions 其他规定
    • Independent Contractor Relationship 合同各方之间的独立关系
    • Binding Effect合同拘束力的范阚
    • Party Entitled to Enforcement 合同权利人范围
    • Amendment 修改
    • No Publicity 合同内容保密
    • No Solicitation 禁止招揽对方雇员
    • Notices 通知
    • Waiver不放弃权利
    • Assignability 可转让性
    • Severability 可分割性
    • Entire Agreement 全部协议
    • Schedules and Annexes 附录以及附件
    • Language 文本
    • Execution 签署
  1. 鉴于条款(whereas)

在写清楚当事人和合同签署时间、地点以后,紧接着应该写明合同签署的背景。这一节七•时候会冠以“背景 Recital”的标题,有时候则由连续几个“鉴于Whereas”条款组成。无论采取何种形式,这一节都需要说明合 同签署的背景以及合同签署的目的。特别是如果合同是对以前.某次或某几次合同的补充、修订、发展等, 则必须说明各个相关合同之间的关系。通常应该按照时间顺序将之前的各个合同一一列明,并说明各个合 同的主题内容和彼此之间的关系。举个例子:

WHEREAS PARTY A and PARTY B signed a MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING dated February I, 2004 agreeing to start friendly discussion on establishing a joint venture to jointly develop the [PROJECT ].

WHEREAS PARTY A and PARTY B reached initial agreement on establishing a joint venture to jointly dcvc lop the [PROJECT] and signed (he JOINT VENTURE HEADS OF AGREEMENT on June 1,2005.

WHEREAS PARTY A and PARTY B have agreed to establish a joint venlure according to terms and conditio ns of this joint venture contract to jointly develop the「PROJECT].

对应的中文是:

鉴于,甲方和乙方于2004年2月1日签署《谅解备忘录》,同意就设立合资企业共同开发xx项目进行 友好协商。

鉴于,甲方和乙方就设立合资企业共同开发xx项目初步达成意向,并于2005年6月1日签署了《设 立合资企业原则协议》。

鉴于,甲方和乙方同意按照本合营合同的条件和条款设立合资企业,共同开发xx项目。

陈述和保证“(Representation and Warranty)一部分,要求合同方对这些既定事实和欲达到的目的予以保证。 而且,关于双方的具体权利和义务,更不应该出现在这一段里。例如,有的合同在“背景”这一段里写:

WHEREAS PARTY A agrees to deliver the GOODS to PARTY B within three(3) days in accordance with th e prices specified herein:

NOW THEREFORE, both PARTIES conclude this AGREEMENT as follows:

甲方同意按合同约定价格在三天内向乙方发货,特签署本协议。

“在三天内向乙方发货“是非常具体的条件和条款,应该在合同正文中专节规定,如果仅仅写在背景这一 节,以下没有再提及,则这一义务对乙方是否具有法律约束力存在不确定性。

在签约背景之后,通常由一句几乎一成不变的措辞引出合同主文条款,即

NOW THEREFORE. i( is agreed by both PARTIES as follows

或NOW THEREFORE, bolh PARTIES agree as follows等。不过,读者在起草合同时应注意,如果一个协议 不存在任何对■价,根据英国法可能被判为无效,比如,在一些OPTION AGREEMENT,

EXCLUSIVITY AGREEMENT等协议中。为了避免这种风险,建议读者在草拟时采用如下措辞,即

In consideration of the mutual promises and undertakings contained in this AGREEMENT, the PARTIES agree as f ollows:(考虑到“双方”在本协议中的相互约定和承诺,双方特议定如下)或

**N0W THEREFORE, in consideration of the mutual promise made in this AGREEMENT, and for other good and valuable consideration, the PARTIES hereto agree as fbllows”:或

”NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the mutual promise and agreements contained herein, the PARTIES agre e as fbllows”o

  • .违约责任,处罚 与免责条款 (中英文)

BREACH OF CONTRACT AXD RESPONSIBILITY OF EXEMPTION

关于违约

If one party fails to comply with the terms of the contract, the other party is entitled to terminate the contract. 假如一方不能遵守合同条款,另一方有权终止合同。

如卖方延迟交货超过合同规定10周时,买方有权撤消合同。此时卖方仍应不延迟地按上述规定向买方支付 罚款。

In case the Seller fails to make delivery ten weeks later than the time of shipment stipulated in the Contract, the Buyer shallhavc the right to cancel the Contract, and the Seller, in spite of the cancellation, shall nevertheless pay the aforesaid penalty to the Buyer without delay.

因乙方违反本合同的规定而产生的违约金、损坏赔偿金和其它相关费用,甲方可在保证金中抵扣,不足部 分乙方必须在接到甲方付款通知后十日内补足。

In case party B breaches this contract, party A has right to deduct the default fine, compensation for

damage or any other expenses from the deposit. In case the deposit is not sufficienl to cover such

items. Party B should pay the insufficiency within ten days after receiving the written notice of

payment from Party A.

甲、乙双方任何一方在未征得对方谅解的情况下,不履行本合同规定条款,导致本合同中途中止,则视为 该方违约,双方同意违约金为人民币 元整,若违约金不足弥补无过错方之损失,则违约方还需

就不足部分支付赔偿金。

During the lease term, any party who fails to fulfill any article of this contract without the other party’s understanding will be deemed lo breach the contract. Both parties agree that the default fine

will be, In case the default fine is not sufficient to cover the loss suffered by the faultless party, the party in breach should pay additional compensation to the other party.

由于一方不履行合同、章程规定的义务,或严重违反合同、章程规定,造成合作公司无法经营或无法达到 合同规定的经营目的,视作违约方片面终止合同,对方除有权向违约的一方索赔外,并有权按合同规定报 原审批机关批准终止合同。如甲、乙方同意继续经营,违约方仍应赔偿履约一方的经济损失。

Should the cooperative venture company be unable to continue its operation or achieve ils business purpose due to the fact that one of the contracting parties fails to fulf il the obligations prescribed by the contract and articles of association, or seriously violates the provisions of the contract and articles of association, that party shall be deemed to have unilaterally terminated the contract. The other party shall have the right lo terminate the contract in accordance with the provisions of the contract after approval by the original examination and approval authority, and to claim damages. In case Party A and Party B of the cooperative venture company agree to continue the operation, the parly who fails to fulfil ils obligations shall be liable for the economic losses caused thereby to the joint venture company.

由于一方的过失,造成本合同及其附件不能履行或不能完全履行时,由过失的一方承担违约责任:如属双 方的过失,根据实际情况,由双方分别承担各自应负的违约责任。

Should all or pari of the contract and ils appendices be unable to be fulfilled owing to the fault of one parly, the

 

party in breach shall bear the liability therefor. Should il be the fault of both parties, they shall bear their respective liabilities according to the actual

假如买方未能履行与卖方所订立合同的任何条款,卖方有权终止全部或部分合同,或延期交货,或截留运 输中货物。

Should the buyer fail to perform any provision of the contract signed with the seller, the seller is entitled to terminate the wholeor any part of the contract, or postpone the delivery or hold back the goods in transit.

如卖方延期交货超过合同规定20周时,买方有权撤消合同。

In case the Seller fails lo make delivery 20 weeks later than the lime of shipment stipulated in the Contract, the Buyer shall havethe right to cancel the Contract.

关于免责

如因不可抗力致使乙方不能按期完成项目,乙方不负违约责任。但乙方应在合理的时间内向甲方报告所发 生的不可抗力并提供有关政府部门的证明文件。

Parly B is not liable for failure to perform the party’s obligations if such failure is as a result of Force Majeure. However, Party B assumes liability for breach. However, Party B shall timely notify Party A of the occurrence of Force Majeure and provide the supporting documents of relevant government authorities.

  • .英文合同一般性条款

完整协议, 修改, 标题, 生效, 终止, 语言, 非弃权, 代位追偿, 可分割性, 通知

I .Entire Agreement

The terms and conditions contained herein.including the Appendices here to. shall constilute the entire agreement between the parties hereto and shall supercede any and all previous oral and written notices,memoranda,documents,agreements and contracts between the parties.

  • 完整协议

本合同包含的条款和条件,包括合同附件,构成合同双方的完整协议,并取代双方以前所有的口头或书面 通知、备忘录、文件、协议和合同。

  • .Amendments

Amendments to this Contract may be made only by a written instrument signed by a duly authorized representative of each of the parties and,unless prior approval from the examination and approval authority is statutorily required,such amendments shall become effective upon the signing by the duly authorized representatives of the parties.

2,修改

对本合同的修改,只能通过各方正式授权的代表签署协议进行。除法律要求须经审批机关事先批准外,该 等修改经各方正式授权的代表签字后即刻生效。

  • .Headings

The headings to the articles hereof are for ease of reference only,and in no event shall the substance of any paragraph or the intent of the parties be inteipreted or controlled by such headings.

3,标题

本合同条款标题仅为参考方便之用,不得用于解释或控制任何段落的实质内容或双方的意向。

  • .Effectiveness

This Contract shall take effect from the date of its execution by the duly authorized representatives of the parties. 4,生效

本合同自各方正式授权的代表签署之日起生效。

5.Termination

Either party may terminate this Contract if the other party fails to fulfill or perform any of its obligations hereunder in the event that such failure remains unremedied sixty(60)days after the service of a written notice by the party to the defaulting party specifying the failure in question and requiring it to be remedied.

The termination of this Contract shall not release either party form perfonnating any of its oligalions due at the lime of such tennination.

5,终止

如果一方未能完成或履行其在本合同项下的任何义务,而且未能在另一方向该方送书面通知,指出该方违 约行为并要求该方予以改正后六十(60)天该方仍未予以改正,另一方则可以终止本合同。本合同的终止, 不得解除任何一方在终止到期应履行的任何义务。

6.Lanauagc

This Contract is executed in Chinese in two(2)counterparts,and each party shall hold one copy.If necessary,it may be translated into other lanauages.However.if there is any discrepancy between the Chinese version and a version in any other languagcjhc Chinese version shall prevail.

6,语言

本合同用中文签署,一式二(2)份,双方各持一份。如有必要,可译成其他文字。但是,本合同的中文文 本和其他文本若存在不-•致之处,则须以中文文本为准。

7.No Waiver

Unless otherwise specified herein,failure or delay on the part of any party to exercise any right,power or privilege under this Contract shall not operate as a waiver thereof,nor shall any single or partial exercise of any right,power or privilege preclude any further exercise thereof.

7,非弃权

除非本合同另有规定,任何一方未能或延迟行使本合同规定的任何权利、权力或特权,不得视为该方放弃 该权利、权力或特权,单项或部分行使任何权利、权力或特权,亦不得排除其对该权利、权力或特权的进 一步行使。

8.Subrogation

Under all circumstancesjf Party B is in arrears with any amount payable to Party A hereundenParty B hereby acknowleges and agrees that Party A shall have the right to exercise te subrogation right to claim the debts owed to Party B by any of Party B’s debtors.

8,代位追偿

在任何情况下,若乙方拖欠其在本合同项下应向甲方支付的款项,乙方确认并同意甲方有权向乙方的任何 债务人就乙方的债务行使代位追偿权。

9.Severability

If any of the provisions of this Contract or any document executed in connection herewith is hereafter determined to be invalidJIlegal or unenforceable in any respect under any applicable law.⑴ the validityjegality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired,and such remaining provisions shall remain in full force and effect;and(ii) the invalid,illegal or unenforceable provision shall be replaced by a valid,legal and enforceable provision that comes closest to expressing the true intent of such invalidJUcgal or unenforceable provision.

9,可分性

如果本合同或涉及本合同而签署的任何文件中的任何条款,日后根据任何适用法律被认定在某方面是无效 的、不合法的或不能强制执行的,(1)本合同或涉及本合同而签署的文件的其他条款的效力、合法性和可 强制执行性刚不受任何影响或损害,并仍然具有完全的效力;(2)该等无效、不合法或不能强制执行的条 款,应以有效、合法和能强制执行且最能表达上述无效、不合法或不能强制执行的条款本意的条款所取代。 lO.Notices

Notices required or permitted under this Contract shall be effective if in writing,written in English,sent by registered ainnaikor by telex or facsimile confirmed by a registered ainnail Icltcnrcturn receipt requcslcd,addrcsscd as follows;unless otherwise specified herein,notices shall be effective from the date of receipt of the telex or facsimile or,in the event the telex or facsimile is not received,eighl(8) days after the service of the registered lelle匚 10,通知

本合同所要求或允许的通知,应是用英文写就的书面通知,用航空挂号信寄出,或用电传或传真发出,随 之以航空挂号信确认,并随附回执,寄到下列地址方能生效。除非合同另有规定,通知自收到电传或传真 之日起生效,或者在未收到电传或传真的情况下,挂号信寄出后八(8)天生效。

26.信用证条款(中英文)

letter of credit

Terms of Pay men til支付条款

After conclusion of business the Buyer shall open with the Bank of China,, an irrevocable letter of credit in favor of the Sellers payable at the issuing Bank against presentation of the shipping documents as stipulated under Clause of the Terms of Delivery of this Contract after departure of ihe carrying vessel. The said letter of credit shall remain in force till the day after shipmcnl.ll买方于成交后通过 中国银行开出以卖方为抬头的不可撤销的信用证,卖方在货物装船启运后凭本合同交货条 款所列单据在开证银行议付货款。信用证有效期为装船后天止。

The stipulations in the relative L/C must strictly conform to the stated conditions in our sales con行rmation.啪关信 用证中的条款必须与销售确认书i致。

付款:凭保兑的、不可撤销的、可转让的、可分割的即期有电报套汇条款/见票/出票一天期付款信用证, 信用证以 为受益人并允许分批装运和转船。该信用证必须在 前开到卖方,信用证的有效期应为

上述装船期后第15天,在中国 到期,否则卖方有权取消本售货合约,不另行通知,并保留因此而发

生的一切损失的索赔权。

Terms of Payment: By confirmed, irrevocable, transferable and divisible letter of credit in favour of payable

at sight with TT reimbursement clause/days’/sighVdatc allowing partial shipment and transshipment. The covering Letter of Credit must reach the Sellers before and is to remain valid in.China until the 15th day after the aforesaid time of shipment, failing which the Sellers reserve the right lo cancel this Sales Contract without further notice and to claim from the Buyers for losses resulting therefrom.

买方须于**年**月**日将保兑的,不可撤消的,可转让可分割的即期信用证开到卖方。信用证议付有效期 延至上列装运期后15天在中国到期,该信用证中必须注明允许分运及转让。

By confirmedJrrevocabledransferable and divisible L/C to be available by sight draft to reach the sellers bcforc****and to remain valid for negotiation in China until 15 days after the aforesaid time of shiprncnt.Tjc L/C must specify that transhipment and partial shipments are allowd.J

信用证内应明确规定卖方有权可多装或少装所注明的百分数,并按实际装运数量议付。(信用证之金额按本 售货合约金额增加相应的百分数。)

The covering Letter of Credit shall stipulate the Sellers’s option of shipping the indicated percentage more or less than the quantity hereby contracted and be negotiated for the amount covering the value of quantity actually shipped. (The Buyers are requested to establish the UC in amount with the indicated percentage over the total value of ihe order as per this Sales Contract.)

3.信用证内容须严格符合本售货合约的规定,否则修改信用证的费用由买方负担,卖方并不负因修改信用 证而延误装运的责任,并保留因此而发生的一切损失的索赔权。

The contents of the covering Letter of Credit shall be in strict conformity with the stipulations of the Sales Contract. In case of any variation there of necessiuuing amendment of the L/C, ihe Buyers shall bear the expenses for effecting the amendment. The Sellers shall not be held responsible for possible delay of shipment resulting from awaiting the amendment of the UC and reserve the right to claim from the Buyers for the losses resulting therefrom.

  • .进出口货物合同保险条款(中英文)

Insurance

Insurance: To be covered by ihe Seller for 110 percent of the invoice value against War Risks and Strike Risk aspcrInsiiiuicCargoClauscs.ll8」>;险:由卖方根据货物协会条款投保一切险和战争险、罢工险,保险额为 商业发票金额的110%。

保险:由一方负责,按本合同总值110%投保 险。

Insurance: To be covered by the for 110% of chefull invoice value against.

除经约定保险归买方投保者外,由卖方向中国的保险公司投保。如买方需增加保险额及/或需加保其他险, 可于装船前提出,经卖方同意后代为投保,其费用由买方负担。

Except in cases where the insurance is covered by the Buyers as arranged, insurance is to be covered by the Sellers with a Chinese insurance company. If insurance for additional amount and /or for other insurance terms is required by the Buyers, prior notice to this efleet must reach the Sellers before shipment and is subject to the Sellers” agreement, and the extra insurance premium shall be for the Buyers’ account.

  • .进出口合同索赔条款(中英文)

CLAIM

Upon the arrival of the goods at place of delivery, the Buyer shall immediately inspect the goods and shall give written notice of any claim to the Seller within days after their arrival. Claims for losses or damages will not

be considered unless supported by railroad agent’s acknowledgement on freight bill. The failure to give such notice shall constitute irrevocable acceptance of the goods by the Buyer, and he shall be bound to pay the price of the goods in accordance with the terms of the Agreement.

货物运抵交货地点后,买方应立即检验货物并在货到后 日内向卖方提出书面索赔通知。除非有铁路运

输代理人对货运单的认可证明,否则,卖方将不考虑货物短失或损坏索赔。如未提出这样的通知,则表示 买方无争议地接受了货物并应据本合同条款支付贷款。

In case discrepancy on the quality of the goods is found by the buyers after (he arrival of the goods at the port of destination, claim maybe lodged against the Seller within 30 days after the aiTival of the goods at the port of destination being supported by Inspection Certificate issued by a reputable public surveyor. The seller then shall consider the claim in light of actual circumstances. For the loss or losses due to the natural causes within the responsibilities of the Shipowners or the Underwriters, the Seller shall not consider any claim for compensation. 货物抵达目的港后,买方发现质量不符合耍求的,可在30 rl持享有信誉的公共检查员开具的检睑证明向卖 方提出索赔。卖方应根据实际情况考虑索赔要求。在船主或保险商责任范围内由自然原因造成的丢失和损 耗,卖方将不考虑任何损失赔偿。

Within days after arrival of the goods at destination, should the quality, specification, or the quantity be found

not in conformity with the stipulations of ihe Contract except those claims for which the insurance company or the owners of the vessels are liable, the Buyer shall, on the strength of Inspection Certificate issued by, have the right to claim for replacement with new goods, or for compensation, and all the expenses (such as inspection charges, freight for returning the goods and for sending the replacement, insurance premium, storage and loading and unloading charges, etc.) shall be borne by the Seller.

货物抵达目的港后 日内,除应由保险公司和船主负责的索赔外,如果发现货物的质量、规格和数量与

本合同规定不符,买方凭 出具的检验证书,有权耍去更换新货,或要求补偿。所有的费用(如检验费、

退回不合格货物和运送替换货物的运费、保险费、仓储费和装卸费,等等)应由卖方负担。

  • .商检与质量条款

Inspection and Quality / Quantity

商品检验:以中国 所签发的品质/数量/重量/包装/卫生检验合格证书作为卖方的交货依据。

Inspection: The Inspection Certificate of Quality / Quantity / Weight / Packing / Sanitation issued by of

China shall be regarded as evidence of the Sellers5 delivery.

异议:品质异议须于货到目的口岸之日起30天内提出,数量异议须于货到目的口岸之日起15天内提出, 但均须提供经卖方同意的公证行的检验证明。如责任属于卖方者,卖方于收到异议20大内答复:买方并提出 处理意见。

Discrepancy: In case of quality discrepancy, claim should be lodged by the Buyers within 30 days after the arrival of the goods at the port of destination, while for quantity discrepancy, claim should be lodged by the Buyers within 15 days after the arrival of the goods at the port of destination. In all cases, claims must be accompanied by Survey Reports of Recognized Public Surveyors agreed to by the Sellers. Should the responsibility of the subject under claim be found to rest on the part of the Sellers, the Sellers shall, within 20 days after receipt of the claim, send their reply to the Buyers together with suggestion for settlement.

检验:重量由水尺检验方法测定,而重量及质量检验标准由俄罗斯的商检机构抽取样本进行检验,并出具 检验报告为首要标准。相关的证书将作为最终结算依据之文件。

Inspection: Inspection weight to be determined by DRAFT SURVEY INSPECTED also with quality analysis based on certificate issue by The commodity inspection authorities . The relevant certificates shall be final document for any payment.

商品检验:卖方须在装运前 日委托检验机构对合同之货物进行检验并出具检验证书,货到目的港后,

由买方委托一检验机构进行复检。

Goods inspection : The sellers shall have the goods inspected by Inspection Authority days before the shipment and issued the Inspection Certificate . The buyers shall have the goods reinspected by Inspection Authority after the goods arrival at the destination.

卖方在发货前由检验机构对货物的品质、规格和数量进行检验,并出具检验证明书。货物到达目的的口岸 后,买方可委托当地的商品检验机构对货物进行复检。

The buyers shall have the qualities , specifications , quantities of the goods carefully inspected by the Inspection Authority , which shall issue Inspection Certificate before shipment.The buyers have right to have the goods inspected by the local commodity inspection authority after the arrival of the goods al the port of destination.

货物到目的地后由C【Q检验,其出具的重量检验证书(包括对欺诈棉包和混杂棉包的认定)和质量检验证 书(如有残破还应出具残损证书),作为买卖双方结算和索赔的依据。

CIQ will conduct inspections after the goods arrive at the destination and issue the weight inspection certificate (including the confirmation of false packed bale and mixed packed bale) and the quality inspection certificate (such as the damage certificate if the cotton is damaged), which shall be the basis for the settlement and claims between the Seller and the Buyer.

 

重量不复验。报验人对CIQ质量检验结果有异议的,可在收到检验结果之II起15 II内,向做出检验结果的 CIQ或者国家质量监督检验检疫总局中请复验。复验只对抽取留存的样品,复验结果为最终依据。

No weight re-inspections. If the applicant has objections to the CIQ quality inspection result, such applicant may apply for a re-inspeclion with the CIQ that renders the inspection result or with the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine within 15 days after the receipt of the inspection result. The re-inspection will only be conducted to the sampled samples and the re-inspection result shall be final.

  • .关于FIDIC合同

第一节 FIDIC合同条件简介

一.FIDIC组织介绍

FIDIC是”国际咨询工程师联合会”法文名称Federation Internationale Deslngenieurs-Conseils前5个字母。其 英文名称是 Inlemalional Federation ofConsulting Engineers0 FIDIC 于 1913 年由欧洲 5 国独立的咨询 1程师 协会在比利时根特成立。现在瑞士洛桑。

FIDIC成立80多年来,对国际上实施工程建设项目,以及促进国际经济技术合作的发展起到了重要作用。 由该会编制的《业主与咨询工程师标准服务协议书》(白皮书)、《土木工程施工合同条件》(红皮书)、《电气 与机械工程合同条件》(黄皮书)、《工程总承包合同条件》(桔黄皮书)被世界银行、亚洲开发银行等国际和区 域发展援助金融机构作为实施项目的合同和协议范木。这些合同和协议文本,条款内容严密,对履约各方 和实施人员的职责义务做了明确的规定:对实施项目过程中可能出现的问题也都有较合理规定,以利遵循 解决。这些协议性文件为实施项目进行科学管理提供了可靠的依据,有利于保证工程质量、工期和控制成 本,使业主、承包人以及咨询工程师等有关人员的合法权益得到尊重。此外,FIDIC还编辑出版了一些供业 主和咨询工程师使用的业务参考书籍和工作指南,以帮助业主更好地选择咨询工程师,使咨询工程师更全 面地了解业务工作范闱和根据指南进行工作。该会制订的承包商标准资格预审表、招标程序、咨询项目分 包协议等都有很实用参考价值,在国际上受到普遍欢迎,得到了广泛承认和应用,FIDIC的名声也显著提高。

FIDIC的组织机构分为三种,执行委员会,常设委员会和特别小组。一般性的日常活动是由几个常委会和由 执行委员会任命的特别小组来负责组织和管理的。执行委员会的职责是,处理那些会员大会职权范围所无 法涵盖的管理工作:执行会员大会的决议;准备年度报告,修订议事程序,签署年度费用报告;任命常委会和特 别小组的人选,审查其职责范畴并监督其行为:根据需要,提名授予某人联络沟通责任:执行FIDIC的战略计 划(例如对影响咨询业的发展进行连续评估,在适当的时候对HDIC的计划和行动进行重新定位,评价并更 新现有的战略计划);定期评价、更新或根据需要起草新的政策;加强FIDIC组织与其他国际组织的交流。

常设委员会具体设有裁决评审委员会、商业实践委员会、合同委员会;特别小组具体设有建筑容量小组,诚 信管理小组、质量管理小组、可持续发展小组:以上个委员会和特别小组的职责这里就不一一具体介绍了 FIDIC的出版物包括各种会议和研讨会的论文集、来界信息、标准的资格预审格式、合同条件及应用指南和 顾客/咨询工程师服务协议等,除了传统的印刷版之外,FIDIC还提供加密的电子格式文本和CD以供下载 和出售。

目前: 最新的FIDIC工程合同条件为1999年出版的一系列的标准合同范本:《施工合同条件》(新红皮书)、 《生产设备和设计–施工合同条件》(新黄皮书)、《设计才工施工(EPC)/交钥匙工程合同条件》(银皮书)和适 合于小规模项目的《简明合同格式》(绿皮书)。《顾客/咨询服务模式的协议》(新白皮书,1998),HDIC《转 包合同条件》,《咨询分包协议》和《招标程序》等也在世界范围内被广泛使用。

中国工程师咨询协会代表我国于1996年10月加入了该组织。

二.FIDIC合同条件的发展过程及构成

1、FID1C合同文件的发展

1957年,FIDIC与国际房屋建筑和公共工程联合会[现在的欧洲国际建筑联合会(FIEC)]在英国咨询工程 师联合会(ACE)颁布的《土木工程合同文件格式》的基础上出版了《土木工程施工合同条件(国际)》(第 【,叔)(俗称“红皮书”),常称为FIDIC条件。该条件分为两部分,第一部分是通用合同条件,第二部分为专 用合同条件。

1963年,首次出版了适用于业主和承包商的机械与设备供应和安装的《电气与机械工程标准合同条件格 式》即黄皮书。

1969年,红皮书出版了第二版。这版增加了第三部分,疏浚和填筑工程专用条件。

1977 年,FIDIC 和欧洲国际建筑联合会(FIEC)联合编写 Federation Imcmationalc Europccnnc de la Construction(巴黎),这是红皮书和第三版。1980年,黄皮书出了第二版。

1987年9月红皮书出版了第四版。将第二部分(专用合同条件)扩大了,单独成册出版,但其条款编号 与第一部分一一对应,使两部分合在一起共同构成确定合同双方权利和义务的合同条件。第二部分必须根 据合同的具体情况起草。为了方便第二部分的编写,其编有解释性说明以及条款的例子,为合同双方提供 了必要且可供选择了条文。(1988年,做了若干编辑方面的修改之后,红皮书再次重印。这些修改不影响有 关条款的涵义,只是澄清了其真正意图。)

同时出版的还有黄皮书第三版《电气与机械工程合同条件》,分为三个独立的部分:序言,通用条件和专 用条件。1995年,出版了橘皮书《设计-建造和交钥匙合同条件》首以上的红皮书(1987)、黄皮书(1987)、 橘皮书(1995)和《土木工程施工合同•分合同条件》、蓝皮书(《招标程序》)、白皮书(《顾客/咨询工程师 模式服务协议》)、《联合承包协议》、《咨询服务分包协议》共同构成HDIC彩虹族系列合同文件。

1999年9月,HDIC出版了一套4本全新的标准合同条件:

《施工合同条件》(新红皮书)的全称是:

由业主设计的房屋和工程施工合同条件(Conditions of Contract for Consrtuction for Building and Engineering Works Designed by the Employer);

《设备与设计-建造合同》(新黄皮书)的名称是:由承包商设计的电气和机械设备安装与民用和工程合同条 件(Conditions of Contract forPlant and Designed-Build for Electrical and Mechanical Plant and Building and Engineering Works Designed by the Contractor) o

《EPC/交钥匙项目合同条件》(Conditions of Contract for EPC/Tumkey)—银皮书(Silver Book)®

FIDIC还编写了适合于小规模项目的《简明合同格式》(Short Form of contract)—绿皮书(Green Book)。

2、新版HDIC合同条件的构成

新版FIDIC合同条件更具有灵活性和易用性,如果通用合同条件中的某一条并不适用于实际项目,那么可 以简单的将其删除而不需要在专用条件中特别说明。编写通用条件中子条款的内容时,也充分考虑了其适 用范围,便其适用于大多数合同。(不过,子条款并不是FIDIC合同的必要部分,用户可根据需耍选用。) 新红皮书、新黄皮书和银皮书均包括以下三部分:通用条件/专用条件编写指南/投标书、合同协议、争议评

 

市协议。各合同条件的通用条件部分都有二十条款。绿皮书则包括协议书、通用条件、专用条件、裁决规 则和应用指南(指南不是合同文件,仅为用户提供使用上的帮助),合同条件共15条,52款。

I .《施工合同条件》(新红皮书)适用范围:

建造合同条件特别适合于传统的“设计-招标-建造”(Design-Bid-Construclion)建设履行方式。该合同条件适 用于建设项目规模大、复杂程度高、业主提供设计的项目。新红上书基本继承了原红皮书的“风险分担”的原 则,即业主愿意承也比较大的风险。因此,业主希望做几乎全部设计(可能不包括施工图、结构补强等); 雇用工程师作为其代理人管理合同,管理施工以及签证支付;希望在工程施工的全过程中持续得到全部信 息,并能作变更等:希望支付根据工程量清单或通过的工作总价。而承包商仅根据业主提供的图纸资料进 行施工。(当然,承包商布•时要根据要求承担结构、机械和电气部分的设计工作。)那么,《施工合同条件》

(新红皮书)正是此种类型业主所需的合同范本。

特点:

(1)框架:新红皮书放弃了原红皮书第四版的框架,而是继承了 1995年橘皮书的格式,合同条件分为 20个标题,与瓣黄皮书、银皮书合同条件的大部分条款一致,同时加入了一些新的定义,便于使用和理解。

(2)业主方面:新红皮书对业主的职责、权力、义务有了更严格的要求,如对业主资金安排、支付时间 和补偿、业主违约等方面的内容进行了补充工细化。

(3)承包商方面:对承包商的工作提出了更严格的要求,如承包商应将质量保证体系和月进度报告的所 有细节都提供给工程师、在何种条件下将没收履约保证金、工程检验维修的期限等。

(4)索赔、仲裁方面:增加了与索赔有关的条款并丰富了细节,加入了争端委员会的工作程序,由3个委 员会负责处理那些工程师的裁决不被双方认可的争端。

本文主要论述《施工合同条件》,即新红皮书与《建设工程施工合同示范文本》的对比研究。

  • .《设备和设计-建造合同条件》(新黄皮书)适用范围:

《设备和设计-建造合同条件》特别适合于“设计-建造”(Design-Construction)建设发行方式。该合同范本 适用于建设项目规模大、复杂程度高、承包商提供设计、业主愿意将部分风险转移给承包商的情况。《设备 和设计-建造合同条件》与《建造合同条件》相比,最大区别在于前者业主不再将合同的绝大部分风险由自 已承担,而将一定风险转移至承包商。因此,如果业主希望:(1)如在一些传统的项目里,特别是电气和 机械工作,由承包商作大部分的设计,比如业主提供设计要求,承包商提供详细设计;(2)采纳设计-建造 履行程序,由业主提交一个工程目的、范围和设计方面技术标准说明的“业主要求”,承包商来满足该要求: (3)工程师进行合同管理,督导设备的现场安装以及签证支付;(4)执行总价合同,分阶段支付。那么, 《设备合同范本》(新黄皮书)将适合这一需要。

特点:

(1)框架:借鉴1995年橘皮书的格式,合同结构类似新红皮书,并与新红皮书、银皮书相统一。

<2)业主方面:对设计管理的要求更加系统、严格,通用条件里就专门有一条共7款关于设计管理工作 的规定。同时赋予了工程师较大权力对设计文件进行审批:限制了业主在更换工程师方面的随意性,如果 承包商对业主提出的新工程师人选不满意,则业主无权更换;业主对承包商的支付,采用以总价为基础的 合同方式,期中支付和费用变更的方式均有详细规定。

(3)承包商方面:承包商要根据合同建立一套质量保证体系,在设计和实施开始前,都要将其全部细节 送工程师审查:增加可供选择的“竣工后检验”并严格了“竣工检验”环节以确保工程的最终质量:另外,新黄 皮书的规定使承包商要承担更多的风险,如将“工程所在国之外发生的叛乱、革命、暴动政变、内战、离子 辐射、放射性污染等”在原黄皮书中由业主承担的风险改由承包商来承担,当然因为设计工作是由承包商来 提供的,设计方面的风险自然也由承包商承担。

(4)索赔、仲载方面:与新红皮书一样,采用DAB工作程序来解决争端。

  • .《EPC/交钥匙项目合同条件》(银皮书)适用范围:

《EPC/交钥匙项目合同条件》是一种现代新型的建设履行方式。该合同范本适用于建设项目规模大、复 杂程度高、承包商提供设计、承包商承担绝大部分风险的情况。与其它三个合同范本的最大区别在于,在 《EPC/交钥匙项目合同条件》下业主只承担工程项目的很小风险,而将绝大部分风险转移给承包商。这是 由于作为这些项目(特别是私人投资的商业项目)投资方的业主在投资前关心的是工程的最终价格和最终 工期,以便他们能够准确的预测在该项目上投资的经济可行性。所以,他们希望少承担项目实施过程中的 风险,以避免追加费用和延长工期。因此,当业主希望:(1)承包商承担全部设计责任,合同价格的高度 确定性,以及时间不允许逾期:(2)不卷入每天的项目工作中去;(3)多支付承包商建造费用,但作为条 件承包商须承担额外的工程总价及工期的风险;(4)项目的管理严格采纳双方当事人的方式,如无工程师 的介入,那么,《EPC/交钥匙项目合同范本》(银皮书)正是所需。另外,使用EPC合同的项目的招标阶段 给予承包商充分的时间和资料使其全面了解业主的要求并进行前期规划、风险评估的估价;业主也不得过 度干预承包商的工作:业主的付款方式应按照合同支付,而无须象新红皮书和新黄皮书里规定的工程师核 查工程量并签认支付证书后才付款。

《EPC/交钥匙项目合同条件》特别适宜于下列项目类型:

(I )民间主动融资 PFI (Private Finance Initiate).或公共/民间伙伴 PPP (Public/Private Partnership),或 BOI’ (Built Operate Transfer)及其它特许经营合同的项目;

(2)发电厂或工厂且业主期望以固定价格的交钥匙方式来履行项目;

(3)基础设计项目(如公路、铁路、桥、水或污水处理石、水坝等)或类似项目,业主提供资金并希望以 固定价格的交钥匙方式来履行项目:

4)民用项目且业主希望采纳固定价格的交钥匙方式来履行项目,通常项目的完成包括所有家具、调试和设 备。

特点:

(1)风险:EPC合同明确划分了业主的承包商的风险,特别是承包商要独自承担发生最为频繁的“外部 自然力”这一风险。

(2)管理方式:由于业主承担的风险已大大减少,他就没有必要专门聘请工程师来代表他对工程进行全面 细致的管理。EPC合同中规定,业主或委派业主代表直接对项目进行管理,人选的更迭不须经进承包商同 意;业主或业主代表对设计的管理比黄皮书宽松;但是对工期和费用索赔管理是极为严格的,这也是EPC 合同订立的初衷。

IV.《简明格式合同》(绿皮书)适用范围:

FIDIC编委会编写绿皮书的宗旨在于使该合同范本适用于投资规模相对较小的民用和土木工程」如:

(1)造价在500. 000美元以下以及工期在6个月以下;

(2)工程相对简单,不需专业分包合同;

(3)重友性工作;

(4)施工周期短。

承包商根据业主或业主代表提供的图纸进行施工。当然,简明格式合同也适用于部分或全部由承包商设 计的土木电气、机械和建筑设计的项目。

类似银皮书关于管理模式的条款,“工程师”一词也没有出现在合同条件里。这是因为在相对直接和简单的项 目中,工程师的存在没有必要性。当然,如果业主愿意,他仍然可以任命工程师。

鉴于绿皮书短小、简单、易于被用户掌握,编委会强烈地希望绿皮书能够被非英语系国家翻译成其母语, 从而广泛地应用。此外,对发展中国家、不发达国家和在世界范围邀请招标的项目,绿皮书也被推荐使用。

特点:

(1)简单:正如绿皮书的名字一样,本合同格式的最大特点就是简单,合同条件中的一些定义被删除了 而另一些被重新解释:专用条件部分只有题目没有内容,仅当业主认为有必要时才加入内容;没有提供履 约保函的建议格式:同时,文件的协议书中提供了i种简单的“报价和接受”的方法以简化工作程序,即将投 标书和协议书格式合并为一个文件,业主在招标时在协议书上写好适当的内容,由承包商报价并填写其他 部分,如果业主决定接受,就在该承包商的标书签字,当返还的一份协议书到达承包商处的时候,合同即 生效。

(2)业主方面:合同条件中关于“业主批准”的条款只有两款,从而在一定程度上避免了承包商将自己的 风险转移给业主;通过简化合同条件,将承包商索赔的内容都合并在一个条款中:同时,提供了好几种变 更估价和合同估价方式以供选择。

(3)承包商方面:在竣工时间、工程接收、修补缺陷等条款方面也和其他合同文本有一定的差异。

3、新版FIDIC文本格式

FIDIC出版的所有合同文本结构,都是以通用条件、专用条件和其他标准化文件的格式编制。

⑴通用条件。

所谓“通用”,其含义是工程建设项目不论属于哪个行业,也不管处于何地,只要是土木工程类的施工均可适 用。条款内容涉及:合同履行过程中业主和承包商各方的权利与义务,工程师(交钥匙合同中为业主代表) 的权利和职责,各种可能预见到事件发生后的责任界限,合同正常履行过程中各方应遵循的工作程序,以 及因意外事件而使合同被迫解除时各方应遵循的工作准则等。

⑵专用条件。

专用条件是相对于“通用而言“,要根据准备实施的项目的工程专业特点,以及工程所在地的政治、经济、法 律、自然条件等地域特点,针对通用条件中条款的规定加以具体化.可以对通用条件中的规定进行相应补 充完善、修订或取代其中的某些内容,以及增补通用条件中没有规定的条款。专用条件中条款序号应与通 用条件中要说明条款的序号对应,通用条件和专用条件内相同序号的条款共同构成对某一问题的约定责任。 如果通用条件内的某一条款内容完备、适用,专用条件内可不再重复列此条款。

⑶标准化的文件格式。

FIDIC编制的标准化合同文本,除了通用条件和专用条件以外,还包括有标准化的投标书(及附录〉和协议 书的格式文件。

投标书的格式文件只有一页内容,是投标人愿意遵守招标文件规定的承诺表示。投标人只需要填写投标报 价并签字后,即可与其他材料一起构成有法律效力的投标文件。投标书附件列出了通用条件和专用条件内 涉及工期和费用内容的明确数值,与专用条件中的条款序号和具体要求相一致,以使承包商在投标时予以 考虑。这些数据经承包商填写并签字确认后,合同履行过程中作为双方遵照执行的依据。

 

协议书是业主与中标承包商签订施工承包合同的标准化格式文件,双方只要在空格内填入相应内容,并签 字盖章后合同即可生效。

三.FIDIC合同的特点

  • .国际性、权威性、通用性

FIDIC《土木工程施工合同条件》的国际性和权威性,从其出台的过程以及它多年被应用于国际工程所证实。 其通用性,表现在只要是土木工程,包括房屋工程、桥隧工程、公路工程等均通用;另一方面,它不仅用 于国际工程,也可以应用于国内工程,如我国国内工程广泛应用的交通部编制的《公路工程施工合同条件》 就是等同采用FIDIC合同条件,铁道部编制的《铁路工程施工合同条件》等就是等效采用FIDIC合同条件 而出台的。

  • .权利和义务明确、职责分明、趋于完善

FIDIC合同条件文件不仅对工程得规模、范围、标准以及费用得结算办法都规定的十分明确,而且对工程管 理过程中的许多细节都做了明确的规定,同时对雇主、承包商、工程师等各方权责规定的十分明确,这是 保证工程实施的重要条件,从而减少执行过程中的误解和纠纷。如雇主与承包商之间是雇用与被雇用的关 系,但是雇主必须通过工程师来传达自己的命令。雇主和工程师是委托与被委托的关系,但是雇主不能干 预工程师的正常工作。但是可以向监理单位提出更换不称职的监理人员。工程师和承包商之间没有任何合 同关系,双方是监理与被监理的关系,承包商所进行的工作都必须通过工程师的批准,严格遵照工程师的 指示。但是承包商可以通过法律手段来保护自己的合法权益。

FIDIC合同条件所确定的各方之间的关系示保证工程按照合同顺利进行。

  • .文字严密、逻辑性强、内容广泛具体、可操作性强

合同各个条件之间既有相互制约的关系,又有互相补充的关系,从而构成了一个完整的合同体系。但是同 时也明确规定了文件的优先次序。(1.5款)

  • .法律制度完善

合同条件中形成了一套完整的具有法律特征的管理制度体系,如工程保险制度、合同担保制度、质量责任 制度、价款支付制度、施工监理制度等。使得合同地顺利履行具备了制度上的保证。

  • .合同条件具有唯一性

即HDIC合同条件是承包商和工程师各自工作的唯一依据。双方在签订合同之后,就只能以此合同作为办 事依据。

FIDIC条件的标准文本由英语写成。FIDIC合同条件第一•版由国际咨询工程师联合会于1957年颁布,1963 年FIDIC合同条件第二版、1977年HDIC合同条件第三版、1987年HDIC合同条件笫四版相继问世。

目前使用的国际咨询工程师联合会(FIDIC)编制的《业主/咨询工程师标准服务协议书》、《设计一建造与交 钥匙工程合同条件》、《电气与机械工程合同条件》、《土木工程施工合同条件》、《土木工程施工分包合同条 件》一般分为协议书、通用(标准)条件和专用特殊条件等三大部分。

四FIDIC合同的基本内容

HDIC业主/咨询工程师标准服务协议书条件(白皮书)

FIDIC业主/咨询工程师标准服务协议书条件由协议书、标准条件(第一部分)、特殊应用条件(第二部分) 等组成,计44条。并通过业主/咨询工程师标准服务协议书应用指南加以具体指导。

业主/咨询工程师标准服务协议书应用指南由第一章引言、第二章白皮书——第一部分和第二部分(计44条)、 第三章白皮书一附加讨论、第四章附件A——服务范围、第五章附件B——业主提供的职员、设备、设施 和其他人员的服务、第六章附件C-报酬和支付、第七章授权范用及其制定等组成。

FIDIC设计一建造与交钥匙工程合同条件(橘皮书)

FIDIC设计一建造与交钥匙工程合同条件包括:

第一部分——通用条件:(1)合同:(2)雇主;(3)雇主代表:(4)承包商;(5)设计;(6)职员与劳工:(7)工程设 备、材料和工艺;(8)开工、延误和暂停;(9)竣工检验;(10)雇主的接收;(11)竣工后的检验;(12)缺陷责任; (13)合同价格与支付;(14)变更;(15)承包商的违约:(16)雇主的违约;(17)风险和责任;(18)保险;(19)不可 抗力;(20)索赔、争端与仲裁。

第二部分一特殊应用条件编制指南、投标书与协议书格式等。

HDIC电气与机械工程合同条件(黄皮书)

FIDIC电气与机械工程合同条件包括:

序言——序言对由第一部分通用条件的条款所要求的详细细节作了规定。

第一部分——通用条件:(1)定义及解释;(2)工程师和工程师代表:(3)转让与分包;(4)合同文件;(5)概述; (6)承包商的义务;(7)业主的义务;(8)劳务;(9)工艺和材料;(10)工程、运送或安装的暂停;(11)竣工;(12) 竣工检验:(13)验交;(14)验交后的缺陷;(15)变更;(16)设备的所有权:(17)证书与支付;(18)索赔;(19) 外币和汇率;(20)初定金额:(21)风险与责任:(22)对工程的照管和风险的转移:(23)财产损害和人员伤害; (24)责任的限度:(25)保险;(26)不可抗力:(27)违约:(28)费用和法规的变更:(29)关税:(30)通知;(31)争 议与仲裁;(32)法律及程序。

第二部分——专用条件:(1)概述;(2)A项;(3)B项:(4)投标保函:(5)履约保函;(6)变更命令;(7)移交证 书;(8)缺陷责任证书;(9)缺陷责任保函;(10)最终支付证书等组成。

第二部分的A项用于说明在第一部分通用条件中规定的变通解决方法。除非第二部分的A项规定了变通解 决方法,否则将■采用通用条件中的规定。

在A项中还要涉及履约保证、有关图纸和设计的批准方法、支付以及仲裁规则等款项。

第二部分的B项可用于补充特别工程项目所需要的,而A项中尚未作出规定的任何进一步的专用条件。

FIDIC 土木工程施工合同条件(红皮书)

FIDIC 土木工程施工合同条件包括:第一部分一合同协议书、通用条件:(1)定义及解释;(2)工程师及工 程师代表;(3)转让与分包:(4)合同条件:(5)一般义务:(6)责任的分担和保险的义务:(7)业主办理的保险: (8)承包商的其他义务:(9)劳务:(10)材料、工程设备和工艺;(11)暂时停工;(12)开工和误期;(13)缺陷责 任;(14)变更、增添和省略;(15)索赔程序;(16)承包商的设备、临时工程和材料;(17)计量;(18)暂定金额; (19)指定的分包商;(20)证书与支付;(21)补救措施;(22)特殊风险;(23)解除履约:(24)争端的解决;(25) 通知:(26)费用和法规的变更:(27)货币及汇率:(28)可能使用的补充条款:(29)投标书;(30)附件。

第二部分——专用条件

 

第一部分(通用条件)与第二部分(专用条件)一起构成了决定合同各方权利与义务的条件。 第

二部分中的条款需特别注明:

L凡第一-部分的措词中专门要求在第二部分中包含更进一步信息者,而第二部分没有这些信息,那么合同条 件不完整。

  • .凡第一部分中有说到在第二部分可能包含有补充材料的地方,但第二部分若没有这些信息,合同条件仍不 失完整。
  • .必须增加工程类型、环境或所在地区条款。
  • .所在国法律或特殊环境要求第一部分所含条款有所变更,则在第二部分加以说明。

FIDIC 土木工程施工分包合同条件

FIDIC 土木工程施工分包合同条件第1版于1994年颁布,与1992年再次修订重印的FIDIC《土木工程施工 合同条件》(1987年第4版)配套使用。

FID1C 土木工程施匚分包合同条件包括:

第一部分——通用条件:(1)定义及解释;(2)-•般义务;(3)分包合同条件;(4)主合同;(5)临时工程、承包商 的设备和(或)其他设施(如有时);(6)现场工作和通道:(7)开工和竣工;(8)指示和决定:(9)变更;(10) 变更的估价;(II)通知和索赔;(⑵分包商的设备、临时工程和材料;(13)保障;(14)未完成的工作和缺陷; (15)保险:(16)支付;(17)主合同的终止;(18)分包商的违约;(19)争端的解决;(20)通知和指示;(21)费用及 法规的变更:(22)货币及汇率。

笫二部分——特殊应用条件编制指南(附报价书及协议书格式)。

FIDIC 土木工程施工分包合同通用条件和特殊应用条件与对应的条款编号相联系,共同构成了决定分包合同 各方权利和义务的分包合同条件。为适应每一具体的分包合同,特殊应用条件必须特别拟定。特殊应用条 件编制指南旨在为各个条款提供适宜的选择方案以帮助进行此项工作。

在第二部分中的条款,霜特别注明:

I.凡第一部分措词特别要求在第二部分中包含进一步的信息,而第二部分如果没有这些信息,那么分包合 同条件不完整:

  • .凡第一部分中的措词提到在第二部分可能包含有补充材料,但笫二部分若没有这些材料,合同条件仍不失 为完整;
  • .分包工程的类型、环境或所在地区,要求须增加的条款(如分包商由雇主指定的情况):
  • .所在国法律或特殊环境要求第一部分所含条款有所变动。此类变动应如此进行:即在第二部分中说明第 一部分的某条款或删除某条款的一部分,并根据具体情况给出适用的替代条款,或者条款的替代部分。

四.FIDIC合同的应用

I.国际金融组织贷款和一些国际项目直接采用

在世界各地,凡世行、亚行、非行贷款的工程项目以及一些国家和地区的工程招标文件中,大部分全 文采用F1DIC合同条件。在我国,凡亚行贷款项目,全文采用FIDIC“红皮书”。凡世行贷款项目,在执行世 行有关合同原则的基础上,执行我国财政部在世行批准和指导下编制的有关合同条件。

  • .合同管理中对比分析使用

许多国家在学习、借鉴FIDIC合同条件的基础上,编制了一系列适合本国国情的标准合同条件。这些 合同条件的项目和内容与FIDIC合同条件大同小异。主要差异体现在处理问题的程序规定上以及风险分担 规定上。

FIDIC合同条件的各项程序是相当严诬的,处理业主和承包商风险、权利及义务也比较公正。因此,业主、 咨询工程师、承包商通常都会将FIDIC合同条件作为一把尺子、与工作中遇到的其它合同条件相对比,进 行合同分析和风险研究,制定相应的合同管理措施,防止合同管理上出现漏洞。

  • .在合同谈判中使用

FIDIC合同条件的国际性、通用性和权威性使合同双方在谈判中可以以“国际惯例”为理由要求对方对其 合同条款的不合理、不完善之处作出修改或补充,以维护双方的合法权益。这种方式在国际工程项目合同 谈判中普遍使用。

  • .部分选择使用

即使不全文采用FIDIC合同条件,在编制招标文件、分包合同条件时,仍可以部分选择其中的某些条 款、某些规定、某些程序甚至某些思路,使所编制的文件更完善、更严谨。在项目实施过程中,也可以借 鉴HDIC合同条件的思路和程序来解决和处理有关问题。

需要说明的是,FIDIC在编制各类合同条件的同时,还编制了相应的“应用指南二在“应用指南”中,除 了介绍招标程序、合同各方及工程师职责外,还对合同每一条款进行了详细解释和说明,这对使用者是很 有帮助的。另外,每份合同条件的前面均列有有关措词的定义和释义。这些定义和释义非常重要,它们不 仅适合于合同条件,也适合于其全部合同文件。

第二节建设工程施工合同示范文本简介

—.情况介绍与应用情况

建设施工合同是指承包人按照发包人的要求,依据勘察、设计的有关资料•、要求,进行施工建设、安装的 合同。是承发包双方为实现建设工程目标,明确相互责任、权利、义务关系的协议;是承包人进行工程建设, 发包人支付价款,控制工程项目质量、进度、投资,进而保证工程建设活动顺利进行的重要法律文件。有效的 合同管理是促进参与工程建设各方全面履行合同约定的义务,确保建设目标(质量、投资、工期)的重要手段。

二.特点和不足之处

【.特点分析

1999年12月重新修订后颁布的《建设工程施工合同文本》更加突出了国际

性、系统性、科学性等特点,更好地体现了示范文本应具有得完备性、合法性、协商性等原则。基本体现 了以下特点:

(1)系统性。施工合同示范文本与勘查设计合同示范文本、监理合同示范

文本等形成一个完整的体系。

(2)科学性。反应了项目建设的基本规律、体现了项目管理的三大控制、

体现了合同管理的思想。

(3)实用性。适用范围更广、可操作性更强。

2.不足之处

1999年版的《建设工程施工合同文本》仍存在其不足之处,主要表现在:

(1)施工合同中存在用词错误、矛盾及二义性问题,导致合同履约率较低。

由于建设工程施工合同文件组成及条款较多,各组成文件间可能会出现矛盾或二义性。按照建筑施工合同 的一般解释原则:承包商应对施工合同的理解负责,业主应对合同文件的正确性负责。但是在实际工作中, 由于承包商与业主地位的天然不对等性,承包商往往处于劣势不能很好的伸张自己的益。

(2)合同主体责任不明确,国家质量标准与合同质量标准混淆,争议解决方式单一。

(3)部分施工合同文件对履约双方约定的权利、义务显失公平。过多地强调了承包方的权利义务,施工合同 中绝大务数条款是针对承包方制订的。相对而言,对业主制约条款偏少,特别是对业主违约、赔偿等方面 的约定不具体,也缺少行之有效的处罚办法。

(4)当采用工程量清单计价时,部分条款已不能满足合同管理要求。任何一种计价模式的背后都要有相应的 合同条件与之对应。《建设工程工程量清单计价规范》出台后,国家尚未对施工合同示范文本进行修订,实 际操作中必然会出现许多问题。

第三节研究内容及目的

《建设工程施工合同》面临许多无法克服的困难急需改进,但是在国内直接应用国际施工合同条件因不合 我国特点,会遇到许多障碍。因此吸收借鉴国际施工合同条件来完善《建设工程施工合同》是我们当前急 待解决的问题,而且吸收借鉴国际施工合同条件必须立足中国国情。在实际中最具操作性的方式就是针对 应用中存在的主要问题,借鉴国际的施工合同条件加以完。

FIDIC施工合同条件由国际咨询工程师联合会(即FIDIC)制订,是国际上应用最广泛的合同条件。而且《水 利水电工程施工合同和招标文件示范文本》成功借鉴FIDIC合同建立,经受住了实践的考验。鉴于以上考 虑,下面针对《建设工程施工合同》在应用中存在的主要问题,选用FIDIC《施工合同条件》(1999年第一 版)与《建设工程施工合同》进行比较。

针对《建设工程施工合同》在应用中存在的主要问题,选用FID1C《施工合同条件》(1999年第一版)与之进 行比较在理论上是可行的。

  • FIDIC “新红皮书”适用于主要由业主方(或委托工程师)进行设计,承包商基本只负责施工(可能也会做少 量的设计工作)的工程项目o这种形式下业主方(依靠监理工程师)对项目的管理工作参与较多,对项目从头 到尾都要进行较细致的控制和监督。《建设工程施工合同》主要应用于房屋建筑领域,而我国目前房屋建筑 领域内也是以业主方进行设计为主,承包商多是只负责施工。从这个角度考虑,两者是一致的,具有可比 性。
  • FIDIC“新红皮书”主要应用于单价合同–这是FIDIC合同体系的基本特征之一,《建设工程施工合同》以 总价合同形式居多。尽管两者在计价方式方面存在一定区别,但合同条件中有些条款与计价方式并无关。 另外,这方面的不和谐正随着我国工程量清单计价规范的出台、实施而淡化。由此可见,在有些方面两者 之间存在可比性。

合同作用范围与效力

《FIDIC合同条件》是国际土木工程施工的通则,己经日趋成熟。一-般的国际项H(尤其是大型项目以及世 界银行贷款项目)合同均可以以它为依据。该合同条件规则详细,适用性强;使用在可将有关法律、法规附于 专用条款部分。但是FIDIC合同条件本身并不具法律约束力,仅具有合同效力。《建设工程施工合同》是针 对我国土木工程施工特点制订,适用于国内大、

中、小型工程。它尚处于发展时期,有待进一步完善,尤其缺乏与我国现行监理制有效结合。但是它与我 国法律、法规紧密结合,将有关法律、法规部分规则融于合同条款之中。例如,《建设工程施工合同》及相 关法律均明确规定禁止工程转包。建设部关于《建设施工合同管理办法》明确规定“签定合同,必须按《建 设工程施工合同》示范文本中的,合同条件’明确约定条款”,说明本合同条件在具有合同约束力的同时,我 国法律也赋给了它强制性约束力,这是F1DIC合同条件所不具备的。

  • .英文合同的权利义务转让条款

1、未经另一方事先书面同意,一方不得全部或部分转让本协议,除非转让给(1)由转让方参与的合并、 兼并或其他重组而新设的公司,和(2)转让方将其所有或基本上所有资产转让给的实体;但受让方须书面 同意受本协议所有条款和条件的约束并提供受让方具备满足本协议项下所有义务的能力的文件作为证据。

If Party B makes decorations or adds ancillary facilities without the written consent of Party A or exceeding the scope and requirements consented by Party A, Party A may request Party B to restore the Premises to the original condition and compensate for the losses.

If during the lease term, Party B terminates the lease in violation of the Contract, Party B shall pay Party A liquidated damages in the amount of twice the rental for the days to the expiration of the lease term. If the liquidated damages paid by Party B are not sufficient to cover Party As losses, Party B shall be liable for the difference. Party A may deducl ihe difference from the security deposit. If ihe security deposit is not sufficient, the deficiency shall be paid by Party B.

2、一方想要将其全部或者部分注册资本出资额转让给第三方时,其应向另一方提供书面通知。when a Parry wishes to transfer all or part of its registered capital contribution to 双方均应保护

3、对方的知识产权,未经对方同意,任何一方均不得对对方的资料及文件擅自修改、复制或向第三人转让 或用于本合同项目外的项目。如发生以上情况,泄密方承担一切由此引起的后果并承担赔偿责任。

Both Parties shall protect each olher’s intellectual property rights. Without prior consent, neither party shall revise, copy or transfer to a third party or use for the project other (han the project of this Contract any materials and documents of the other party. Under such circumstances, the disclosing party shall be responsible for all the any consequence it resulted and shall bear the relevant compensation. a third party, it shall provide a written notice to the other Party.4 c+

4、没有雇主的事先同意,承包商不得将合同或合同的任何部分,或合同中或合同名下的任何利益或好处进行 转让,但下列情况除外:

The Contractor shall not, without the prior consent of the Employer (which consent, notwithstanding the provisions of Sub-Clause 1.5. shall be at the sole discretion of the Employer), assign the Contract or any part thereof, or any benefit or interest therein or thereunder, otherwise than by :

 

5、事先未经另一方书面同意,任何一方都不得将本合同或其中的权利、义务,或合同的任何部分转让或让 与第三方,除非公司合并或改组。如出现此种情况,任何一方都不应亳无理由地予以拒绝。

Neither party shall wilhout the previous consent in writing of the other party assign or any part thereof to any third party, except in the case of a company amalgamation or reconstruction, provided that such consent shall not be unreasonably withheld.

6、未经业主事前书面同意,承包人不得将合同或其他任何部分,或合同所规定或依合同而产生的任何收益 转让,向承包人的开户银行支付按本合同规定到期或即将到期的款项除外。

The Contractor shall not assign the Contract or any part thereof» or any benefit or interest therein or thereunder, otherwise than by a charge in favor of the Contractofs bankers of any monies due or to become due under this Contracts without the prior written consent of the Employer.

7甲乙双方中任何一方转让其出资额,须经另一方同意和其政府批准,该方享有优先购买权。

The tninsfer of one Party’s share in the registered capital shall be effected with the prior consent of the other Party and approval of its government and the latter shall enjoy priority to purchase it.7

8、在本公司支付赔款后,被保险人应将向该贲任方追偿的权利转让给本公司,移交一•切必要的单证,并协 助本公司向责任方追偿。

Upon being indemnified by the Company, subrogate to the Company all the right of recovery, transfer all necessary documents to and assist the Company in pursuing recovery from the responsible party.

  • .房屋租赁合同常见的维修责任条款和转租转让条款 (中英文)

Use and Repairs Responsibilities for House Tenancy

If during the lease term, Party B finds that the Premises and the ancillary facilities arc damaged or that they arc not working properly, it shall promptly notify Party A; and Party A shall make repairs within day(s) (See Supplemental Provisions) after receiving Party Bs notice. If repairs are not made within the specified time, Party B shall make repairs on Party A*s behalf, and the relevant expenses shall be paid by Parly A.

在租赁期间,乙方发现该房屋及其附属设施受损或不能进行正常运作的,应当及时通知甲方;甲方应在收 到乙方的通知后的 天内(见补充条款)维修。若甲方未在规定的时间内维修,则乙方应代替甲方维修,

相关费用由甲方支付。)

During the lease term. Party B shall use the Premises in a reasonable manner and protect the Premises and the ancillary facilities. If the Premises and the ancillary facilities are damaged or break down due to Party B s improper or unreasonable use. Party B shall make (he repairs. If Party B declines to repair. Party A may make repairs on Party B’s behalf, and the relevant expenses shall be paid by Party B.

在租赁期间,乙方应以合理的方式使用该房屋,并保护房屋及附属设施。若房屋及附属设施因乙方的不适 当或不合理使用而受损或毁损,乙方应负责维修。乙方拒绝维修的,甲方可代替乙方维修,相关费用由乙

70 / 781

 

方支付。During the lease term. Party A warrants that the Premises and the ancillary facilities are in normally usable and secure condition. Before inspecting and maintaining the Premises, Party A shall notify Party B day(s) (See Supplemental Provisions) in advance. Party B shall cooperate in the inspection and maintenance. Party A shall make every effort to reduce the effect of the inspection and maintenance on the use of the Premises by Party B. 甲方保证,在租赁期间该房屋及附属设施出于正常使用和安全状态。甲方需检查和维修房屋的,应提前大 (见补充条款)通知乙方。乙方应当配合甲方检查维修。甲方应尽可能的减少因检查维修给乙方造成的对 房屋使用的影响。!

Except as provided in Appendix 3 to the Contract, if Party B needs to make separate decorations or add any ancillary facility and equipment, it shall obtain the written consent of Party A in advance; if the approval of the relevant authorities is required, it may start making decorations or adding the facility and equipment upon the approval by the authorities. The added facilities and equipment and the responsibility for maintenance thereof shall be separately agreed upon by Party A and Party B.除非合同附件3另有规定,乙方需要另作装修或添置配套 设施和设备的,须事先经甲方书面同意;若需经相关当局批准的,应经批准后方可开始装修或添置配套设 施和设备。对于添置的配套设施和设备及维修责任的承担应分别经甲方和乙方同意方可确定。7

Sublease, Assignment and Exchange 转租、转让和交换

Unless Party A has agreed to Party B s sublet as set forth in the Supplemenlary Provisions to the Contract. Party B must, during the lease term, first obtain the written consent of Party A before Party B sublets the Premises in whole or in part to a third party.

在租赁期间,乙方在将房屋的部分或全部转租给第三方前,必须首先获得甲方的书面同意,但依据本合同 的附加条款甲方已同意乙方转租的除外。

In the event that Party B sublets the Premises, it shall enter into a sublet conlract with the sublenanl and go through the recording and filing formalities at the real estate trading center of the district or county or farm system where the Premises are located.

乙方转租该房屋的,应当与次承租人签订转租合同,并在该房屋所在地的区、县或农场系统的房地产交易 中心办理登记和备案手续。

During ihe lease term, if Party B subleases the Premises to a third party or exchanges the Premises for a house rented by a third party, it must first obtain the written consent of Party A. Upon sublease or exchange, the sub-lessee or exchanger shall enter into an amendment to change the parties hereto and continue to perform the Conlract.

在租赁期间,乙方将该房屋转租给第三方或与第三方交换房屋以赚取租金的,必须首先获得甲方的书面同 意。自转租或交换时起,次承租人或交换人应当签订修正协议以变更本合同项下的当事人,并继续履行本 合同。

If Party A desires to sell ihe Premises during the lease term, it shall notify Parly B in writing three months in advance. Party B shall have the right of first refusal under equal conditions. (Lease) 在租赁期间,甲方意欲出售该房屋的,应当提前三(3)个月书面通知乙方。乙方享有优先购买权。

If during the lease term. Party A fails to perform his repair and maintenance obligations specified in the Contract and thus damages the Premises and causes property losses or personal injuries to Party B, Party A shall be liable for compensation.

在租赁期间,如中方不履行本合同规定的维修义务,因此而引起的房屋受损和乙方的财产损失或人身伤害, 甲方应承担赔偿责任。

If during the lease【erm. Party A terminates the Contract without Parly B*s authorization and (akes back the Premises prior to the expiration of the lease term. Party A shall pay Party B liquidated damages in the amount of twice the rental for the days to the expiration of the lease term. If the liquidated damages paid by Party A are not sufficient to cover Party B’s losses. Party A shall be liable for the difference.

在租赁期间,如甲方未经乙方批准而终止本合同,并在租赁期届满前收回房屋,则应支付乙方违约赔偿金, 金额为终止日至租赁期届满日的租金的两倍。如果甲方支付的违约赔偿金不足以弥补乙方的损失,甲方应 补足差额。

  • .英文合同中关于产品召回的条款

PRODUCT RECALL

(一)对于任何相关产品或产品组件,如果供应商、采购商、供应商的其他客户或任何政府机构发现存在 安全危害或其他类似状况(包括不遵守适用法律),并且需要、或建议返工或召回,那么,该缔约方应立即 将所有有关事实告知本协议另外一方。

If any Product or Product component is found by Supplier, Buyer, another customer of Supplier or any Governmental Body to contain a safety hazard or other condition (including non-compliance with Applicable Law) that requires or would make advisable a rework or recall of such product, such Party shall promptly communicate all relevant facts to the other Party.

(二)对于此类产品或产品组件的返工或召回,每个缔约方均应先咨询对方意见,然后方可向公众或有关 政府机构就有关问题发表声明,但是,无法及时通知和相关法律另有规定的除外。

Each Party shall consult the other before making any statement to the public or a Governmental Body concerning issues relating to any product recall of a Product or Product component, except where such consultation would prevent timely notification or as required under Applicable Law.

(三)供应商应当承担所有相关费用(包括所有运输费用),就任何此类产品或产品组件的安全隐患、召回 或其他类似情形,立即采取一切纠正措施——包括:(1)采取行动,履行相关法律规定的义务;(2)提交所 有必要的文件和其他有关文件;(3)遵循执行所有纠正措施计划;(4)召回、返工、或修改相关的产品或产 品组件。如果供应商未能履行本协议第11.5 (三)节规定的义务,则在由供应商承担相关费用的前提下, 采购商可以采取一切必要的行动,满足相关法律的要求、或业务目的之需耍。

Supplier shall, at its expense including all shipping expenses to and from Supplier, be responsible for and shall promptly undertake all corrective actions associated with any Prcxiuct or Product component safely hazard, recall or other similar condition, including: (i) those actions required to meet obligations imposed by Applicable Law; (ii) filing all necessary papers, and other related documents, required; (iii) complying with all corrective action programs; and (iv) recall and rework or modify affected Product or Product components. In the event that Supplier fails in its responsibilities under this Section 11.5(c), Buyer may, at Supplier’s expense, take all the necessaiy actions required or advisable under Applicable Law or business purpose.

  • .英文合同中的保险条款 (中英文)

insurance policy (or certificate) 保险单 (或凭证)

1 .risks & coverage 险别

(I )free from particular average (f.p.a.) 平安险

(2)with particular average (w.a.) 水渍险(基本险)

(3)all risk 一切险(综合险)

(4)total loss only (t.Lo.) 全损险

(5)war risk 战争险

(6)cargo(extended cover)clauses 货物(扩展)条款

(7)additional risk 附加险

(8)from warehouse to warehouse clauses 仓至仓条款

(9)theft,pilferage and nondelivery (t.p.n.d.) 盗窃提货不着险

(10)rain fresh water damage 淡水雨淋险

(ll)risk of shortage 短量险

(12)risk of contamination 沾污险

(13)risk of leakage 渗漏险

(14)risk of clashing & breakage 碰损破碎险

(15)risk of odour 串味险

(16)damage caused by sweating and/or heating 受潮受热险

(17)hook damage 钩损险

(18)loss and/or damage caused by breakage of packing 包装破裂险

(I9)risk of rusting 锈损险

(20)risk of mould 发霉险

(2l)strike, riots and civel commotion (s.r.c.c.)罢工、暴动、民变险

(22)risk of spontaneous combustion 自燃险

(23)deterioration risk 腐烂变质险

(24)inherent vice risk 内在缺陷险

(25)risk of natural loss or normal loss 途耗或 fl 然损耗险

(26)special additional risk 特别附加险

(27)failure to delivery 交货不到险

(28)import duty 进 口关税险

(29)on deck 仓面险

(30)rejection 拒收险

(31 )aflatoxin 黄曲毒素险

(32)fire risk extension clause-for storage of cargo at destination hongkong, including kowloon, or macao 物到香港(包括九龙在内)或澳门存仓火险责任扩展条款

(33)survey in customs risk 海关检验险

(34)survey at jetty risk 码头检验险

(35)institute war risk 学会战争险

(36)overland transportation risks 陆运险

(37)overland transportation all risks 陆运综合险

(38)air transportation risk 航空运输险

(39)air transportation all risk 航空运输综合险

(40)air transportation war risk 航空运输战争险

(41 )parcel post risk 邮包险

(42)parccl post all risk 邮包综合险

(43)parcel post war risk 邮包战争险

(44)investment insurance(political risks) 投资保险(政治风险)

(45)property insurance 财产保险

(46)crcction all risks 安装工程一切险

(47)contraclors all risks 建筑工程一切险

2.the stipulations for insurance 保险条款

(1 )niarine insurance policy 海运保险单

(2)specific policy 单独保险单

(3)voyage policy航程保险单

(4)time policy期限保险单

⑸floating policy (or open policy) 流动保险单

(6)ocean marine cargo clauses 海洋运输货物保险条■款

(7)ocean marine insurance clauses (frozen products)海洋运输冷藏货物保险条款

(8)ocean marine cargo war clauses 海洋运输货物战争险条款

(9)ocean marine insurance clauses (woodoil in bulk) 海洋运输散装桐油保险条款

(lO)overland transportation insurance clauses (train, trucks) 陆上运输货物保险条款(火车、汽车)

 

(11 )overland transportation insurance clauses (frozen products) 陆上运输冷藏货物保险条款

(12)air transportation cargo insurance clauses 航空运输货物保险条款

(13)air transportation cargo war risk clauses 航空运输货物战争险条款

(14)parcel post insurance clauses 邮包保险条款

(15)parcel post war risk insurance clauses 邮包战争保险条款

(16)livest(x:k & poultry insurance clauses (by sea, land or air)

活牲畜、家禽的海上、陆上、航空保险条款

(17)…risks clauses of the p.i.c.c. subject to c.i.c.

根据中国人民保险公司的保险条款投保……险

(18)marine insurance policies or certificates in negotiable form, for 110% full cif invoice covering the risks of war & w.a. as per the people’s insurance co. of china dated 1/1/1976. with extended cover up to kuala kimpur with claims payable in (at) kuala lumpur in the currency of draft (irrespective of percentage) 作为可议付格式的海运 保险单或凭证按照到岸价的发票金额110%投保中国人民保险公司1976年1月I日的战争险和基本险,负 贵到吉隆坡为止。按照汇票所使用的货币在吉隆坡赔付(无免赔率)

(19)insurance policy or certificate settling agenlrs name is to be indicated, any additional premium to cover uplift between 10 and 17% may be drawn in excess of the credit ualue 保险单或凭证须表明理赔代理人的名称,保险 费如增加10-17%可在本证金额以外支付

(20)insurance policy (certificate) … name of assured to be showed: a.b.c.co. ltd, 保险单或凭证作成以 a.b.c.W

限公司为被保险人

(2l)insurance policy or certificate covering w.a. (or f.p.a.) and war risks as per ocean marine cargo clause and ocean marine cargo war risk clauses of the peopled insurance company of china dated 1/1/1981 保险单或凭证根

据中国人民保险公司1981年1月1日的海洋运输货物保险条款和海洋运输货物战争险条款投保水渍险(或 平安险)和战争险

(22)insurance policy/certificate covering all war mines risks 保险单/凭证投保切险、战争险、地雷险(注: mines解释为地雷,属于战争险的负责范围,可以接受)

(23)w.a. this insurance must be valid for period of 60 days after the discharge of goods 水渍险在货物卸船后 60 天有效

(24)in triplicate covering all risks and war risks including w.a. and breakage in excess of five per cent on the whole consignment and including w/w up to buyer’s godown in penang

76 / 781

 

投保一切险和战争险包括水渍险,破碎损失有5%绝对免赔率,按全部货物计算,包括仓至仓条款,负责到 买方在槟城的仓库为止(的保险单)一式三份

(25)insurance policy issued of endorsed to order … fbr the face value of invoice plus 10% covering including war with 15 days after arrival of goods at destination, only against fpa and l.p.n,d.

按发票面值加10%投保战争险,货物到达目的地后15天有效,仅负责平安险和盗窃提货不着险的保险单开 给或背书给……

(26)insurance policy or certificate issued by an insurance co. with w.p.a. clause covering the merchandise for about 10% above the full invoice value including unlimited transhipment with claims payable at Singapore

由保险公司签发的保险单或凭证按发票总金额另加10%投保水渍险,包括非限定转船的损失,在新加坡赔 付

(27)covering all eventual risks 投保一切以外风险

(28)covcring all marine risks 投保一切海运风险

(29)marine insurance policy including “both ot blameM collision clauses and fully covering the shipment 海运保 险单包括负责船舶互撞条款和全部货教

(30)insurance … including deviation clauses 保险包括绕道条款

(31)covering overland transportation all risks as per overland transportation cargo insurance clauses (train, trucks) of the people’s insurance company of china dated…

按照中国人民保险公司X年X月xH陆上运输货物保险条款(火车、汽车)投保陆上运输一切险

(32)covcring air transportation all risk as per air transportation cargo insurance clauses of p.i.c,c.

按照中国人民保险公司X年X月X日航空运输货物保险条款投保航空运输–切峻

(33)insurance policy or certificate covering parcel post all risks including war risks as per parcel post insurance clauses and parcel post war risk insuracne clauses of the people’s insurance company of china dated…

保险单或凭证按照中国人民保险公司X年X月X日邮包保险条款和邮包战争险条款投保邮包一切险和邮包战 争险

(34)covering all risks including war risks as per ocean marine cargo clauses and air transportation cargo insurance clauses and ocean marine cargo war risk clauses and air transportation cargo war risk clauses of the people’s insurance company of china dated…

按照中国人民保险公司X年x〃x日海洋运输货物保险条款和航空运输货物保险条款以及海洋运输货物战争 险条款和航空运输货物战争险条款投保海空联运一切险和战争险

(35)covcring all risks as per ocean marine cargo clauses and overland transportation cargo insurance clause (train, tmek) of p.i.c.c. dated…

按照中国人民保险公司X年X月X日海洋运输货物保险条款和陆上运输货物保险条款(火车、汽车)投保海陆 联运一切险

(36)covering all risks including war risks as per overland transportation cargo insurance clauses (train,truck) and air transportation cargo insurance clauses and air transportation cargo war risk clause and war clauses (for cargo transportation by rail) of the people’s insurance company of china dated…

按照中国人民保险公司X年X月X日陆运货物保险条款(火车、汽车)和空运货物保险条款以及空运货物战争 险条款和铁路货运战争条款投保陆空陆联运i切险和战争险

(37)including shortage in weight in excess of 0.5%(with 0.5% franchise) on ihe whole consignment

包括短量损失有0.5%绝对免赔率(0.5%相对免赔率),按全部货物计算

(38)including risk of breakage and clashing 包括破裂或凹瘪险

(39)including risk of chipping & denting 包括碎裂或凹弯险

(40)incIuding risk of bad odour 包括恶味险

(41 )including damage by hooks, oils, muds and contact with other cargo(insured value)

包括钩损、油污、泥污以及和他物接触所致的损失(以保险价值为限)

(42)including damage caused by rain fresh and/or water, internal conibustionftotal or partial loss)

包括淡水雨淋,自燃所致的损失(包括全部或部分损失)

(43)including loss and/or damage caused by sea water, fresh-water, acid,grease

包括海水、淡水、酸蚀、油脂所致的损失

(44)including t.p.n.d. loss and/or damage caused by heat, ship’s sweat and odour, hoop-rust, breakage of packing

包括偷窃提货不着,受热船舱发汗,半味,铁箍锈损,包装破裂所致的损失

(45)inckiding damage caused by infestation mould 包括虫蛀彩烂的损失

(46)inckiding damage due to rough handling during transit subject to c.t.c.

按照中国保险条款包括运输途中操作不当所致的损失

(47)including loss and/or damage from any external cause as per cic

按照中国保险条款包括外来原因所致的损失

(48)including damage by slings, stains, grease, acids

包括吊具、斑污、油脂、酸蚀造成的损失

(49)excluding risk of breakage 不包括破碎险

(50)including the breakage docs not cover the goods remarked in th invoice as originally damage

包括破碎险,但不负责发票所示之货物的原残损失

⑶)excluding natural loss in weight不包括途耗短量的损失

(52)including 60 days after discharge of the gocxis at port of destination (or at station of destination) subject to c.t.c.

按照中国保险条款货物在目的港卸船(或在目的地乍站卸乍)后60天为止

(53)including w.a. & risk of fire for 60 clays in customs warehouse after discharge of the goods at port of destination subject to cic

按照中国保险条款投保水渍险和火险,在目的港卸货后存入海关仓库60天为止

(54)this insurance must be valid for a period of 60 days after arrival of merchandise at inland destination 本保险 扩展到货物到达内地的目的地后60天有效

(55)insurance policy or certificate covering f.p.a. including the risk of war and risks of s.r.c.c. as per i.c.c.

dated…and institute war clauses dated…and institute s.r.c.c. clauses dated…

按照X年X月X日伦敦保险学会条款和X年X月X「学会战争险条款以及X年X7] X日学会罢工、暴动、民变险条 款投保平安险、战争险和罢工、暴动、民变险

(56)the people’s insurance company of china investment insurance (political risks) clauses

中国人民保险公司投资保险(政治风险)条款

 

35.英文合同常用税收条款

I、决定合营公司从税后利润中提取储备基金、企业发展基金和职工奖励及福利基金的比例;

deciding the proportion of allocation for reserve funds, expension funds and bonuses from the taxed profits of joint venture company;

2、规定不予批准的包括:合同规定有未经国家税务机关同意的税收优惠承诺。

that the contract contains preferential tax commitment without the consent from the Chinese tax authority.

3、供方应当按照中华人民共和国税法的规定纳税。

Article 16 The supplier shall pay taxes in accordance with the provisions of the Tax Law of the People’s Republic of China.

4、中华人民共和国政府根据其税法时委托方征收的与执行本合同或与本合同有关的一切本兑费均由委托方负 担。

All taxes and duties in connection with and in the execution of Contract levied by the Chinese government on Client in accordance with (he tax laws of PRC shall be bonic by Client.

5、中华人民共和国政府根据中国税法和中华人民共和国政府与咨询方国家政府签订的避免双重征税和防止 偷逃所得税的协定而向咨询方课征的各项税费均由咨询方支付。委托方依据本国的税法有义务对根据本合 同而应得的收入按比例代扣一定的税费并代向税务机关缴纳,在收到税务机关出具的关于上述税款税收单 据后,委托方应电不迟延地转交给咨询方。

All taxes and duties levied by the Chinese government on Consultant, in connection with and in the execution of Contract, according to Chinese tax laws and the agreement between the government of PRC and the government of Consultanfs country for the reciprocal avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income shall be borne by Consultant.

Client is legally obliged to withhold, as a withholding agent, the amount of taxes pro rata each taxable payment under Contract and pay them to the relevant Chinese tax authorities. After receiving the tax receipts issued by the relevant Chinese tax authorities for the aforesaid withholding taxes, Client shall forward them to Consultant wiihout undue delay.

6、中华人民共和国以外所发生的与本合同有关和履行本合同的各项税费均由咨询承担。

All taxes and duties arising outside PRC in connection with and in the execution of Contract shall be borne by Consultant.

7、lawspirit.com公司提供的所有报价及收费标准,均不得含有任何外国的、联邦的、州的税收,或任何当 地的销售税、货物税、使用税,或任何类似的税费。“用户”同意支付所有上述税费(如有的话),无论该等 费用需从“用户”信用卡帐户划收,或按“红帽公司”开具的原始发票支付,或随后由税务机关向lawspirit.com 公司或“用户”征收。但是,上述税费不包括任何对lawspirit.com公司的应税净收入征收的所得税。为此目的, “用户”同意,在lawspirit.com所报任一价格适用上述税收的情况下,该等价格应相应提高到这种程度,即缴 纳了该等税款之后,“用户”将实际支付给lawspirit.com的金额与lawspirit.com原本所报价格相等0本《协议》 的所有续约价格,均按续约前九十(90)天当时有效的lawspirit.com公布的定价确定;但是,首次续约时,每 项“已安装系统”的价格应按其在本《协议》最初期限内适用的价格确定。

All prices and rates quoted by I^wspirit are exclusive of any foreign, federal, state, or local sales, excise, use, or similar taxes. Customer agrees to pay all such taxes, when applicable, regardless of whether such taxes are originally charged on Customer’s credit card or appear on Lawspirifs original invoice, or arc later levied on Lawspirit or Customer by a taxing authority, excluding any taxes levied solely on the net taxable income of Red Hat. For this purpose. Customer agrees that where any such taxes apply to a price quoted by Lawspirit, the said price shall be increased to such extent that after payment of all such applicable taxes Customer would actually pay Lawspirit an amount equal to the original price quoted by Lawspirit. Any renewal of this Agreement will be at Lawspiritlist prices in effect ninety (90) days prior to renewal; provided, however, the first such renewal shall be at the same price per Installed System paid during the initial term.

8、转让方及受让方应依据相关法律各自承担本股权转让协议项下各方应承担的税收及其他政府缴费义务。 1.6 Transferor and Transferee shall be respectively responsible for payment of the taxes and other governmental levies relating to the Equity Interest Transfer, imposed on each Party in accordance with the applicable laws.

9、与本台同有关及在执行本合同中由中国政府根据生效的税收法律征收的所有税收由买方卖方,即 本合同的中方来支付。与本合同有关及在执行本合同中在中华人民共和国领土以外征收的所有税收应由[] 买方,即本合同的德方支付。

所有税收应以《中华人民共和国与第意志联邦共和国避免双重征税协定》为准。

All taxes in connection with and in the execution of this Contract to be levied by the Chinese Government in accordance with the tax laws in effect shallbe paid by the | ] buyer| | Seller.i.e, the Chinese Party to the

present Conlract, unless the respective payment shall be made by the German Party according to mandatory taxation laws or regulations of Ihe PR China. All taxes in connection with and in the execution of this Contract to be levied outside PR Chinas territory shall be paid by the [ JSellerBuyer. i.e.the German Party lo the present Contracts unless other wise provided for by mandatory regulations of the German taxlaws. All taxes arc subject to the Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation between the PR China and ihe Federal Republic of Germany.

  • .英文买卖合同常用序言

买卖双方同意按下列条款由卖方出售,买方购进下列货物:

The sellers agrees to sell and the buyer agrees to buy the undermentioned goods on the terms and conditions stated below:

买卖双方同意按照下列条款签订本合同:

The Seller and the Buyer agree to conclude this Contract subject to the terms and conditions stated below:

依据《中华人民共和国合同法》及其他有关法律法规的规定,甲、乙双方在平等、自愿、公平、诚实信 用的基础上,就汽车买卖的有关事宜协商订立本合同。

Panics hereto, in accordance to LAW OF PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA and other law and rule,conclude and inter into this contract on the trade of automobile on basis of equality, voluntaryjustice as well as honesty and credibility.

经买双方确认根据下列条款订立本合同:

The undersigned Sellers and Buyers have confirmed this contract in accordance with the tenns and conditions stipulated below :

依据《中华人民共和国合同法》及其他有关法律法规的规定,甲、乙双方在平等、自愿、公平、诚实信用 的基础上,就汽车买卖的有关事宜协商订立本合同。

Parties hereto, in accordance to LAW OF PEOPLE’ S REPUBLIC OF CHINA and other law and i-ulexonclude and inter into this contract on (he trade of automobile on basis of equality, voluntaryjusticc as well as honesty and credibility.

本协议于1992年9月20 口在中国背岛山有关双方在平等互利基础上达成,按双方同意的下列条件发展业 务关系:

This agreement is made and entered into by and between the parties concenied on September 20,1992 in Qingdao, China on the basis of equality and mutual benefit to develop business on terms and conditions nmtually agreed upon as follow:

为在平等互利的基础上发展贸易,有关方按下列条件签订本协议:

This Agreement is entered into between the parties concerned on the basis of equality and mutual benefit to develop business on terms and conditions mutually agreed upon as follows:

兹买卖双方同意成交下列商品订立条款如下:

The undersigned Sellers and Buyers have agreed to close the following transactions according to the terms and conditions stipulated below:

本合同由买卖双方缔结,用中、英文字写成,两种文体具有同等效力,按照下述条款,卖方同意鸨出买方 同意购进以下商品:

The Contract, made out, in Chinese and English, both version being equally authentic, by and between the Seller and the Buyer whereby the Seller agrees to sell and the Buyer agrees to buy the undermentioned goods subject to temns and conditions set forth hereinafter as follows:

兹经买卖双方同意按照以下条款由买方购进,卖方售出以卜.商品:

This contract is made by and between the Buyers and the Sellers; whereby the Buyers agree to buy and the Sellers agree to sell the undermentioned goods subject to ihc terms and conditions as stipulated hereinafter:

买卖双方经协商同意按下列条款成交:

The undersigned Seller and Buyer have agreed to close the following transactions according to the tenns and conditions set forth as below:

本合同由买卖双方订立,根据本合同规定的条款,买方同意购买,卖方同意出售下述商品:

This Contract is made by and between the Buyers and Sellers ,whereby the Buyers agree to buy and the Sellers agree to sell the undermentioned commodity according to the term and conditions stipulated below.

本合同由买卖双方订立,根据本合同规定的条款,买方同意购买、卖方同意出售下述商品:

This Contract is made and entered into by and between the Buyer and the Seller; and in accordance with the terms and conditions of the Contract, the Buyer agrees to buy and ihc Seller agrees to sell the following commodity:

根据甲乙双方友好协商,并依据《中华人民共和国合同法》规定,就甲方办公电脑由乙方进行销售安装, 特签订本合同。双方遵守以下条款:

Through friendly consultation by parlies hereto,and in accordence to the provisions of People’s Republic of China Law of Contract, parties hereto conclude and inter into this contract on the party B’ s sale and installment of computer to party A for observance of parties hereto.

经双方友好协商,甲方愿意委任作为在销售其产品的独家经销商。为了明确双方的权利和义务,特订立本 协议。

Party A hereby grants party B the Exclusive right sell the products stipulated in Article 3 within ihe territory stipulated in Article 4, and Party B accepts and assumes such appointment for exclusive sale and distribution of products.

甲方授权乙方在本协议第四条规定的地域范围内独家销售第三条规定的产品,乙方接受上述指定对这一产 品进行销售和经销。

Through the friendly negoliation of both parties. Party A agree to appoints sell Party A’ s products as the exclusive distributors in . In order to make the right and obligation of both parties clear, conclude this agreement specially.

依卜列条款卖方同意卖出、买方同意买进俄罗斯产煤炭。The Buyer agree to buy and The Seller agree to sell coal produced in Russia on terms and conditions as set forth below:

Whereas, the Buyer agrees lo buy and the Seller agrees to sell the below-mentioned goods for Asia, on the terms and conditions stated below:

在此,在下述的情况条件下,买方同意购买,卖方同意销售下文提及的货物,:

鉴于乙方拥有现用于制造 的机器设备,并愿意将机器设备卖给甲方;鉴于乙方同意购买甲方用乙

方提供的机器设备生产的,以补偿其机器设备的价款:

Whereas Party B has machines and equipment, which are now used in Party B’s manufacturing of, and is willing to sell to Party A the machines and equipment; and

鉴于甲方同意从乙方购买该项机器设备;

Whereas Party B agrees to buy the products,, made by Parly A using the machines and equipment Parly B supplies, in compensation for the price of the machines and equipment, and

甲方经研究,同意乙方代销其专有石材产品为明确双方权利义务,保护当事人双方的合法权益,特订 立如下条款:

Party A agrees to let Party B sell its proprietary stone products, namely:on consignment basis.

In order to specify the duties and responsibilities, legitimate rights and interests of both Parties, Party A and Party B both agree to the provisions herein set forth:

中国 公司(根据中华人民共和国法律成立注册的公司,以下简称买方)为一方,与 公司(根

据 国法律成立注册的公司,以下简称卖方)为另一方,双方通过友好协商同意就下列条款签订本合

同。

This Contract is made and entered into through friendly negotiation by and between China Corporation,

a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the Peoples Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as Hthe Buyer”),as one party and, a corporation organized and existing under the laws of (hereinafter referred to as Hthe Seller”), as the other party, under the following terms and conditions:

鉴于乙方拥有现用于制造钢丝绳的机器设备,并愿意符机器设备卖给甲方;

Whereas Party B has machines and equipment, which are now used in Party B *

s manufacturing of steel wire rope, and is willing to sell to Party A the machines and equipmentzand

鉴尸乙方同意购买甲方用乙方提供的机滞设备生产的钢丝绳,以补偿其机器设备的价款;

Whereas Party B agrees to buy the products, steel wire rope, made by Party A using the machines and equipment Party B supplies, in compensation of the price of the machines and equipment;and

为体现诚实信用的合同履行精神,防止延期交货的情况出现,双方协商一致,特制定如下条款:

In order to reflect the spirit of good faith and for avoidance of any delay in delivery, both parties hereby agree as follows:

买卖双方同意按照下列条款签订本合同:

The Seller and the Buyer agree to conclude this Contract subject to the terms and conditions stated below:

本合同由买卖双方商订,在合同项下,双方同意按下列条款买卖下述商品:

This conlract is made by both ihe Seller and Buyer, whereby the Buyer agrees to buy and the Seller agrees lo sell the under mentioned Product according to the terms and conditions stipulated below:

本合同由买卖双方订立,根据下列条款和条件买方同意购买且卖方同意出售下列商品:

兹确认售予你方以下货品,其成交条款如下:

We hereby confirm having sold to you the following goods on terms and conditions as set forth hereunder.

中国A公司(下称:甲方)与美国MAX公司(下称:乙方D就寄售化妆品适宜,经过友好协商达成如下 协议:

China A Corp.(hereinafter called Parly A) held talks with U S MAX Corp (hereinafter called Party B) about the consignment of MAX cosmetics. Through friendly negotiation both parties confirm the principal points as stipulated hereunder:

A公司,注册地在中国(以下简称寄售人),与B公司,注册地在(以下简称代售人), 按下列条款签订本协议:

This Agreement is entered into between Co. (hereinafter referred to as Consignor), having its registered

office at, China and Co. (hereinafter referred to as the Consignee), having its registered

office at, on the following terms and conditions;

本合同经买、卖双方友好协商后在 年 月 日签订。根据本合同签订的条款,买方同意向卖方购买、卖 方同意向买方提供下列轻钢结构系统建筑材料一套(以下简称“钢结构”):

This Contract is made by and between the Buyer and Seller on, 1997 after friendly negotiations. The Buyer hereby agrees to purchase from the Seller, and the Seller hereby agrees to sell to the Buyer, the following set of metal building system (hereinafter, the u Metal Building System ” ) on the terms and conditions set forth in this Contract:

本合同由买卖双方订立,根据本合同规定的条款,买方同意购买,卖方同意出售下述商品:

This contract is made by and between the Buyer and Seller, whereby the Buyer agree to buy and the Seller agree to sell the under-mentioned commodity according to the terms and conditions stipulated below:

This Contract is made between the Seller and the Buyer for HMS 1& 2 steel scrap, whereas the Buyer agrees to buy and the Seller agrees to sell the Commodity on the following terms and conditions.

买卖双方签订本合同并同意按照下述条款购买/出售

The SELLER shall sell and deliver, and the BUYER shall buy and accept delivery of the goods below stipulated: Representative of the bilateral parties are fully authorized by both companies

以下议定之商品内容,卖方必须销售与交运,买方必须购买及提领。双方之代表人皆由公司充分授权。

WITTNESSTH ; Whereas, The Seller is a legal producer and exporter of coal in India, and has the right to sell legal quarry as the terms of Contract and Specifications of product stipulated herein below

兹证明:鉴于卖方为印度的出口商及煤矿生产者,有权销售合法矿源所生产的煤炭,K合约条款及其产 品规格如下列所示:

This contract is made by and between the Buyers and the Sellers, whereby the Buyers agree to buy and the Sellers agree to sell the under mentioned commodity according to the terms and conditions stipulated below: 买卖双方遵循平等、自愿、互利、互惠原则协商并达成如下协议,共同信守。

This Contract is made between (he Seller and the Buyer for Steam Coak whereas the Buyer agrees to buy and the Seller agrees to sell the Commodity on the following

following terms and conditions.

本合同由买卖双方订立,根据本合同规定的条款,卖方同意出售,买方同意购买如下商品:

  • .英文合同中常见的易混淆的用语表达(上)

1、关于“履行合同”的表达

合同中经常出现的 to perform a contracts to fulfill a contract, to execute a contract, to implement a contract, 这些短语都可以表示“履行合同”,从字面上看都对。然而在具体的合同条款中,表示履行不同的合同义务时, 其用法是有区别的。如果强调合同的一方履行合同与所规定的该方的那部分具体义务相同,应该是fulfill a contract.如果是泛指双方在合同中的各项责任和义务都应得到履行,则选用peiform a contract较合适。

「例」 关于79HP – 106号合同项下尚未执行的180公吨NY2 — 11低密度聚乙烯,我们仍然认为 贵方应尽快开证以保证履行合同。我们提请贵方注意,the Adviser Inc.和贵方同时向我方购买NY2—11低密 度聚乙烯,他们已经在我方主动调价后不久履行了原合同,而且乂和我们签订了较大数量的新合同。

With respect to the outstanding 180 M / r of low-density polyethylene NY2-11 under Contract No.79HP 一 106, wc insist that you must open the covering letter of credit the soonest possible to secure the performance of the contract. Wc hereby would like to call your attention to the fact that the Adviser Inc. , Who purchased LDPE NY2 11 from us at the same time as you did have fulfilled their commitment under the previous Contract not long after we offered our regulated price and signed a new contract covering substantial quantity.

该句子出现的“履行”分别使用了 perform和fulfill.。perform的法律含义是:to do what one party is obliged to do by a contract: fulfill 的法律含义是:(o do everything which is promised in a contract.(> 再研究一下合同各方 应履行的合同义务:涉外合同i经生效,双方当事人必须全面地、适当地履行合同中的义务,但是具体对 某一方合同当事人来讲,就是履行合同中最属于他应该履行的那部分责任和义务。比如,在国际货物销售 合同中,对买方来说,“履行合同”的概念就是payment,当然与payment有关的义务还有采用何种方式和支 付工具付款等.如果该合同的价格条件是FOB的话,买方还耍负责租船订舱,支付运费,并将船期、船号 及时通知卖方等。又如:The Contractor shall fulfill all of its duties and obligations in carrying out its work and services hereunder (承租人必须忠实信守和履行下列各项规则)。

2、关于“遵守”的表达

「例」合资经营企业的一切活动应遵守中华人民共和国法律。

这一条款中“遵守”一词,英语中有observe, obey, abide by, comply with等,在选择表示“遵守”的词 汇时,应根据句子搭配关系进行选择。本句子中的主语是activity,汉语翻译时应选择comply with,表示to act in accordance with a provisionr rule, demandr 故全句译成:

All the activities of a joint venlure shall comply with the provision of laws, decrees and pertinent regulalions of the People’s Republic of China.

在使用observe和abide by时,其主语应该是合同的当事人,例如:The Contractor shall observe and abide by all applicable laws, rules and regulations in connection with the Work (承包方必须遵守和服从与该项工程有关 的一切适用的法律、规章和条例)。

3、关于“解除合同、终止合同、中止合同“的表达”

「例」 由于发生地震、台风、水灾、火灾、战争及其他无法预见并且对其发生和后果均不能防止或避

免的不可抗力事件,致使直接影响合同的履行或者不能按约定的条件履行时,遇有上述不可抗力事件的一 方,应立即将事件情况书面通知对方,并在其后15天内,提供事件详情及全部或部分合同不能或需要延期 履行的理由的有效证明文件,此项证明文件应由事件发生地区的公证机构出具。按照事件对履行合同影响 的程度,由双方协商决定是否解除合同,或者部分免除履行合同的责任,或者延期履行合同。

原译文:

Should either of the parties of the Contract be prevented from executing the Contract by Force Majcurc» such as earthquake, typhoon, flood, fire and war and other unforeseen events, and their happenings and consequences are unpreventable and unavoidable> the presented party shall notify the other party by a written notice without any delay, and within 15 days thereafter provide the detailed information of the events and a valid document for evidence issued by ihe relevant public notary organization for explaining the reason of its inability lo execute or delay the execution of all or part of the Contract. Both parlies shal 1, through consultations» decide whether to terminate the Contract or to exempt the part of obligations for implementation of the Contract or whether to delay the execution of the Conlracl according lo the effects of ihe events on the performance of the Contract.

该句子的英译文在表达原文内容上是没什么问题的,但是将句中的“解除合同”译成to terminate the contract有些不妥。因为,从法律意义上讲,to terminate the contract是指“终止合同”,而“终止合同”的法律 行为,必须在出现了终止合同的法律事件后才能实行。按照《中华人民共和国合同法》的规定,“终止合同” 的法定情形有七种(见《中华人民共和国合同法》第91条)。该条款主要说明的是,由于“不可抗力事件YForce Majeure Events)致使合同无法履行,这种事由不属于终止合同的条件,而属解除合同的条件。因此,“解除 合同“应选用to rescind the Contract,这样符合法定解除合同的情形。另外,译文either of the parties of the Contract中的第二个介词of应换成to,译成:the parties to the Contract,因为to表示一种归属关系,即:” 履行合同的双方当事人“。

(2)当事人一方有另一方不能履行合同的确切证据时,可以中止履行合同,但是应当通知另一方;当 另一方对履行合同提供了充分的保证时,应当履行合同。

原译文: The Party shall terminate its performance of the contract if it has conclusive evidence that the

other party is unable to perfonn the contract. However» It shall immediately infonn the other party of such tennination.

该句中的译者将“中止”误理解为“终止”,译成了 to terminate its performance of the Contracts这是个原则性的 错误。“中止”和“终止”在法律上均有“停止”的意思,但前者表示,因故暂停正在履行的合同,待造成中止的 原因消除后,再恢复合同的履行,其英译应该是:I。suspend its performance of the Contract:后者表示完全 结束正在履行的合同,其英译文是to terminate the Contract.

4、关于合同各方“责任”的表达

f例」 (1)合资各方的责任:

甲方责任: 1.办理为设立合资公司向中国有关主管部门申请批准,登记注册,领取营业执照等事宜;

乙方责任:1.办理合资企业委托在中国境外选购机械设备等有关的事宜:

(1 ) Responsibilities of Each Party to the Joint Venture

Responsibility Of Party A : LHandling of approval. registration business license and other matters

concerning the establishment of the Joint Venture Company from the relevant departments in charge in China.

Responsibility Of Party B: 1. Handling the matters entrusted by the Joint Venture Company, such as selecting and purchasing machinery and equipment outside China» etc.

英译该条款时,应首先确定和选择“责任一词的英语表述。合同英语中经常出现的两个表示“责任 的单词,一个为liability,另一个为responsibility.这是两个极易混淆的词汇,

在表达当事人的责任时是共同的,但涉及到具体的权利义务时,两词是有严格区别的。

liability在表示责任时,主要强调两个方面:一方面指“赔偿责任”(being legally responsible for paying or damage or loss)|如:The underwriters refused to take any liability for the losses(承包人对损失拒绝承担责任); 另一方面指“债务责任,(一,般用复数形式 liabilities)» 如:The Seller shall refund to the Buyer such amounts after paying all tax liabilities (在付清一切税款后,卖方须向买方偿还这些款项)。因此,”有限责任公司“常被译成 limited liability company, 表示 a company where a member is responsible fbr repaying the company’s debts only up to the face value of the shares he owns.

responsibility 在表示“责任”时,着重强调“职责、义务”(commitment or duty for which a party is responsible), 如:The licensee shall assume full responsibility for the payment of all royalties (对于一切专利权使用费的支付 事宜,许可证受让方应承担完全责任)。

由上面的分析和比较可见,以上句子中的“责任”显然是合同各方应履行的职责和义务。因此,应译为 responsibility.

<2)任何一方当事人违反合同的赔偿责任,应相当于另一方因此所受到的损失,但不得超过违反合同 的一方订立合同时应当预见到的因违反合同可能造成的损失。

The liability of a party to pay compensation for the breach of a contract shall be equal to the loss suffered by the other party as a consequence of the breach. However, such compensation may not exceed the loss, which the party responsible for the breach ought to have foreseen at the time of the conclusion of the contract as a possible consequence of a breach of contract.

该句中的”责任”明显是一种being legally responsible for paying loss,所以选择liability是合适的©

5、关于”reference”的用法

(I) Thank you for you r letter reference DT / Zi No. 102.of 29th, March.

感谢你方3月29日编号为DT/Zi, No. 102的来信。

reference 在此例中指”编号” (number which makes it possible to find a document which has been filed )o

(2)We have had only one order from ABC Co. , Ltd. , so we regret we cannot give you a reference from long experience.

我们仅接受ABC有限公司的一笔定货,很遗憾我们不能提供具有长期交往经历的资信情况。

reference 在此例中指“资信情况”(statement about a company’s abilities )o

  • Reference is made to your Sales Confirmation No.l529.

现谈到你方的第1529号销售确认书。

reference 在此例中指”谈到”(mentioning or dealing with )。

  • The Buyers ask for credit and have given the Bank of China , Beijing as a reference.

买方要求记账交易,并提出中国银行北京分行作为资信备询人。

reference 在此例中指“咨信备询人”(person who reports on someone’s character or abilities)o

  • The Sales Company is given the same power with reference to apportioning the commission.

关于佣金的分配问题,应授予销售公司同样的权利。

with reference to 在此例中意思为“关于” (about or concerning sb or sth)。

  • A reference to your records will show that wc have more than once asked you to establish L/C against S / C No.2523.

阅你方记录可以看出,我方已多次催促,要求你方对第2523号销售确认书开立信用证。

reference在此例中指”查阅

以上只是含有reference一词的部分词义。可见,如果把reference 一概译为“参考”不仅词不达义,而且 还会影响条款的效力。一词多义的选择和确定通常从以下几方面着手:

6、关于”cover”的用法

cover 一词,作为动词讲一般都理解为“包括”,例如:The prices quoted in the brochure cover packing and arc subject to 35%trade discount,可译为:“小册子所报的价格包括包装费在内,可有35%的商业折扣。”但以下 的含有cover的句子,就不能将cover译成“包括”:

  • No doubt there must have been some reason for the delay in shipment. Tocover this contingency we cabled you on Mar.29 that we were extending the letter of credit for two weeks.

句中的cover应理解为“应付”,全句可译成:

无疑,一定有某种致使装船延误的原因。为应付这一意外事件,我方已于3月29 H电告你方,符信用证延 期两周。

  • If Party A insists on its original quotation. Party B will have to cover its requirements elsewhere

句中的cover指“购进货物’ 全句可译成:

如果甲方坚持原报价,则乙方只能从其他方面购进其需要的货物。

  • In order to cover our order, we have aiTanged with the Bank of China, Dalian Branch• a credit for USD 55, 000.

句中的cover在这里表示“偿付”,全句可译成:

为支付我方订货,我方已联系中国银行大连分行开立55, 000美元的信用证。

  • Party B shall cover the goods with particular average.

句中的cover在这里的含义为:lo insure sth against loss,全句可译成:

乙方将对该货物投保水渍险。

7、关于“提供”(supply , provide )的用法

「例」合同在有效期内,双方对合同产品涉及的技术如有改进和发展,应相互免贽将改进和发展的技 术资料提供给对方使用。

Within the validity term of the Contract, both parties shall supply each other with the improvement and development of the technology related to the Contract Products free of charge.

该句的谓语动词“提供”一词用了 supply,就不如provide确切。尽管这两个词都表示“供给”,但在牵涉到金 钱时,provide则表示to give sb sth free of charge, supply则不太明确,一般来说需要给钱。因此,该条款虽 然明确了 free of charge♦但用provide更恰当。

8、关于”屈于”(belong to , prssess, own)的用法

「例」改进和开发的技术,其所有权属于改进和开发一方。

这一条的逗点主耍规定改进后的技术专有权归属问题,所以该句中正确地选择“属于“一词是很关键的。 有人选择belong to,也有人选择possess,还有人用own,这三个词均可以表示“属于我们分析一下这三 个词的内涵,belong t()的含义是指“属于 财产“:possess和own虽然都着.重于“所属关系”,但possess

只指目前属于某人,并没有讲是如何得到的;而。wn含有“对合法占有“,与原文意思一致,故把这一 条款译成:

The improved and developed technology shall be owned by the party who has improved and developed the technology.

如果将”属于”改用belong to,其主语就应该是ownership,表示“所有权属于 ”,因为the improved and

developed technology属于“知识产权”,而这种权利与物质财产有直接联系。这样,该句还可以调整如下:

The ownership of any improved and developed technology shall belong to the party who has improved and developed the technology.

[■例4J本细则的解释权,属于中华人民共和国财政部。

句中的”属于是指 power Or right will be present or vested in sb or a body,故应选用 reside in.全句译成:

The right of interpreting the detailed Rules and Regulations resides in the Ministry of Finance of the People’s Republic of China.

9、关于“由于“(due to. owing to, in view of, because of considering, in consideration)的用法

合同经常出现的“由于“,在英语中,常用以下一组短语来表达:due to, owing to, in view of, because of. considering, in consideration,请比较下列句子:

  • Sources suggested that this decline in exports is largely due to a sharp cutback in the credit offered by the Thai government to these countries.

有消息说,这种出口下降主要是由于泰国政府向这些国家提供的信贷大幅度削减所造成的。

  • Because of the exceptional demand for electric blankets due to the prolonged cold weather, we are at present out of stock of the make you wish to order.

由于天气持续寒冷,电热毯需求量特大,你方欲订购的制品目前正缺货。

以上两句中,由due to引出的短语均属形容词性质的短词,分别在句中作表语和定语,一般不引出状 语。引出状语,表示“由于”的短语往往选用because of和owing。例如:

  • Owing to the increasing demand for this type of our products, our stocks have run very low.

由于对此种产品的需求日益增长,我方的存货已不多了。

  • In consideration of your consistently good credibility, wc can accept payment by D / P.

由于贵公司信誉一宜很好,我们可以同意以付款单的方式接受付款。

句子中的in consideration of引出的短语也可以表示“由于“,一般作状语,而后面的介词宾语必须是褒义词, 一般不用贬义词。

10、关于“有权”和”取消”的用法

「例」 买方须于销售确认书第三条所规定日期之前开出本批交易的信用证。否则,售方有权不经

通知取消本确认书,或接受买方对本售货确认书未履行的全部或一部分,或对因此遭受的损失提出索赔。

原译文: The Buyer shall establish the covering letter of credit before the date specified in Clause Three

of this Sales Confirmation, failing which the Seller reserves the right lo rescind without further notice, or to accept whole or any part of this Sales Confirmation not fulfilled by the Buyer, or to lodge a claim for losses sustained, if any.

该句条款中的“有权”,英文合同中大多选择:2 have the right或keep the right,但该句选用reserve the right to do sth.比前两种表达更正式,因为reserve本身就属条法英语中的专用词汇,表示to have a specified power of right in law.比如,我们经常看到的“版权所有”,用英语表达就是All rights reserved.句中的“取消”,英文中 有 cancel, abolish, call off 等表达方式,而本句选用 rescind 专门指 cancel a contract or an agreement<>

11、关于“要求”的表达

「例J 如乙方在技术资料的交付方面违约,不应要求甲方立即支付任何专利权使用费。

原译:文: Party A shall not be asked to pay at once any royalties in default on the part of Party B to the Delivery of Technical Documentation.

该译文中的ask应更换为require , ask和require的意思虽然都是“要求”,但后者更正式;句中的at once应 更换为 forthwith,因为 forthwith 是公文体,较 at once 或 immediately 正式!、严谨。例如:The Parties acknowledge and agree that the Joint Venture Company shall be formed forthwith upon satisfaction of the conditions (缔约各方. 确认并同意,一旦条件符合,合资经营公司便立即组成工

38.英文合同中常见的易混淆的用语表达(下)

12、关于“转让”的表达

「例」 公司的任何一方未经董事会一致通过及中国主管审批部门的批准,不得向第三方转让、抵

押、出售或以其他方式处理其全部或部分投资。若一方要转让股份,必须遵守以下规定……

句中的”转让”一词多数译者选用iransfer.但我们认为用assign更正式,assign / assignmenl是法律英语, 表示 to transfer property .rights to sb in accordance with laws; 而 transfer / transference 1又表示 to hand over the possession of property , etc.,因此,本段可译为:

13、关于“许可,允许”(allaw, grant)的表达

Neither party of the Joint Venture may assign , pledge , sell or othenvise dispose of all or part of its investment subscribed to a third party without the unanimous approval of the Board of Directors and consent by the appropriate Cinese Government Approving Departments. In case that assignment is effected by one party , the following stipulations must be observed.oo

I■例」 如果许可方允许任何第三方在任何地方使用本专利或相应的专利,及有关特许产品的生产、

使用和销售的许可证,而且其条件比本协议规定的条件更优惠,许可方应立即以书面形式将这些优惠许可 的细节通知被许可方,被许可方有接受相同优惠条件的选择权。

原译文: If (he Licensor allows any other license under the Patent or their other responding patents to any

third party in connection with the manufacture , Use and sale Of the Licensed Products in any place under such conditions as are more favorable to a licensee than those provided herein, the licensor shall promptly inform the Licensee in written form of the details Of such other license and ihe licensee has the choice to adopt equally favorable conditions.

译文中的allow (允许,许可)不如用grant正式。grant在国际商务合同,尤其在许可证合同中表示许 可方 to allow the licensee to…,而 allow 仅表示 to say that someone can do sth。

14、关于“选择“(choice)的表达

「例」 (1) Arbitration of all questions in dispute under this contract shall be al the choice Of either party

and shall be in accordance wilh the Intenuitional Arbitration Rules Of American Arbitration Association.

对在合同中-•切有争议的问题是否付诸仲裁将由任何一方作出选择,并须按照美国仲裁协会的国际仲 裁规则进行仲裁。

(2) Our products arc manufactured from the choice grades of material and will satisfy you in every respect. 我方的产品均用上等的原料制成,因此,在各方面都会使贵方满意。

由于以上两句中的choice的词性不同,在词义的确定上也有所不同。第一句中的choice是名词,意思为“选 择“(act of choosing between two or more possibilities);第二句中的 choice 是形容词,意思为“优质的“(of very good quality )o

15、关于“佣金”的表达

「例」 (1) The prices quoted include a progressive commission , to be calculated on FOB basis ,

o f 2%for a single order for 10 dozen or up 3 % for 30 dozen or up.

所报价格包括累进佣金,按FOB价为基础计算,每定单在10打及以上时佣金为2%, 30打及以上时 为3%。

(2) Party B is commissioned by the manufacturers to buy steel plates and this contract shall supersede all previous commitments.

乙方受制造厂家的委托购买钢板,因此本合同将取代以前的一切承诺。

以上两句中的commission,由于词性不同,词义具有很大的区别。前一句中的commission在合同中经常以 名词形式出现,意思为“佣金”;后一句中的commission是动词,其意思为“委托”或“代理”。再如:The Coniraclor shall be responsible for and shall carry out all maintenance work during commissioning period (在试运行期问, 承包方应负责进行一切维修工作)。

16、关于”discharge”的用法

「例」 (1 ) The time limit for inspection and claim is 60 days after discharge Of the cargo at the port Of

destination.

检验与索赔的期限为货物卸至目的港后60天。

(2) Party B agrees that the expiration of this license shall not discharge party B from its obligation.

乙方同意在许可证到期时并不免除乙方应尽的义务。

(3) Routine duties of the Joint Venture Company arc lo be discharged by the general manager appointed by the Board of Directors.

董事会任命的总经理,负责履行合营公司的日常职权。

以上三句中都含有discharge,在不同的合同条款中,其词义也有很大不同。笫一句中的discharge是名词(也 可作动词)。词义为:”卸货”(unloading cargo from a ship),经常出现在国际货物买卖合同中:第二句中的 discharge 是动词,意思为“免除”(releasing one parly from the terms of a contract):第三句中的 discharge 也是 动词,意思为“履行”(carrying oul one’s duly)。 discharge在用作名词时,还可以表示“一批发运的货物”, 如:Party B shall check the quality of each dispatch in accordance with the Contract (乙方应按合同规定检查每 批发出的货物的质量)。

17、关于”leave”的用法

F 例J J The Contractors Site Representative shall be present at the site throughout normal working hours

except when on leave sick, or absent for reasons connected with the proper perfonnance of the Contract.

The Contractor shall at all time keep the premises free from accumulation of waste materials or rubbish caused by the Works and at the completion of the Works shall remove all remaining materials from and about the premises and shall leave ihe Site and Plant safe, clean and ready for Use.

在整个正常的工作时间内,除因假期、患病或由于正当履行合同而缺勤等理由外,承包商的现场代表 必须到现场上班。在任何时候,承包商应始终避免因施工而使废料或垃圾堆放在施工现场,在施工结束时, 应消除所有施工现场及其周围地区存放的剩余材料,使现场和工厂保持安全、清洁,以便随时可以使用。

以上例句中的两个条款中均含有leave 一词,其中第一-款中的leave是名词,意思为:“假期”(time absent from duty or work):第.:款中的 leave 是动词,意思为:“保持”(to remain in a certain condition),>

18、关于”operation”的用法

「例」(1) If the vessel had arrived at the loading port within the Confirmed Dates, the loading operation could be carried out now.

如果船只在确认日期内已到达装货港,现在就能够进行装货作业。

句中的operation是单数形式,一般表示“操作,作业”或”经营”。又如:These first stockholders shall organize and elect a Board of Directors and thereafter» such Board of Directors shall control the operation of the new corporation (应由首批股东组织选出董事会,然后,由这一董事会控制这家公司的经营)。

  • Wc welcome any suggestions you may offer for our business operations.

贵方对我方业务活动所提出的任何建议,我方都表示欢迎。

句中的operations常用复数形式,表示“一种有计划的业务活动九

19、关于“折扣”(discount)的用法

「例」(1) The invoice shall be subject to the usual trade discounts allowed by the Consignor.

发票须按照发货人所给予的通常批发折扣开立。句中的discount意思为”折扣”(amount of money taken off the cost of slh)»是商业贸易中常用的词汇。对某一价格打折扣,项妾用of或on.例如:We are prepared to grant you a discount of 5 % on the price (我方准备给予你方5 %的价格折扣)(>

  • The Buyer shall lodge a 90-day note in Bank of China» Taiyuan Branch for discount.

买方将把一张90天的期票提交中国银行太原分行贴现。

句中的 discount 意思为”贴现”(the amount of money deducted from the face value of a note),是银行业务 中常用的词汇。

「快!I」(1) Our end-users consider the Voltmeter to be unfit from application and claim that the instniment be replaced by you with a sound one.

我方用户认为该电量计不适于使用,要求你方用一只好的替换。

句中的instrument在机械设中,指“仪器”。

  • The board of directors may authorize any agent or agents to enter into any Contract or execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation.

黄事会可授权任何代理人以公司名义并代表公司签订合同或签发单据。

该句中的insirumcnl在商业上多表示“正式的单据或文件”(formal document)。乂如:The attorney is authorized to make, sign and deliver any other instruments whether scaled or unsealed (律师有权撰写、签 署和发送任何其他密封或开封的文件)。

  • A party to an instrument may authorize an agent to endorse the instrument but must specify the principal-agent relationship On the instrument.

票据当事人可以委托其代理人在票据上签章,但应当在票据上注明其代理关系。

该句中instrument在结算业务中表示票据的总称。比如:《中华人民共和国票据法》规定“本法所称的票据, 是指汇票,本票和支票”,英译为:The tenn “negotiable instrument “as used in this law denotes “bill of exchange”, ^promissory noteu and “Cheque”.

20、关于freight的用法

 

「例」(I) The Ocean freight and transfer charges from the interior points to the port of shipment shall be paid by Buyer.

该项海运费及从内地发货点至装船口岸的中转费均须由买方支付°

该句中的freight在国际贸易中常指“运费” (money charged for carrying goods)。

(2) This freight must be carefully handled when loading.

货物装载时必须小心搬运。

该句中的 freight 在国内运输中-一股指“货物”(cargo or goods which are carried by land or sea or air),不指“运 费”。

2k关于interest的用法

F 例 J he premium rates vary with differed interests insured and with different destinations, routes and carrying periods of insurance.

保险费率随保险货物的不同而变化,也随目的地、航线和保险责任有效期的不同而变化。

句中的interest在保险业务中指“被保险的货物工

(2) If the Buyer fails to pay any amount when due, the Buyer shall be liable to pay to the Seller overdue interest on such unpaid amount from the due date until the actual date of payment at the rate of five percent per annum. Such overdue interest shall be paid upon demand of the Seller.

如果买方未能按期支付到期款项,那么,买方应支付卖方从到期之日起算至实际支付之日止的年利率 为5%的利息。一经卖方提出,买方应支付该过期利息。

此句中的interest在国际支付业务中,表示一方由于未能支付到期应付的款项,而向另一方支付的利息。

(3) The articles of our immediate interest are your “CHUNHUI” Brand Agricultural Washing Machines. 我们当前需要的商品是你方的春晖牌农用洗衣机。

该句中的inleresl译为“所需要的产品或业务”,经常出现在要约文本中,词义主要是从interest (兴趣) 产生的转义。

22、关于case的用法

「例 J (1) In case of any request by either party, the party having possession of the desired records may deliver the appropriate records to the requesting party.

如遇任何一方提出要求,拥有所需记录资料的一方可将合适的记录递交给提出要求的一方。

句中含有case的介词短语in case of,其含义为“假使,如果”,引出状语。

  • The price difference should in no case be as big as USD25 per metric ton.

价格的差额决不会大到每公吨25美元。

句中含有case的介词短语in no case,意思为“决不”,具有副词性质,用作状语。

  • In case of an order for more than 6000 pieces, Party B allows a special discouni Of 6 per cent.

至于数量在6000件以上的定单,乙方愿给予6%的特别折扣。

该句中的in the case of与第一句的in case of只有一个定冠词之别,但其意思却有很大区别,前者意思为“至 于,就……来说”,而后者的意思是“假如

23、关于allowance 的用法

「例」(1) Upon the arrival Of the goods at the place of delivery the Buyers claim an allowance Of USD 350 On account Of inferior quality.

货物运抵交付地点后,由于货物质量不佳,买方要求索赔350美元。

句中的allowance与动词claim搭配,意思为“赔偿费”。

  • Both Party A and Party B shall make a liberal allowance for such unforeseen circumstances arising during transit.

甲、乙双方应充分考虑到运输中所发生的意外情况。

句中的allowance在make allowance for结构中表示:在做某种决定时,“考虑到某事物”(to consider sth when making a decision )<>

「例」The part of the contract price shall be paid in USD by way of an irrevocable Letter of Credit against presentation by Contractor to the negotiable bank.

合同价格要根据承包人要求,在议付银行以不可撤销的信用证方式用美元支付。

句中的negotiable作为形容词在修饰bank时,译成“议付形容词negotiable就其本身而言意思为:“可 谈判的“,但是在修饰不同的片词时其含义也就不同。试比较:negotiable amount (可议付的金额),negotiable bill of lading (可过户证券),negotiable certificate of deposit (流通存单)等。

24、关于 infavour , in one’s favour 的用法

「例 J (1) The Party B shall request his bankers to open an Irrevocable letter of credit in Party A’s favour upon receipt of Party A’s Confirmation of this order.

一但收到甲方关于此项订货的确认后,乙方便要求其银行开立以甲方为受益人的信用证。

句中的短语in one’s favour意思为“以 为受益人”。

(2) Our goods that wc offer you arc much in favour on the European Continent.

我方向你方报盘的货物,在欧洲大陆颇受好评。

该句中的in favour与上句的in one’s favour只相差一个名词所有格形式或形容词性物主代词,但意义却大不 相同。in favour在本句中的意思是“受赏识,受好评”。

25、关于 ensure , insure 的用法

「例」(1) The Foreign Party shall furnish lo the Joint Venture Company all the technical data necessary to ensure the effective operation of the machinery.

外方必须向合资公司提供一切必要的技术数据,以保证机械设备的正常运行。

句中的动词ensure意思为“保证,担保”,其书写与insure只相差一个字母,但意义却完全不同。乂如:

(2) The Seller have insured the goods FPA and against War Risk at the rate of ().5 % for the sum of USD 36. (XM) with the Insurance company.

卖方已为该货物向保险公司投保平安险和战争险,费率0.5%,投保额为36, 000美元。

该句中的 insure 表示 to make a contract that promises to pay sb an amount of money in case of accident, injury, death or damage or loss of sth.

26、于“税金”的表达

  • (1) The Contract Price set forth in this Contract shall not include any withholding tariff and any charges imposed on the contractor by the government in New Zealand.

原译文:

在合同中规定的合同价格,不应包括新西兰政府向承包人征收的扣交税金和任何费用。

该译文中的“税金”应改为“关税LurifT在表示“税”时,主要用于“关税\ BP: a schedule or system of duties imposed by a government on goods imported or exported at the rate of duty imposed in tariff.

  • The China Corporation shall bear all relevant taxes and levies imposed upon the personnel by the Chinese Government, whereas the Employer shall bear the same imposed upon the personnel by the Government of the Project-host County.

中国公司应负责交纳中国政府对人员所征收的一切税金:雇主应负责交纳项目所在国政府对人员所征 缴的一切税金。

该句中出现了两个有关“税金”的单词,即taxes and levies.其中tax在表示“税”时,主要强调:money taken compulsorily by the government or by an official body to pay for government services; levy 作为名词,主要表 示——种“征税”的彳了为, 即:money which is demanded and collected by the government or by an agency or by an official body.因此,句中的〔axesand levies合在一起可理解为:(中国政府所征收的)“一切税金工

  • The prices quoted above do not include any taxes. duties, impost and any other charges of any kind which may be levied in China.

以上所指的价格并不包括在中国境内所征收的各种税款、关税、进口税以及其他各种费用。

该句中除taxes外,还出现两个表示“税”的单词,即duly 和impost.其中duly主要强调the tax imposed by a government on merchandise imported from another country,可理解为“关税”,但 duty 在表示”关税”时与 tariff是有本质区别的,前者主要表示tax to be paid for importing,而后者除表示tax to be paid for importing 外,还可以表示tax to be paid for exporting,所以,在翻译duty时,一般应结合上下文写成:”在某国内所征 收的关税’、:句中出现的另一个表示“税”的单词是imposi,这个词纯粹表示“进口税”,但不一定是通过海关 所征的税。

27> 关于 pledge, mortgage 的用法

(3)乙方将其50万美元的定期存款单移交甲方占有,将该单证作为债权的质押凭证。

The Party B shall deliver his certificate of fixed deposits of USD 500, 000 lo the Parly A for possession and

take the said fixed deposits as mortgage Of the obligatory right.

该句是一则借款合同中的担保条款。乙方将存款移交给甲方作为担保,属于担保方式中的“质押”,而口 是一种“权利质押工显然,译文中用mortgage表示“质押”是不能完全达意的。mortgage尽管也表示用财产 担保,但这种担保方式是以不转移财产的占有向债权人担保;本款中的担保是以转移财产的占有向债权人 作为担保,属于 transfer of objects or documents to Creditor as security for a loan.因此,“质押”选用 pledge 较 妥,mortgage属于“抵押”的范畴。

39.合同英文中易混淆的几个介词

abide by 与 comply with 遵守

abide by与comply with都有“遵守”的意思。但是当主语是“人”时,英译“遵守”须用abide by。当主语是非人 称时,则用comply with英译“遵守”。

Eg.双方都应遵守/双方的一•切活动都应遵守合同规定。

Both parties shall abide by/AII (he activities of both parties shall comply with the contractual stipulations.

  1. change A to B与change A into B改变为+改变改变为

英译“把A改为B”应该用“change A to B”,英译“把A折合成/兑换成B”应该用“change A into B”,两者不可 混淆。

Eg.交货期改为8月并将美元折合成人民币。

Both parties agree that change the time of shipment to August and change US dollar into RMB.

  1. ex 与 per, by

ex与pei■为拉丁文介词,有各自不同的含义。英译由某轮船“运来”的货物时用ex,由某轮船“运走”的货物 用per,而由某轮船“承运”则用by。

Eg,由哪多利亚”轮运走/运来/承运的最后一批货将于10月1日抵达伦敦。

The last batch per/ex/by S.S. “Victoria” will arrive at London on October 1.

in与after多少天之后’

当英译“多少天之后”的时间时,往往是指“多少天之后”的确切的一天,所以必须用介词in,而不能用aficr, 因为介词after指的是“多少天之后”的不确切的任何一天。

Eg.该货于11月10日由“东风”轮运出,41天后抵达鹿特丹港。

The goods shall be shipped per M.V. “Dong Feng” on November 10 and are due to amve at Rotterdam in 41 days.

  1. oii/upon与after从什么时候之后

当英译“ 到后,就 ”时,用介词on/upon,而不用after,因为aftei•表示”之后,‘的时间不明确。

Eg.发票货值须货到付给。

The invoice value is to be paid on/upon the arrival of the goods.

  1. by与before在什么时候之前

当英译终止时间时,比如“在某月某日之前”,如果包括所写日期时,就用介词by:如果不包括所写日期, 即指到所写日期的前一天为止,就要用介词bcforco

Eg.卖方须在6月15日前将货交给买方。

The vendor shall deliver the goods to the vendee by June 15. (or: before June 16,说明含 6 月 15 日在内。如果不 含 6 月 15 日,就译为 by June 14 或者 before June 15。)

40 .英文合同常用的制式词汇

合同文件是合同双方签订并必须遵守的法律文件,因此合同中的语言应体现其权威性.英文合同用语的特点 之一就表现在用词表达的意思准确无误,达到双方对合同中使用的词无可争议的程度,也就是具有合同文体 特色的制式词汇。

一 .hereby

英文释义:by means of, by reason of this 中文译词:特此,因此,兹

用法:常用于法律文件、合同、协议书等正式文件的开头语;在条款中需要强调时也可用。

语法:- •般置于主语后,紧邻主语.

例 1 : The Employer hereby covenants to pay the Contractor in consideration of the execution and completion of Ihe Works and the remedying of defects therein the Contract Price or such other sum as may become payable under the provisions of the Contract at the time and in the manner prescribed by the Contract.

业主特此立约保证在合同规定的期限内,按合同规定的方式向承包人支付合同价,或合同规定的其它应支付 的款项,以作为本工程施工、竣工及修补工程中缺陷的报酬。

例 2: We hereby certify to the best of our knowledge that the foregoing statement is true and correct and all available information and data have been supplied herein, and that we agree to provide documentary proof upon your request特此证明,据我们所知,上述声明内容真实,正确无误,并提供了全部现有的资料和数据,我 们同意,应贵方要求出具证明文件。

例 3: This Contract is hereby made and concluded by and between Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and Co. (hereinafter referred io as Party B) on (Date), in (Place), China, on the principle of equality and mutual benefit and through amicable consultation.

本合同双方,公司(以下称甲方)与 公司(以下称乙方),在平等互利基础上,通过友好协商,于 年 月日 在中国(地点),特签订本合同。

例 4: This agreement is hereby made and entered into on (Date), by and between Co. China (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party B).

本协议特由中国公司(以下简称甲方)与 公司(以下简称乙方)于年 月 日订立

二hereof 英文释义:of this 中文译词:关于此点;在本文件中

用法:在表示上文已提及的“本合同的、本文件的……”时,使用该词。例如表示本合同条件、条款时,可 以说”the terms, conditions and provisions hereof”,这里 hereof 表示 “of this Contract乂如表示本程的任 何部分,可用”any parts hereof\这里hereof表示“of this Works”。一般置于要修饰的名词的后面,与之紧 邻。

hereof 和 thereof 的区别:hereof 强调“of this”。例如,上面的”the terms, conditions and provisions thereofM 中的 thereof 表示 of the Contract; ”any parts thereof” 中的 thereof 表示 of the Works<>

例 1 Whether the custom of the Port is contrary t。this Clause or not, the owner of the goods shall, without interruption, by day and night, including Sundays and holidays (if required by the carrier), supply and take delivery of the goods. Provided that the owner of the goods shall be liable for all losses or damages including demurrage incurred in default on the provisions hereof.

不论港口习惯是否与本款规定相反,货方都应昼夜地,包括星期日和假日(如承运人需要),无间断地提供 和提取货物。货方对违反本款规定所引起的所有损失或损坏,包括滞期应负担赔偿货任。

伤ij 2 Foreign trade dealers as mentioned in this Law shall, in accordance with (he provisions hereof, cover such legal entities and other organization as are engaged in foreign trade dealings.

本法所称对外贸易经营者,是指依照本法规定从事对外贸易经营活动的法人和其他组织。

例 3 The establishment of a limited liability company or a company limited by shares shall comply with the conditions and provisions of this Law. A company complying with the conditions and provisions hereof may be registered as a limited liability company or a company limited by shares. Provided that if a company fails to comply with the conditions and provisions hereof, the company in question shall not be registered as a limited liability company or a company lirnilcd by shares.

设立有限责任公司、股份有限公司,必须符合本法规定的条件。符合本法规定的条件的,登记为有限责任 公司或者股份有限公司:不符合本法规定的条件的,不得登记为有限责任公司或股份有限公司。

例J 4 If. as a result of withdrawal or any other reasons, an arbitrator fails to perform his duties as an arbitrator, another arbitrator shall, in accordance with the provisions hereof, be selected or appointed.

仲裁员因回避或者其它原因不能履行职责的,应当依照本法规定垂新选定或指定仲裁员。

伊J 5 In the event of conflict between the provisions on arbitration formulated and prepared prior to the effective date of this Law and the provisions of this Law, the provisions hereof shall prevail.

本法施行前制定的有关仲裁的规定与本法的规定相抵触的,以本法为准。

伊]6 Where, in accordance with laws, the circumstance(s) specified in Article 15 and Article 16 of this Law is /are confinnccL the organization with compensatory obligations shall pay compensation in any of the circumstance in question.

Where the claimant for compensation demands the confimialion of one of the circumstances specified in Article 15 and Article 16 hereof, and the demanded organization refuses to make the confirmation, the claimant shall have the right to lodge a complaint. Where the claimant claims compensation, the claim, shall, first, be lodged to the organizaiion for compensatory obligations.

The provisions of Article 1(), Article 11 and Article 12 hereof shall apply to/ in the procedures of compensation.

赔偿义务机关对依法确认有本法第十五条、第十六条规定的情形之一的,应当给予赔偿。

赔偿请求人要求确认有本法第十五条、第十六条规定情形之一的,被要求的机关不予确认的,赔偿请求人 有权申诉。赔偿请求人要求赔偿,应当先向赔偿义务机关提出。赔偿程序适用本法第十条、第十一条、第 十二条的规定。

例 7 If an arbitrator involved in one of circumstances specified in Item 4, Article 34 of this Law, and if it is serious, or those specified in Item 6, Article 58 hereof, the arbitrator in question shall, in accordance with the law, bear (he legal liability and responsibility. The arbitration commission shall remove the name of the arbitrator in question from the list of arbitrators.

仲裁员有本法第三十四条第四项规定的情形,情节严重的,或者有本法第五十八条第六项规定的情形的, 应当依法承担法律责任,仲裁委员会应当将其除名。

 

例J 8 If, pursuant to this Law,【he relevant responsible authorities with (he duty of approvals fail (o grant approval to such an application as meets the requirements and provisions hereof, or the company registration authorities fail to register a company whose application meets the requirements hereof, the party in question may, in accordance with laws, apply for reconsideration or bring an administrative suit,依照本法,履行审批职责的有关主管部门,对符 合本法条件的申请不予批准,或负责公司登记的主管部门不予登记,当事人可以依法申请爱议或者提起行 政诉讼。

例 9 This Decision shall apply to the crimes committed against Article 9, Article 10 and Article 11 hereof by the staff and workers of enteiprises other than limited liability companies and companies limited by shares.

有限责任公司、股份有限公司以外的企业职工有本决定第九条、第十条、第十一条规定的犯罪行为的,适 用本决定。

例 10 Companies registered and established prior to the effective date of this Law shall, in accordance with Laws, administrative regulations, local regulations and pursuant to the Standard Opinion on Limited Liability Companies“ or the “ Standard Opinion on Companies Limited by Shares v issued by the relevant responsible department of ihe State Council, continue to exist.

Those companies not completely satisfying the requirements of this Law shall, within the specified time limit, meet the requirements hereof. Specific methods for implementation of this Law will be set out in separate regulations issued by the State Council.

本法施行前已登记成立的公司,应依照法律、行政法规、地方性法规和国务院有关主管部门制定的《有限 责任公司规范意见》,和《股份有限公司规范意见》,继续保留。其中不完全具备本法规定的条件的,应当 在规定的期限内达到本法规定的条件。具体实施办法,由国务院另行规定。

例 11 fair competition mentioned in this Law refers to acts of such business operators as contravene the provisions hereof, with a result of damaging the lawful rights and interests of other business operators, and disturbing (he socio-economic order.

本法所称的不正当竞争,是指经营者违反本法规定,损害其他经营者的合法权益,扰乱社会经济秩序的行 为。

H hereto英文释义:to this中文译词:至此,在此上。

用法:在表示上文已提及的“本合同的……本文件的……”时,使用该词。例如表示”本合同双方“,可以说 “the Parties hereto这里 hereto 表示 “to this ContractM;表示,本协议附件 4”,可用 aAppendix 4 hereto”, 这里 hereto 表示 “to this Agreement

语法:一般置于要修饰的名词的后面,与之紧邻。

hereto和thereto的区别:同前面所言hereof和thereof的区别类似,hereto强调的是“to this

例]1 AH disputes arising from the performance of this Contract shall, through amicable negotiations, be settled by the Parties hereto. Should, through negotiations, no settlement be reached, the case in question shall then be submitted for arbitration to the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission, Beijing and the arbitration rules of this Commission shall be applied. The award of the arbitration shall be final and binding upon the Parties hereto. The Arbitration fee shall be borne by the losing party unless otherwise awarded by the Arbitration Commission.

对于因履行本合同所发生的i切争议,本合同双方应友好协商解决,如协商无法解决争议,则应将争议提 交中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会(北京),依据其仲裁规则进行仲裁。仲裁裁决是终局性的,对双方都有约 束力。仲裁费用应由败诉方承担,但仲裁委员会另有裁定的除外。

例 2 ” Patented Technology ” means such patent, and such applications for the patent as are presently owned or will hereafter be acquired in the future by Parly B, or as Party B has or may have the right to control, or as are permitted to be transferred during the effective period of this Contract in any or all countries of the world, and as are applicable to or may be used in the manufacture of Contract Products specified by the Parties hereto.

“专利技术”,系指乙方目前拥有的或未来获得的,或乙方有权或可能有权控制的,或在本合同有效期间在 世界任何国家许可转让的,适用于或可能适用制造本合同双方规定的本合同产品的专利和专利申请。

例13 “Technical Documents v means the data and the infonnation specified in Appendix 1 hereto, such as engineering, manufacturing and original information relating to the manufacture and maintenance of (he Contract Products, including drawings, blueprints, design sheets, material specifications, photographs, photostats and general data, and design and their specifications relating to manufacturing euipinent^ tools and facilities. Provided that the above-mentioned information shall be such information as is only available to Party B and applicable to the business operation of Party A under this Contract.

“技术资料”系指列于附件1与制造和维修合同产品有关的工程、制造及原始资料,包括与制造设备、工 具和装置有关的图纸、蓝本、设计图表、材料规格、照片、影印资料和一般资料、设计及其说明书等,但 上述资料仅限于乙方拥有的资料和甲方用于本合同业务活动的资料。

例 4 If Party B demands to audit the accounts of Party A, Party B shall, within 10 days after receiving the written notice issued by Party A under Sub-Clause 3.4 of this Contract, notify Parly A of the mater in question. The specific contents and procedure of auditing accounts are detailed in Appendix 4 hereto.

乙方如需查核甲方的帐目时,应在接到甲方依上述本合同第3.4款规定开出的书面通知后1()天之内通知甲 方,其具体的查帐内容和程序详见本合同附件4。

例 5 The parties lo this Agreement agree that either Parly hereto shall, immediately and fully, notify (he other Parly hereto of any such matters comprising an improvement, modification, further invention or design as the Party in question may discover, make or develop with respect lo manufaclure and assembly of the Licensed Products or components thereof.

The Party discovering, making or developing the subject matter in question may, at its own expense and its own name, file application for Letter Patent or take other necessary legal steps lo protect the same, and any patent arising therefrom shall belong to the Party in question. The other Party may, during the effective period hereof, make use of, and sell products utilizing such improvement, modification, further invention or design (whether patented or un-patented) wiihout charge and royalty fee in any manner consistent with this agreement.

本协议各方同意,一方对于有关生产及装配许可证产品或部件所做的改进、修正、更新发明或设计均应立 即全部通知另一方。开发改进的一方可以自负费用并以自身名义申请专利或采取其它必要的法律保护程序, 由此产生的专利将属于该方所有。在本协议的有效期内,另一方可以与本协议不相矛盾的方式无偿使用和 销售利用改进、修正、更新本发明或设计(无论其是否取得专利权)生产的产品.

例 6 The Parties to this Agreement agree that Y shall supply to FC AM certain license and technical assistance for manufacturing Products. The Technical Assistance Agreement to be concluded between FCAM and Y shall be deemed to be an attachment as Appendix 2 hereto (hereinafter referred to as the 4< Technical Assistance Agreement”).本协议双方同意Y将向FCAM提供有关生产产品的许可证和技术服务,FCAM和Y将订立技 术服务协议并作为本协议附件2 (以下称作“技术服务协议”)。

例 7 The Parties to this Agreement agree and ensure that FCAM will, to the maximum extent practicably possible, use the fonns required by Y for such data on management and financial information as arc given by FCAM to the Parties hereto, and that FCAM shall prepare and keep accounting and financial records and books available for inspection or audit by either Party hereto.

本协议双方同意保证FCAM将尽实际可能最大限度地使用Y所要求的表格式样,用于FCAM向协议各方提 供管理和财务信息材料:并旦FCAM应建好会计和财务帐目以备协议双方的检查或审计。

例]8 The Parties to this Agreement agree that the Board of Directors authorized by the Parties hereto to administrate or manage FCAM shall be responsible for approving the overall business management plan of the company, and monitoring the execution of the plan in question. Provided that the business management plan in question shall be submitted to the Parties hereto for review and approval.

本协议双方同意授权管理FCAM的董事会对公司整体经营计划的报批和监督执行负责。该经营计划需要提 交协议双方审阅和批准。

例 9 The Parties to this Agreement agree, and will cause FCAM to agree, that Y will sell to FCAM, and FCAM will buy from Y, all such specialized machinery and equipment as is determined through mutual consultation by and between Y and FCAM for the effective utilization of the technical know-how supplied by Y to FCAM under the Technical Assistance Agreement at such prices and on such terms and condilions as are determined by and between the Parties hereto.

本协议双方同意并将使FCAM同意Y将向FCAM出伟FCAM从Y购买经过Y和FCAM协商决定的特定 机器设备,以保证根据技术服务协议由Y向FCAM提供的技术诀窍得到宥效使用,并以协议双方同意的价 格和条件成交。

例 10 The tennination of this Contract shall not in any way affect the outstanding claims and liabilities existing between the Parlies hereto upon the expiration of the validity of the Contract and ihe debtor shall continue lo be kept liable for paying the outstanding debts to the creditor.

本合同期满时,双方之间发生的未了债务不受合同期满的影响,债务人应向债权人继续支付未了债务

四herein英文释义:in this 中文译词:此中,于此

用法:表示上文已提及的“本合同(中)的……,本法(中)的……”等时,使用该词。如表示“本法(中) 所称的不正当竞争’,“J 译为”unfair competition mentioned herein ”,此处 herein 表示“in this Law”:表示“本 协议(中)内容”,译为 “ihe Conlcnis herein”,此处 herein 表示 “in ihis Agrccmcni”。

语法:置于所修饰词后,紧邻所修饰词.

例]1 Unfair competition mentioned in this Law refers to such acts of business operators as contravene the provisions hereof, with a result of damaging the lawful rights and interests of other business operators, and disturbing the socio-economic order.

Business operators mentioned herein refer to such legal persons, other economic organizations and individuals as engage in the trading of goods or profit-making services (hereafter called Goods including services).

本法所称的不正当竞争,是指经营者违反本法规定,损害其他经营者的合法权益,扰乱社会经济秩序的行 为。

本法所称的经营者,是指从事商品经营或营利性服务(以下所称商品包括服务)的法人、其他经济组织和 个人。

例12 This Law is hereby formulated and prepared in order to develop the foreign trade, maintain the foreign trade order and promote the healthy development of the socialist market economy.

Foreign trade mentioned herein shall cover the import and export of goods, technology and the international trade in services.

为了发展对外贸易,维护对外贸易秩序,促进社会主义市场经济的健康发展,兹制定本法。本法所称对外 贸易,是指货物进出口、技术进出口和国际服务贸易。

例 3 Ilie term ,company“ mentioned herein refers to such a limited liability company or such a company limited by shares as are established within (he territory of China in accordance with this Law.

本法所称公司是指依照本法在中国境内设立的有限责任公司和股份有限公司。

例]4 illegal gains from the crimes as specified in this Decision shall, if any. be confiscated. Where those commit crimes against (he provisions herein, with their illegal gains to be confiscated, a fine imposed on, their property forfeited and a civil compensation assumed by, and their property and assets are insufficient for the payments of all the above items, they shall first be liable for ihe civil compensation.

犯本决定规定之罪有违法所得的,应当予以没收。

犯本决定规定之罪,被没收违法所得、判处罚金、没收财产、承担民事责任的,其财产不足以支付时,先 承担民事赔偿责任。

例 5 The terms “ FOB “,”CFR ” or “CIF” shall be subject to the u International Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms ” (INCOTERMS, 2000) provided by International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) unless otherwise specified herein (in this Contract).

除非本合同另有规定,“FOB”、“CFR”和“CIF”均应依照国际商会制定的《国际贸易术语解释通则

(INCOTERMS ) 2000》办理。

伊]6 Unless otherwise expressly provided for herein, if all disputes, controversies or differences arising out of or in relation to the execution of this Agreement between the Parlies hereto, or any breach or default of the provisions hereof (including but not limited to, a dispute concerning the existence or continued existence of this Agreement, and the validity of the Arbitration Clause) fail to be settled amicably, ihe disputes, controversies or differences in question shall be submitted for arbitration.

除非另有明确表示,则由于执行本协议所引发或与本协议有关的协议双方的所有争议、纠纷或歧意,以及 任何违约及过失(包括,但不限于有关本协议存续的争议,仲裁条款有效性的争议),如不能以友好协商的 方式解决,则提交仲裁。

 

例 7 The Agent shall, pursuant to the conditions and provisions specified herein, on the Disbursement Date, credit the funds received to such account as is specified by the Borrower under Sub-Clause 2.2 of this Contract.

代理行应按照本合同规定的条件,在付款日将所收资金贷记入借款人根据2.2款指定的帐户。

例 8 All the rights provided for herein (in this Contract) shall be cumulative and shall not be exclusive of any other rights, powers, privileges or remedies provided for by laws.

本合同规定的各项权利是累加的,并不排除法律规定的其它权利、权力、特权或补救方法。

例 9 Now Therefore, under the consideration of the mutual promises made by the Parties to this Agreement, the Parties hereto agree the contents herein as follows:据此,以本协议双方相互承诺为对价,就卜述内容达成一致:

例 10 The Borrower shall, under this Agreement and the Note, fulfill the obligations of making all payments. All the reimbursements to the Bank shall be free and clear of any other charges and exempt from all taxes and such reimbursements as are received by the Bank will not be subject to taxes. The Borrower shall, under this Agreement, pay all taxes as provided for herein.

借款人应按照本协议和票据完成所有支付义务。向银行的偿付应是不附带其它费用并且是免税的,而乩银 行所收到的偿付款项不含任何税务。借款人应按本协议承担全部本协议规定的税务。

五hereinafter英文释义:later in [he same Conlracl中文译词:以卜,在卜文

语法:一般与referred io as, called等词组连用,以避免重复,置于这些词组前面,与之紧邻。

例 1: In accordance wilh ihc Law of ihc People’ s Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures and the Contract signed by and between Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and Co. (hereinafter refened to as Party B), the articles of association hereby is formulated and prepared.

根据《中华人民共和国中外合资经营企业法》以及由 公司(以下称甲方)与 公司(以下称乙方)所订的 合资经营的合同,特制订本公司章程。

例 2 Financial institutions with foreign capital mentioned in these Regulations refer to the following financial institutions that are established and operate in China upon approval in accordance with the relevant laws and regulations of the People’ s Republic of China:

  • subsidiary banks incorporated by foreign capital whose head offices are in China (hereinafter referred to as foreign banks);
  • branches of foreign bank in China (hereinafter referred to as foreign bank branches);
  • banks incorporated jointly by foreign and Chinese financial institutions (hereinafter referred to as equity joint-venture banks);
  • finance companies incorporated by foreign capital whose head offices are in China (hereinafter referred to as foreign finance companies); and
  • finance companies incorporated jointly by foreign and Chinese financial institutions (hereinafter referred to as equity joint-venture finance companies).本条例所称外资金融机构,是指依照中华人民共和国有关法律、法规 的规定,经批准在中国境内设立和营业的下列金融机构:

(-)总行在中国境内的外国资本银行(以下简称外资银行)

(二)外国银行在中国境内的分行(以下简称外资银行分行)

(三)外国的金融机构同中国的金融机构在中国境内合资经营的银行(以下简称台资银行)

105 / 781

(R)总公司在中国境内的外国资本的财务公司(以下简称外资财务公司)

(五)外国的金融机构同中国的金融机构在中国境内合资经营的财务公司(以下简称合资财务公司)

份J 3 When existing Chinese-foreign equity joint ventures, Chinese-foreign cooperative joint ventures and wholly foreign-owned enterprises (hereinafter referred to as “enterprises with foreign investment ” ) apply to reorganize themselves into a company, the enterprises with foreign investment shall have a record of making profits for the recent three consecutive years.

已设立的中外合资经营企业、中外合作经营企业,外资企业(以下称为外商投资企业),如申请转变为公司 的,应有最近连续3年的盈利纪录。

例 4 To apply for the establishment of an investment company, the investor shall submit the following documents to the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (hereinafter referred to as MOFTEC) for examination and approval after the examination and consent obtained from ihe foreign trade and economic cooperation authorities of the related province, autonomous region, municipalities directly under the Central Government or the municipalities specifically (separately) listed in the State Economic Plan in which the investment company is to be located.

申请设立投资公司,投资者应将下列文件经拟设立投资公司所在地的省、自治区、直辖市、计划单列市外 经贸部门审核同意后,报对外贸易经济合作部(以下简称外经贸部)审杳批准。

例]5 rhese Regulations are formulated and prepared in accordance with the Company Law of the People’ s Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the Company Law) in order to affirm the qualifications of enterprise legal persons of companies and standardize the registration activities of companies.

为了确认公司的企业法人资格,规范公司登记行为,依据《中华人民共和国公司法》(以下简称《公司法》), 制定本条例。

例 6 In order to further expand international economic co-opcration and technological exchange, to absorb foreign investment and lo promote the development of socialist market economy, foreign companies, enteiprises and other economic organizations or individuals (hereinafter referred to as foreign shareholders) and Chinese companies, enterprises and other economic organizations (hereinafter referred to as Chinese shareholders) may, within the lerrilory of China, on the principle of equality and mutual benefit, incorporate themselves into a company limited by shares with foreign investment (hereinafter referred to as the Company).为进一步扩大国际经济合作和技术交 流,引进外资,促进社会主义市场经济的发展,外国的公司、企业和其他经济组织或个人(以下简称外国 股东),按照平等互利的原则,可与中国的公司、企业或其他经济组织(以下简称中国股东)在中国境内共 同举办外商投资股份有限公司(以下简称公司)。

例 7 In order to promote foreign investment in China and to introduce foreign advanced technology and managerial expertise, foreign investors arc permitted to establish investment companies (hereinafter referred to as u investment company n ) in China in accordance with the Chinese laws and regulations governing foreign investment and these Regulations.

为了促进外国投资者来华投资,引进国外先进技术和管理经验,允许外国投资者根据中国有关外国投资的 法律、法规及本规定,在中国设立投资公司(以下简称投资公司)。

例 8 These Detailed Rules shall apply to the resident representative offices set up within the territory of the People’

106 / 781

 

s Republic of China by foreign traders, manufacturers, shipping agents, contractors, consultant companies, advertising agencies, investment companies, leasing companies and other economic entities (hereinafter called uforeign enterprises^ ).

本实施细则适用于外国贸易商、制造厂商、货运代理商、承包商、咨询公司、广告公司、投资公司、租赁 公司和其他经济贸易组织(以下简称外国企业)在中华人民共和国境内设立的常驻代表机构。

例 9 A foreign enterprise applying for the establishment of its resident representative office in the territory of the People . s Republic of China shall, upon approval and consent by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation or its authorized Commissions for Foreign Trade and Economic Relations (hereinafter called the

“Examination-Approval Authorities) of the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Govcniincnt and the municipalities specifically (separately) listed in the State Economic Plan, register with the State Administration for Industry and Commerce or its authorized Administrations for Industry and Commerce (hereinafter called the ” registration authorities) of the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and the municipalities specifically (separately) listed in the Slate Economic Plan.

外国企业申请在中华人民共和国境内成立常设代表机构,应经对外贸易经济合作部或其授权的各省、自治 区、直辖市及计划单列市对外经济贸易委员会(厅)(以下简称审批机关)批准,并在中华人民共和国国家 工商行政管理局或其授权的各省、自治区、直辖市及计划单列市工商行政管理局(以下简称登记机关)办 理登记手续。

 therein 英文释义:in that; in that particular; in that respect

中文译词:在那里:在那点上,在那方面

用法:在表示上文己提及的“合同中的……,工程中的……”等时使用。例如表示“修补工程中的缺陷”:“the remedying of any defects therein 此处therein表示“in the Works”;表示”用于工程中的材料或机械设备”:

umaterials or plant for incorporation therein”,这里的 therein 表示 “in the Works \ 语法:置于所修饰词后,紧邻修饰词。

例 1 u Temporary Works ” means all temporary works of every kind (other than the Contractor , s Equipment) required in or about the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of any defects therein.

临时工程是指在工程施工、竣工和修补工程中任何缺陷时需耍或与上述工程阶段有关的所有各种临时工程, 但承包人的设备除外。

例 2 The contractor shall not, without the prior consent of the Employer, assign the Contract or any pan (hereof, or any benefit or interest therein or thereunder, otherwise than by:

没有业主的事先同意,承包人不得将合同或合同的任何部分,或合同中或合同名下的任何利益或好处进行 转让,但下列情况除外:

例 3 This Note means the Note mentioned in the Loan Agreement and is entitled to all the benefits provided therein. This refers to the rights and obligations therein of advance payments, default and acceleration of the maturity in the event 0fdefault.本期票是贷款协议中所指的期票,享有贷款协议规定的全部利益,是指贷款协议中规定的预 付、违约及因违约提前到期的权利和义务。

快!14A certificate of the Borrower shall, substantially, comply with the form set forth in Appendix 4, and the attachments specified therein.

借款人证明书,其格式基本上应遵照附录4规定的格式及其规定的附件。

例 5 If, at any time, an exemption shall be obtained from any such present or future taxes of any nature whatsoever imposed by local authorities or any political subdivision or taxing authorities thereof or (herein as shall, under the Contract, be due in respect of any payment or payments, the Borrower shall promptly deliver to the Agent a copy of the certified documents evidencing the exemption in question.任何时候,如果由当地或其任何政府分支机构或税 收当局,对任何根据合同规定所支付费用应予以征收的税款,不论什么性质,现在或将来,凡可以免征的, 借款人应及时向代理行递交一份证明上述免税文件的副本。

伊16 Where enterprises with foreign investment were registered with the State Administration for Industry and Commerce before the promulgation of the Income Tax Law of the People * s Republic of China for Enterprises with Foreign Investment and Foreign Entcq)riscs (hereinafter called the Tax Law), the enterprise in question shall pay income tax at the rates provided for therein.

在《中华人民共和国外商投资企业和外国企业所得税法》(以下简称税法)公布前已经办理工商登记的外商 投资企业,该企业应按税法规定的税率缴纳所得税。

例 7 Where the Borrower has full power and authority to enter into (his Agreement, to make the borrowings, to execute and deliver the Note and lo incur the obligations provided for in this Agreement and therein, all the actions in question shall, properly and necessarily, be authorized by legal persons.

借款人有充分的权力订立本协议,借贷资金、签署票据并承担由此而产生的义务,上述全部行为均应经法 人适当和必需的授权。

例8

The I^asee shall, at his own expense, keep the commodity in good condition. Provided that the Leasor shall be responsible for the breakdown of the commodity and the Leasee may have the right to lodge claims against ihe Leasor for any losses occurred therein.承租人必须自负费用维持商品的良好状况:除非由出租人对商品的故障 负责,承租人则有权向出租人提出赔偿因之所遭受的损失。

例 9 When documents other than transport documents, insurance documents and commercial invoices arc required, the credit shall provide fbr the following items, such as, the persons (drawers) by whom the documents in question are to be issued and the wording therein or data content thereof. If the credit fails to so stipulate, and the data content in the documents presented makes it possible to relate to the goods and/ or sen ices referred to in the credit, banks will accept such documents as presented.

当信用证要求运输单据、保险单据和商业发票以外的单据时,信用证应规定该单据的出单人及其措辞或项 目内容。如信用证虽无此规定,但提交的单据的项目内容可能证实与信用证中所述的货物及/或服务有关联, 则银行将予接受。

例 1() If any loss or damage happens to the Works, or any part thereof, or materials or Plant for incorporation therein, during the period for which the Contractor is responsible for the care thereof, from any cause whatsoever, other than the risks defined in Sub-Clause 20.4, the Contractor shall, at his own cost, rectify such loss or damage so that the Permanent Works conform in every respect with the provisions of the Contract to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

在承包人负责照管工程期间,如果工程或其任何部分或材料或用于工程中的设备,除第20.4款所规定的风 险外,不管由于任何原因而遭受损失或损坏,承包人应门费弥补此类损失或损坏,以使永久工程在各方面 均符合合同的规定,并达到工程师满意的程度。

  1. 七. Thereof 英文释义:of that, of it

中文译词:由此,其

用法:在表示已提及的“人或事的……”时,为避免重复,可使用该词,比如表示“合同条件、条款”时, nJ 译为 ° the tenns, conditions and provis沁ns thereof 此处的 thereof 表示“of the Contract表示“I:程任何

部分”,可译为 “any parts thereof”,这里的 thereof 表示“of the Works”。

语法:置于所修饰词后,紧邻修饰词。

例 1 : When the Buyer is entitled to determine the time within a specified period and /or the place of taking delivery, the Buyer in question shall give the Seller the notice thereof.

买方有权确定在规定期限内提取货物的时间和/或地点时,应给卖方有关这方面的通知。

例 2 The collection of tax or the cessation thereof, the reduction, exemption and refund of tax as well as the payment of lax unpaid shalL in accordance with the provisions of the relevant law, be implemented. Provided that if the State Council is authorized by the law to formulate and prepare the relevant provisions of the regulations, (he provisions in question shall be implemented and complied with.税收的开征、停征以及减税、免税、退税、补税, 依照法律的规定执行;法律授权国务院规定的,依照国务院制定的行政法规的规定执行。

例J 3 The Party applying for arbitration shall submit to an arbitration commission the arbitration agreement, the application for arbitration and the copies thereof.当事人申诂仲裁,应当向仲裁委员会递交仲裁协议、仲裁中请 书及副本。

例 4 u Tests on Completion ” means such tests specified in ihe Contract or othenvise agreed by and between the Engineer and the Contractor as shall be made by the Contractor before the Employer takes over the Works or any section or part thereof.竣工检验指合同规定的或由工程师与承包人另行商定的检验。这些检验是由承包人在 业主接收工程或工程任何部分、区段之前进行的。

例 5 The collection order shall give specific instructions regarding the protest (or shall take other legal process in lieu thereof), in the event of non-acceptance or non-payment.

In the absence of such specific instnictions, the banks concerned with the collection shall have no obligation to provide the protest (or to take other legal process in lieu thereof) when the banks in question experience non-acceptance and non-payment.

Any charges and /or expenses incurred by the banks in connection with such protest or other legal process shall be borne by the principal.

托收指示应对于在遭到拒绝承兑或拒绝付款时,是否需耍作出拒绝证书(或采取其它替代法律手续)给予 特别指示。

如无此项特别指示,与托收有关的各银行在遭到拒绝付款或拒绝承兑时,并无义务作出拒绝证书(或采取 其它替代法律手续工

 

银行由于作出拒绝证书或采取其它法律手续而发生的手续费或费用概由委托人负担。

例J 6 If the Seller makes the specification himself, he shall inform the Buyer of the details thereof and shall determine a reasonable time within which the Buyer may make a different specification. IC after receipt of the communication in question, the Buyer fails to do so within the time so determined, the specification made by the Seller shall be binding.

如果卖方自己制订规格,他必须将所制订的规格的细节通知买方,而旦必须规定一段合理时间,让买方可 以在该段时间内制订出不同的规格。如果买方在收到该通知后没rr在该段时间内这样做,则卖方所订的规 格应具有约束力。

例J 7 This Law shall apply to limited liability companies with foreign investment. Unless otherwise specified by the laws on Sino-foreign equity joint venture enterprises, Sino-foreign co-operative joint venture enterprises and wholly foreign-owned enterprises, the provisions thereof shall apply to them.

外商投资的有限责任公司适用本法,有关中外合资经营企业、中外合作经营企业、外资企业的法律另有规 定的,适用其规定。

例 8 “Time for Completion ” means such time for completing the execution of (he Works and passing the Tests on Completion of the Works or any Section or part thereof as is specified in the Contract from the Commencement Date.

竣工时间是指合同规定从工程开工日期算起到工程或其任何部分或区段施工结束并且通过竣工检验的时间。

伊]9 The Employer shall, prior to the submission by the Contractor of the Tender, have made available to the Contractor, such data on hydrological and subsurface conditions as have been obtained by the Employer or the Representative on behalf of the Employer from (he investigations into the Works provided that the Contractor shall be responsible for his own interpretation thereof.

在承包人提交投标书之前,业主应向承包人提供由业主或业主代表根据对该项工程的勘察所取得的水文地 质资料,但是承包人应对他自己对上述资料的解释负责。

伊110 If this Agreement is terminated for any reason whatsoever, all such drawings, transparencies, specifications, and any other manufacturing or engineering information as are supplied by Party A, including all the copies thereof, shall be returned to Party A, and Party B shall cease to manufacture the said Licensed Products or Components, or parts of the Licensed Products.

如本协议因任何理由而终止,所有由甲方提供的图纸、图片、规格以及其它全部生产和操作资料,包括全 部复制品,均返还甲方,同时,乙方应停止生产上述许可证产品、或部件、或零件。

7V. thereafter, thereto, therewith, therefor, thereunder

  • thereafter: after that 此后;之后
  • thereto: to由at随附;附之
  • therewith: with (hat 与此;与之
  • ) therefor: for that 因之:为此
  • thereunder: under that 在其下:依照 用法:本节提及的各词,其用法与上面七节谈及的一样,主要强调的是“that”。如果强调的是、his”,则要

110/781

 

用 hereafter, hereto, herewith 和 hereof 等。 语法:紧接所修饰词之后。

例J 1 : The decision and award of the arbitration tribunal shall be finaL and the judgment on the decision and award in question may, under the request of either party to the Contract, be made by any court having jurisdiction. The parties thereto shall, in gocxi faith, comply with the decision and award of Ihe arbitration tribunal.

仲裁庭的仲裁决定或裁决是终局的,任何一方可以要求任何有管辖权的法院对此作出司法判决。双方须以 良好诚信的态度遵守仲裁庭的决定。

例 2: “Patented Technology” means such letters patent, and application therefore as arc presently owned or acquired in the future by Party B and /or as Party B has or may have the right to control or grant license thereof during the effective period of this Contract in any or all countries of the world, and as arc applicable to or may be used in the manufacture of this Contract Products.

“专利技术”,系指乙方目前拥有的或未来获得的和/或有权或可能有权控制的,或在本合同有效期间在世界 任何国家许可转让的,适用于或可能适用于制造本合同产品的专利和专利申请。

例 3: uContract Products“ means the products specified in Appendix 2 to this Contract, together with all improvements and modifications thereof or developments with respect thereto.

“合同产品”,系指本合同附件2中规定的产品及其改进发展的产品。

伊14: u Specifications v means the specifications of the Works included in (he Contract and such any modification thereof or addition thereto as are made under Clause 95 or as are submitted by the Contractor and approved by ihe Engineer.

规范是指合同中包括的工程规范,以及根据第95条规定的或由承包商提出并经工程师批准的对规范的任何 修改或增补。

例 5: The Defects Liability Certificate for the Works shall, within 28 days after the expiration of the Defects Liability Period, be issued by the Hngineer, or, if different defects liability periods become applicable to different Section or parts of the Permanent Works, the expiration of the latest such period, or if, pursuant to Clause 82, any works instructed arc completed to the satisfaction of the Engineer, the Defects Liability Certificate therefor shall be issued by the Engineer as soon as possible.

工程的缺陷责任证书应由工程师在缺陷责任期终止后28天内颁发,或者,如果不同的缺陷责任期适用永久 工程的不同区段或部分时,则在最后一个缺陷责任期终止或根据第82条,在任何按指示进行的工程已完成 并达到工程师满意之后尽快签发。

例 6: The Borrower shall pay for the account of the Banks a commitment fee of one half of one percent (0.5%) per annum on the Total Loan Commiiment. The commitment fee shall be paid from the date of the conclusion of the Contract (inclusive) to the earlier day of the Disbursement Date and the Termination Date (but excluding the day in question). The commitmenl fee shall quarterly be paid from ihe date in the third month ihereafter lo the earlier day of the Disbursement Date and the Termination Date.

借款人每年应支付银行贷款承诺总额0.5%的承诺费。支付时间从签订合同之日起(包括该日在内),到贷款 发放日和终止日中较早之日(但不包括该日在内)为止,从其后第3个月的该日起开始按季支付至发放日

 

与终止日中较早之日.

例 7 : If one or more of the following events of default (hereinafter called ” Event of DefaultV) occurs or occur or continues or continue, the Agent and the Bank shall be entitled to the remedies specified in Sub-Clause 11.2 of ihc Agreement.

(a) The Borrower fails to pay any amount payable thereunder as and when such amount shall become payable.

如果发生下列一种或一•种以上违约事件(以下称违约事件),或该违约事件正在继续,代理行以及各行应行 使第11.2款规定的救济方法。

(1)借款人未能支付根据该协议规定到期应付的款项。

九.Whereas释义:considering that,鉴于,就……而论(法律用语)

用法:常用于合同协议书的开头段落中,以引出合同双方要订立合同的理由或依据。

语法:紧接于要修饰词之前,常位于句首。

例 1 : Whereas Party B has the right and agrees to grant Party A the rights to use, manufacture and sell the Contract Products of Patented Technology;

Whereas Party A desires to use the Patented Technology of Party B to manufacture and sell the Contract Products; The Representatives authorized by the Parties to this Contract have, through friendly negotiation, agreed to enter into this Contract under the terms, conditions and provisions specified as follows:

鉴于乙方有权并同意将专利技术的合同产拈的使用权、制造权和销佬权授予甲方:

鉴于甲方希望利用乙方的专利技术制造并销售合同的产品;双方授权代表经友好协商,同意就以下条款签 订本合同:

例 2: Whereas Party A possesses proprietary technical information including designs, techniques, workmanship, formulas, skills and other data useful in the manufacture and marketing of certain products; and

Whereas Party B desires to acquire the right and licence to use the above-mentioned technical assistance for the purpose of manufacturing, using and selling such products; and

Whereas Party B desires to use the following trademarks owned by Party A.

Now Therefore, the parties hereto do hereby agree on the contents of the agreement as follows:

鉴于甲方拥有合同产品的生产及销售所涉及的技术信息,包括设计、技术、工艺、配方、技能和其他资料 的专有权;

鉴于乙方以生产、使用和销售合同产品为目的,希望获得使用上述协助的许可权利:

鉴于乙方希望使用甲方所有的下述商标:

双方兹就下列内容达成i致:

例 3: Whereas the Borrower proposes to borrow from the Banks, and the Banks, severally but not jointly, propose to lend to the Borrower, an aggregate amount of $50,000,000. the Parties hereto have hereby made and concluded this Agreement as follows:

鉴于借款人提出从银行借款,各银行分别但不连带地向借款人贷款,总额为$50,000,000(5000万美元),当 事人协议如下:

例 4: Whereas the Borrower has requested the Bank to extend to the Borrower a tenn loan in the principal amount of One Million US Dollars (US $1,000,000) under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement; and

112 / 781

 

Whereas the Bank is prepared to make such a loan available to the Borrower under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement;

Now Therefore, in consideration of the mutual promises contained herein, the Parties hereto do hereby agree on the contents of the agreement as follows:

鉴于借款人根据本协议规定的条件和款项,已向银行要求向借款人提供一笔本金为100万美元

(US$ 1,000,000)的定期贷款:

鉴F银行根据本协议规定的条件和款项,已准备向借款人提供此项定期贷款: 据此,以双方相互承诺为对价,就下述内容达成一致。

伊(j 5: Whereas Party A and Party B, adhering to the principle of equality and mutual benefit and through friendly consultation, agree to jointly invest to establish a new joint venture company in China (hereinafter referred as

Joint Venture M ). The Contract hereunder is made and concluded.

鉴于甲方与乙方按照平等互利的原则,经过友好协商,决定共同投资在中国建立合资经营公司(以下称“合 资企业”),为此达成如下合同。

41.英文合同结构与主要条款

标准英文合同通常可以分为前言(Preamble)、正文(Text)、证明部分(Attestation)x附录(Schedule)四 大部分组成。

L前言(Preamble)部分 前言部分主要有如下内容:

(1)指明签约双(各)方

例:中国某电厂(根据中华人民共和国法律成立注册的公司,以下简称甲方)为一方,与美国西雅图发电设 备厂(根据美国法律成立注册的公司,以下简称乙方)为另一方,双方通过友好协商同意就下列条款签订 本合同。

This Contract is made and entered into through friendly negotiation by and between China Corporation, a

corporation organized and existing under the laws of the People’s Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as Hthe Buyer”),as one party and, a corporation organized and existing under the laws of (hereinafter referred to as “the Seller11), as the other party, under the following terms and conditions:

(2)鉴于(Whereas)n 叙述(Recital)或背景(Background)部分

该部分主要是介绍合同的相关情况,具体有如下内容:

a)合同双(各)方的背景情况介绍,如各方所从事的行业:

例 I : AMD engages through its Communication Products Division (MCPDM) in the design, development, manufacture and sale of telecommunication products for public communications infrastructure systems, customer premise equipment and cordless telephony applications.

AMD公司是通过其通讯产品部门进行公共通讯产品的设计、研发、制造的企业,并销售公共通讯系统、客 户预订设备和无线通讯产品。

b)合同目的

例鉴于,甲方和乙方同意按照本合营合同的条件和条款设立合资企业,共同开发X项目。

WHEREAS PARTY A and PARTY B have agreed to establish a joint venture according to terms and conditions of t his joint venture contract lo jointly develop the [PROJECT 1 .

c)合同的背景情况

例:鉴于丙方拟受让甲方在X公司的全部股权,现合同各方经友好协商,木者平等互利的原则,应上述股权 转让事宜达成如下条款:

Whereas Party C intends to buy the whole shares of x held by Party A, adhering to (he principals of equality and mutual benefit, (he parties have reached the following agreement (the ^Agrccmcnt’^aftcr friendly consukations regarding the share transfer matters:

(3)明确指明合同双(各)方愿意签订本合同

例 因此,考虑到本协议所述的前提和约定,甲、乙双方特订立此协议。

Whereas Party A agrees to sell to Party B the products,, in compensation of the price of Party B’s machines and equipment; Now therefore, in consideration of the premises and covenants described hereinafter, Party A and Party B agree a follows:

2.正文(Text)部分主要包含以下条款

(1)定义(Definition)条款

该条款是对合同中的某些词语的进行定义,确保各词语在合同中的含义统一,以免发生歧义。这些词语可 分成两大类。第一类是英文合同中的常用词语,如附属机构(Afflliaic)、财务报表(Financial Sialcmcnls) 等:第二类是本合同中使用的具有特定含义的词语。

例:”Property” means property, assets, interests and rights of every description, wherever situated.

“财产”包括财产、资产、利益、权利等。财产之所在地在所不问。

⑵陈述保证(Represenlalions and Warranties)条款

该条款是合同双(各)方对某些基本事实的陈述并保证其陈述的真实性,其构成合同签订与生效的前提。 主要内容有:

a)合法注册、经营状况现状、相关资质(Organizaiion, Slanding and Qualificalion)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明其注册地、注册所依据的法律,声明合法拥有其财产、经营状况良好、 有权签订并履行本合同。

b)注册资本(Capilalizalion)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明其各自的注册资本金额、股权数量等情况。

  1. c) 适,与授权(DueAulhorizalion)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明其有权签订并履行本合同,本合同的签订对其具有约束力。

d)重大债务(Liabilities)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明除了其己经披露的之外,没有其他重大债务。

  1. c) 财产状况(Status of Proprietary Assets)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方耍说明其在本合同签订时的主要财产状况。

0 财产权属状况(Title lo Properties and Assets)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明其财产所有权是完整的无瑕疵的。

  1. 重大合同及其义务(Material Contracts and Obligations)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明,在本合同签订时其尚未完全履行的重大合同及其项下的义务。

  1. 诉讼与仲裁(Liligalion and Arbitralion)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明在本合同签订时尚未审结的诉讼与仲裁案件。

  1. 遵守法律与政府审批(Compliance with Laws; Governmental Consents)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方耍声明其完全遵守各项适用法律并已得到政府的有关审批。

  1. 履行其他约定义务(Compliance with Other Instmments and Agreements) 在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明其完全履行其他各项约定义务。

k)披露义务(Disclosure)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明其己披露了所有与本合同相关或本合同要求披露的信息.

例:The Seller hereby represents and waiTanis as to itself that:卖方谨此保证下列事项属实:

  • it is a duly organized legal entity, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the People’s

Republic of China;

本公司为依中华人民共和国法律合法组织存在、享有良好商誉之法律主体:

  • its Board of Directors has taken all necessary action to duly authorize the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement which actions are reflected in the minutes book of the corporation; and 本公司董事会已依法授权本公司进行与本合约相关的订立与履行事宜,并记载于董事会记录中;
  • its entry into and performance of its obligations under this Agreement do not violate any legal requirements in the People’s Republic of China as of the date hereof or any material agreements to which it is a party.

(iii)本公司订立本合约及履行因本合约所致生之义务,不违反订约时之任何中国法令,或违反其它任何本 公司为当事人的合约。

(3)先决条件(Condilions precedent 条款

该条款是有关合同双(各)方履行各自义务的前提条件的约定。

例:本合同及其附件,均须经中华人民共和国对外经济贸易部(或其委托的审批机构)批准,自批准之日 起生效。

This contract and the supplementary documents hereof are subject to the approval of the Foreign Trade Ministry of the People’ s Republic of China (or any delegated agency thereof) and will take effect from the date of the approval.

(4)责任限制(Limited Liability or Limitation of Liability)条款 该条款是合同双(各)方对其在本合同项下的责任上限进行的约定。

例:对人身的伤害赔偿,根据意大利和欧盟所参与的国际公约,不超过可预见的范围,参照服务的履行而 定责任。无论任何情况下,对人身的伤害赔偿不超过5万欧元:对财物的损失不超过2千欧元:其他赔偿 不超过5千欧元。

Compensation for damages to the person cannot exceed the foreseen limits by the international conventions for which Italy and the European Union are part of with reference to the services whose performance has determined the responsability. In any case the compensation limit cannot exceed the amount of 50,00() Euro for damages to people, 2,000 Euro for damages to objects, 5000 Euro for any other damage.

  • 保密(Non-disclosure or No Publicily)条款

根据该条款,合同双(各)方对本合同内容以及在本合同协商、签订、履行过程中所得知的其他各方的信 息要承担保密义务。

例:乙方根据本协议所提供的一•切图纸、设计、说明书及其他技术资料,甲方均须严格保密;未得到乙方 的书而同意,不得以任何方式出售、转让或泄露给任何人,但不包括甲方为生产合同而使用技术资料的雇 员。但是,甲方可以向分包合同人提供生产合同产品部件所必须的技术资料,分包人须书面保证对其所得 到产技术资料承担严格的保密义务。

All drawings, designs» specifications and all other technical information made available under (his Contract by Party B shall be kept strictly confidential by Party A who.shall not sell, transfer or divulge it in any manner to anyone except: G. those of its own employ-ees who will be using it in the manufacture of the Products, without prior written consent ofParty B. Party A may. however, supply such technical information(o its subcontractor to the extent necessary for such subcontractor to manufacture parts of Contract Products, pro-vidingthat Party A shall have such subcontractor agree, in writing, to hold suchnical information strictly in confidence..

(6)合同终止(Tcnninalion)条款

该条款是合同双(各)方对本合同在何种情况下可以提前终止进行约定。

例: 由于一方不履行合同、章程规定的义务,或严重违反合同、章程规定,造成合作公司无法经营或无

法达到合同规定的经营目的,视作违约方片面终止合同,对方除有权向违约的一方索赔外,并有权按合同 规定报原审批机关批准终止合同。如甲、乙方同意继续经营,违约方仍应赔偿履约一方的经济损失。

Should the cooperative venture company be unable to continue its operation or achieve its business purpose due to the fact that one of the contracting parties fails to fulfil the obligations prescribed by the contract and articles of association, or seriously violates the provisions of the contract and articles of association, that party shall be deemed to have unilaterally terminated the contract. The other party shall have the right to terminate the contract in accordance with the provisions of the contract after approval by the original examination and approval authority, and to claim damages. In case Party A and Party B of the cooperative venture company agree to continue the operation, the party who fails lo fulfil ils obligalions shall be liable for the economic losses caused thereby lo ihe joint venture company.

(7)标题(headings)条款

在该条款中,合同双(各)方约定合同中的各个小标题(一般以黑体字显示)是为了在合同中提及的方便, 不构成对合同内容的解释、修改、补充。

例: 第一条 股权转让价款 Article 1 Price of The Shares

(8)合同有效期(Term)条款

该条款是有关合同生效日期、方式以及有效期的条款。 本协议若无以下提前终止的情况,例:有效期

从年 月日至年 月日。双方一致同意可于本协议正式生效前天左右开始试运行,试运行期间的 一切事宜如操作形式,操作标准,费用,双方的权利义务等均按本协议项下除本条外的各条款执行。

Without the following situation of early termination, the validity period of agreement is from to

・ The two parties unanimously agree to start trial operation days before formal enforcement

of the agreement, during the trial operation, all matters such as operation forms, operating standards, costs and expenses, rights and obligations of the two parties, etc., shall be earned out according to the conditions under this agreement apart from this section.

(9)权利放弃(Waiver)条款

在该条款中,合同双(各)方声明任何一方如果没有行使其权利,并不意味着其放弃该权利。

例: 如果一方未行使或延迟行使其在本合同项下的某项权利,不构成该方对此项权利的放弃,如果该方

已经行使或者部分行使某项权利,并不妨碍其在将来再次行使此项权利。

Either Party’s failure to exercise or delay in exercising any right, power or privilege under this Contract shall not operate as a waiver thereof, and any single or partial exercise of any right, power or privilege shall not preclude the exercise of any other right, power or privilege.

(10) 合同变更(Amendment or Modification)条款

在该条款中,合同双(各)方可以约定合同不得修改或者合同修改的方式。

例: 接受变更了的旅游服务,不支付另外费用,或者如果变更了的服务质量不如原定的服务,则退还多

的费用。

To take advantage of an alternative tourism package, without supplemental charges or with the restitution of ihe surplus of the price, should the second package have an inferior value than the first;

(11)转让(Assignmenl or Successors and Assignment 条款

在该条款中,合同双(各)方可约定合同不可转让或者合同转让的程序,同时,还可以约定,如果合同转 让,受让方有完全约束力。

例:明示放弃合同的当事方可以由其他人受让。只要受让人符合以下条件:

The renouncing client can be substituted by another person provided that:

例 2 The Distributor may not assign in whole or in part any of its rights hereunder or any rights arising from any individual order for the purchase of the Products without the prior written consent of Supplier. The Supplier shall be entitled to assign in whole or in part any of its obligations hereunder or arising from any individual order for the purchase of the Products to any of its Affiliates or suppliers solely upon written notice to Distributon provided that Supplier shall remain fully liable for the performance of such obligations.

未经供应商事先书面同意,经销商不得部分或全部转让本合同项下的权利,也不得转让由单个订单产生的 任何权利。供应商以书面通知经销商,可将本合同项下的全部或部分义务或由单个订单产生的任何义务转 让给其任何关联机构或供货商,但是供应商应该继续对其合同项下义务的履行负责。

(12)通知(Notice)条款

该条款是对合同双(各)方在履行合同过程中相互送达信息的方式以及视为送达的条件进行约定。i股来 讲,要写明合同双(双)方的通信地址、传真号、联系电话、联络人以及送达成功的具体条件。

.例货物装运日前10—15天,买方应以电报或电传通知卖方合同号、船只预计到港日期、装运数量及船运 代理人的名称。以便卖方经与该船运代理人联系及安排货物的装运。卖方应将联系结果通过电报或电传及

 

时报告买方。如买方因故需耍变更船只或者船只比预先通知卖方的日期提前或推迟到达装运港口,买方或 其船运代理人应及时通知卖方。卖方亦应与买方的运输代理或买方保持密切联系。

10-15 days prior to the date of shipment, the Buyer shall infonn the Seller by cable or telex of the contract number, name of vessel, ETA of vessel, quantity to be loaded and the name of shipping agent, so as to enable the Seller to contact the shipping agent direct and anange the shipment of the goods. The Seller shall advise by cable or lelex in time the Buyer of the result thereof. ShoukL for certain reasons, it become necessary for the Buyer to replace the named vessel with another one, or should the named vessel arrive at the port of shipment earlier or later than the date of arrival as previously notified to ihe Seller, the Buyer or its shipping agent shall advise the Seller to this effect in due time. The Seller shall also keep in close contact with the agent or the Buyer.

例 2 ) During the Term, each Party may change its particulars for receipt of notices at any time by notice given to the other Party in accordance with this Article 19.7.

在合同期限内,一方可随时根据第19.7(a)条规定通知另一方变更通知送达地址。

Distributor:经销商:

[mailing address][经销商]

People’s Republic of China 中华人民共和国

Facsimile No:传真号码:

Attention: 收件人:

Supplier:供应商:

[mailing address][邮址]

Facsimile No:传真号码:

Attention:收件人:

(13)适用法律(Governing Law or Applicable Law)条款 Submission to Jurisdiction 该条款是有关合同解释、争议解决所适用法律的约定。

例 Governing Law. This Agreement shall be constnied in accordance with and govenwd by the substantive internal laws of the State of Delaware.

管辖法律。本协议应根据特拉华州的法律解释和管辖。

例 本合同之签订地、或发生争议时货物所在地在中华人民共和国境内或被诉人为中国法人的,适用中华 人民共和国法律,除此规定外,适用《联合国国际货物销售公约》。

It will be governed by the law of the People’s Republic of China under the circumstances that the contract is singed or the goods while the disputes arising are in the People’s Republic of China or the deffendant is Chinese legal person , otherwise it is governed by United Nations Convention on Contract for the International Sale of Goods .

  • 争议解决(Dispute Resolution)条款

该条款是与合同有关的争议解决方式的约定,可以选择诉讼,也可以选择仲裁。

例 In the event such dispute is not resolved through consultations within (sixty (60)] days after the date such consultations were first requested in writing by a Party, then any Party may submit the dispute for arbitration in [Beijing] before the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (℃IETACH) in accordance wilh CIETAC Arbitration Rules then in force, and as amended by 山is Article 18.2 (^Arbitration Rules*1).

如果某一争议未在一方首次书面提出进行磋商之日后六十(60)日内通过友好协商解决,则任何一方可将该争 议提交中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会(“贸仲会”)在[北京]按照当时有效的贸仲会仲裁程序规则(并由本第 18.2条规定作为修订)(“仲裁规则”)进行仲裁。

例因履行本协议所发生的一切争议应通过友好协商解决。如协商不能解决争议,则应将争议提交中国国际 经济贸易仲裁委员会(北京),依据其仲裁规则进行仲裁。仲裁裁决是终局的,对双方都有约束力。

All disputes arising from the performance of this agreemenl shall be settled through friendly negotiation. Should no settlement be reached through! negotiation, the case shallthen be submitted for arbitration to the China Internationa 1 ticonomic&nbpd Trade Arbitration Commission (Beijing)&nbpd the rules of this Commission shall be applied. 1’h c award of the arbitration shall be final&nbpd binding upon both parties.

  • 条款效力独立(Severability or Survival of terms)条款

根据该条款的约定,合同的任一条款如果无效,也不影响其他任何条款的效力。

色(I The invalidity of any provision of this Contract shall not affect the validity of any other provision of this

Contract.

本合同某一条款的无效不影响本合同其他条款的效力。

(16)没有其他业务关系条款

在该条款中,合同双(各)方声明彼此之间除了合同关系之外没有其他任何法律关系。

例 Independent Contractor Relationship 19.1 合同双方之间的独立关系

The Parties are only establishing a vendor-purchaser relationship with each other by entering into this Contract. Nothing in this Contract shall be constmed or implied as:

合同双方签订本合同仅仅在他们之间产生独立合同关系。本合同任何条款均不得被解释为:

(a) establishing between the Parties hereto any partnership or any other form of relationship entailing joint liability;

(a)在合同双方之间形成合伙关系或其他导致共同贲任的关系;

(17)不可抗力(Force Majeure)条款

该条款是有关不可抗力构成耍件及其具体情形,以及在发生不可抗力事件的情况下如果处理的约定。

4列 “Force Majeure*’ shall mean all events which are beyond the control of the Parties to this Contract, and

which are unforeseen, unavoidable or insurmountable, and which prevent lotal or partial performance by either of the Parties. Such events shall include earthquakes, typhoons, flood, fire, war, strikes, riots, acts of governments, changes in law or the application thereof or any other instances which cannot be foreseen, prevented or controlled, including instances which are accepted as Force Majeure in general inlernalional commercial practice.

“不可抗力”指超出本合同双方控制范隹I、无法预见、无法避免或无法克服、使得本合同一方部分或者完 全不能履行本合同的事件。这类事件包括但不限于地度、台风、洪水、火灾、战争、罢工、暴动、政府行 为、法律规定或其适用的变化,或者其他任何无法预见、避免或者控制的事件,包括在国际商务实践中通 常被认定为不可抗力的事件。

(18) 所有协议(Entire Agreement)条款 Integration

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明本合同构成双(各)方就合同主题事宜达成的最终的、唯一的协议, 除非明确指明,在此之前的所有约定,无论是口头的,还是书面的,均无效力。

例双方在此达成完整的共识并取代双方在此之前就木协议事项所作的声明和承诺。本协议的修改只能通过 双方正式授权代表签署后,成为本协议的组成部分。

The parties hereto made and conclude this entire agreement, which shall supersede any other statements and commitments relating the matters specified herein made by parties hereto previously. Modifications can be made to this agreement only being signed by the duly authorized representatives of the parties hereto, and shall constitute a part of this agreement.

(19)传真签订生效(Execution by Fax)条款

合同双(各)方可以在该条款中约定,双(各)方可通过传真方式传递文件并使其生效。

例J if by fax, upon the next Business Day following ihe date marked on the confirmation of transmission report

by Ihe sender’s fax machine, indicating completed uninterrupted transmission to the relevant facsimile number.

(iii)如果是以传真的方式送达,为发送传真方的传真机发送的报告确认书(表明已向相关传真号码发送完 整的、未中断的传真)上标记的日期后的下一个营业日。

(20)“语言(Language) ”条款

该条款是有关合同适用语言的约定。

例本条款的中英文版本具有同等效力。

Applicable language: This contract is written in Chinese and English. The Chinese version and English version have equivalent legal effect.

例 This agreement is written in one form of two versions in English and Chinese, if both versions of English and Chinese are found inconsistent, the Chinese version should be the basis to follow.

本合同为中英文版本书叮,如合同条款有中英文本不一致之处则以中文为准.

(21)合同文本(Counterparts)条款

该条款是对合同的份数以及各份合同的效力进行约定。(22)“歧义(Ambiguities) ”条款

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要约定主合同与其附件之间、主合同与其补充协议之间、主合同各语言文本 之间如果发生意思歧义如何处理。

例 Three copies of the lease will be drawn, and remain in the possession of THE LESSOR , THE LESSEE and THE WITNESS.

本合同一式三份,甲、乙双方各持一份,见证方一份,具有同等法律效力。

(23)币种(Currency)条款

该条款是对合同项下的货而种类进行约定。

例] Referenced funds in this agreement to be wired, is in Uniled States Currency only.

本协议的参考价格将是美元转帐

  • .证明部分(ATTESTATION)

例:BEFORE ME, a Notary Public in and for said County, personally appeared Timothy J. Gunter and Daniel L. Webb, known to me to be the person(s) who, as Secretary and Assistant Secretary, respectively, of INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS INTERNATIONAL, INC., the corporation which executed the foregoing instrument in its capacity as Landlord, signed the same, and acknowledged to me that they did so sign said instrument in the name and upon behalf of said corporation as officers of said coiporation, that the same is their free act and deed as such officers, respectively, and they were duly authorized thereunto by its board of directors; and that the seal affixed to said instrument is the corporate seal of said corporation.

IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, I have hereunto subscribed my name, and affixed my official seal, this 15lh day of March, 1999.

我是本县公证员,兹证明Timothy J. Gunter与Daniel L. Webb两人分别为国际产业发展有限公司的秘书和秘 书助理。该公司制作并签署了以土地产权为内容的上述文件。签署人是上述公司的官员,以上述公司的名 义并代表上述公司进行的签署。他们经公司合法授权,分别履行的他们的公司官员职务行为,并盖以公司 法人卬章。

特此证明,证明人签字于1999年3月15日。

  • .附录部分(Schedule)

例本合同的附件为本合同不可分割的组成部分,与合同正文具有同等法律效力。如合同正文与附件有矛盾 之处,合同正文内容优先。

Appendices hereof shall be integral parts of Contract and have the same legal force as the text of Contract itself. The text of Contract shall prevail in case of any discrepancies between the text of Contract and Appendices.

42.英文合同中儿个主要情态动词的用法与区别

一、shall 和 should 的用法

英文合同中常见的情态动词主要有以下两个,即,shall和should。但它们在合同中分别表示不同的含义。 shall是英文合同中使用频率最高的一个词,也是语气最重的一个词,常用于第三人称。shall常用来表示法 律上必须履行的责任和应尽的义务,如不履行合同条款就会产生违反法律责任和义务的后果,其含义相当 于中文的“应当”或“必须”。

shall在合同文件中是使用频率最高的词,在合同文件中shall表示强制性承担法律或合同所规定的义务, Shall在合同英语中的词义不同于普通英语中的词义。它在合同英语中主要表示“指示性”、”施为性’’含义 和行使权利的“义务”和“责任”。

在表达“应该”或“必须”做某事时,应用“shall”而不能用“ must”或”should”,但有时可用“will”,力度比shall 弱。

Should在文件中往往作“iP解,只表示“如果”之意。

如 The board meeting shall be called and presided over by the Chairman. Should the chairman be absent, the vicc-Chairman shall, in principle, call and preside over the board meeting.

文中两个shall,都表示有责任做,应该做之意。原文可译为:

堇事会会议应由堇事长召集、主持;如堇事长缺席,原则上应由副堇事长召集、主持。

合同条文的主句成分中的shall,在汉语中有很多种译法。通常被译成“须”、“应”,有时被译成“应当”,也有 时译成“要”、“将“、“可”,还有被译成“必须”,甚至被完全忽略不译的。试看以下各例。

例.Shipment: The Date of the Bill of Lading shall be accepted as a conclusive evidence of the date of shipment.

付运:提货单的日期须被承认为付运日期的确实证据。

例 If the Buyers fail to notify and/or fonvard full details within the period specified above, the Buyers shall be deemed to have waived their right to assert any claim.

如果买方未能在上述规定的期间内通知和(或)寄出完整的细节,那么买方将被认为放弃提出任何索赔的 权利。

伊九 In the event the Buyers’ such appointment docs not arrive in time, the Sellers’ system of inspection shall be final and binding upon the parties concerned.

万一买方对这种委托未能及时到达,卖方的检杳制度将是决定性的并对有关各方有约束力。

彳列. Quantity, unless othenvise arranged, shall be subject to a variation of 5% plus or minus at Seller’s option.

最:除非另作安排,里可由卖方选择作加或减5%的变动。

例.Such compensation shall correspond (o the real value of the property concerned and shall be freely convertible and paid without undue delay.

…征用财产的补偿应相当于该财产当时的实际价值,可门由兑换,不得无故迟延支付。

伊J, The Purchaser shall, upon receipt of Corporation’s respective invoices therefor, pay to Corporation all amounts which become due by the Purchaser to the Corporation hereunder, including without limitation an amount equal to the taxes and duties.

收到公司的各种发票后,买方必须立刻付给公司已到期应付的所有款项,包括各种税收费用在内,不得有 例外。

例・ The contractor shall be entitled to use for the purpose of the works such supplies of electricity and water as may be available therefor on the site and shall pay the purchaser such as may be reasonable in the circumstances, and shall at his own expense provide any apparatus necessary for such use.

承包商有权利用工地上原有的供电供水进行施工,但须向业主交纳合理的水电费,并要自己承担用去安装 供电供水所需仪表。

伊J ・ The Board shall have such jurisdiction and powers as are conferred on it by this or any other Ordinance. 仲裁处具备本条例或任何其他条例授予仲裁处的司法管辖权及权利。

Shan在合同条款处在两种情况下可以不译外,主要可以被译成“须”、“应”和“应当”等。但shall与noi或其 他否定形式(如用否定词No/ncighcr开头的句子)连用时,一般不能顺其自然,译成“不须”、“不应”或“不 要“、“不可”、“不应当”,因为这几个词的意思在汉语里主要表示“建议”或“忠告”:在语用上,口语色彩较 重,表示〃禁止”的语气不够强烈:大量既定的权威性文献表明:shall not及类似否定式短句的最通常、最

 

恰当的译法是“不得”,因为“不得”在汉语里与“禁止”一词同义,与法律英语中含shall的否定句所要表达的 意思相同。试看以下各例:

伊J ・ The rights and freedoms enjoyed by Hong Kong residents shall not be restricted unless as prescribed by law. Such restrictions shall not contravene the provisions of the preceding paragraph of this Article.

香港居民享有的权利和自由,除依法规定外不得限制,此种限制不得与本条第一款规定抵触。

例 No will shall be revoked by any presumption of an intention on the ground of an alteration in circumstances.

凡以情况有变为理由,而对立遗哌作出推定者,该遗嘱不得因该项推定而撤销。

例・ Neither Party hereto shall assign this Agreement or any of its rights and interest hereunder without the other Parly’s prior written consent, which shall not be unreasonably withheld.

本协议的任何一方未经另一方事先书面同意(该另一方不得无理拒绝同意),不得转让本协议或其在本 协议项下的任何权利和权益。

在法律和普通合同条文中,当shall之后所跟的动词本身就能表达权利、义务或责任以及主句的基本结构为 shall + be + predicative (表语)时,通常也是不译的:

  1. rhe board shall have such jurisdiction and powers as are conferred on it hy this or any other Ordinance. 仲裁处具备本条例或任何其他条例授予仲裁处的司法管辖权及权利。
  2. If the Buyers fail to provide such letter of credit in the Seller’s favor as prescribed above, the Sellers shall have the option of reselling the contracted goods for the account of the Buyers or delaying any shipment and/or cancelling any orders at any time on the Buyers account and risk.

如果买方未能向卖方提供如上规定的这种信用证,卖方有权选择把合同规定的买上账上的货物转售或 随时推迟付运和(或)撤销任何订单,损失和风险由买方承担。

  1. The Landlord shall not be in any way responsible to the Tenant for any damage caused to be said premises or the contents thereof arising as a result of the negligence of any other tenant of the said building.

由于该大厦其他任何住户的过失而产生的对该楼宇或其里面的东西的任何损坏,业主对主租户不负任 何责任。

  1. Provided that should the Purchaser or his nominee have entered in possession of the premises hereby agreed to be sold the Purchaser shall thereupon be deemed to have accepted the title of the Vendor and shall not be entitled to raise any requisition or objection In respect of any of the matters aforesaid.

倘若买主或其指定人已占有凭本合同出售的楼宇,买主将被认为已接受卖主的所有权,并无权在上述 任何问题方面提出任何要求或反对。

  1. The cost of and incidental to the preparation and registration of this Agreement shall be home and paid by the Vender and the Purchaser jointly. In Addition to this the Purchaser shall bear and pay all the cost of Messrs. & Co. Solicitors fbr services in connection with the sale and purchase of the said premises…

本合同草拟和登记的费用和所伴随的费用由卖主和买主共同负责支付(或:卖主和买主共同支付…费 用)。除此之外,买主还须负责支付某某律师行与所述楼宇买卖有关的服务费…

对照以上中英文本,我们不难归纳出:在法律及合同条文中,have the right/powcr/jurisdiction/obligation of, have the option of, be responsible for (bear/lake responsibility/cosl for), be obliged lo, be liable lo, be entitled lo, be at liberty to, be able to, be + predicative adjective等动词短语片语是经常用来表示权利、责任和义务的,如果 这些短语前面带有shall,则一般不能把它译成“须工”应当”、“应”等。

二、May的用法

May多用于合同法律文件中,具有和协议条款相同的指示性施为性作用。当may表示“许可”的含义 时常常翻译成“可”。 May not具有和协议条款相同的宣布性的施为性作用,汉语翻译为“不可”,而且与 shall not的内涵不一样。

May在法律英语中主要有两种解释。 一是表示“给予许可”或者“给予某人做某事的授权”(be

allowed to or have permission to),这一含义多用于法律法规中。 二是表示“也许”或者“可能性”(be in some

degree likely to),这一含义多用于合同中。

第一、May在法律法规中的翻译

May在法律法规的法律英语中表示被授权的法律含义时,汉语中常用”可”或“可以”表示。下面的例子 就是进一步说明这一特征。

  • 中华人民共和国法律和中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约没有规定的,可以适用国际惯例 (《中华人民共和国民法通则》第142条)。

International practice may be applied on matters of which neither the law of the People’s Republic of China nor any international treaty concluded or acceded to by the People’s Republic of China has any provisions.

  • 民事法律行为可以采取书面形式、口头形式或者其他形式。

A civil juristic act may be in written, oral or other form.

  • 人民法院审理案件,其中一部分事实已经清楚,可以就该部分先行判决。

If some of the facts in a case being tried by the People’s Court are already evident, the Court may pass judgment on that part of the case first.

④当事人对重审案件的判决、裁定,可以上诉)。

The parties concerned may appeal against the judgment or wrilten order rendered in a retrial of their case.

第二、May在合同文件中的翻译

May在合同法律文件中的法律解释以“可能”、”可以”(likely, possible )或铲(或)许”(perhaps) 的含义为主,但也更有可能在“可能性”(possibilily)与“准许” (permission)之间易产生歧 义。在汉语的 法律表述中常常用词组”可以,也可以“来表达may在法律英语中“可能性”的法律解释。

①当事人依法可以委托代理人订立合同。

The parties may conclude a contract through an agent in accordance with the law.

  • 承租人可以耍求减少租金或者不支付租金。

The lessee may request a reduction of rent or not to pay the rent.

  • 出租人可以要求支付全部租金;也可以解除合同,收回租赁物。

The lessor may request it to pay all the rent, or rescind the contract and take back the leased property.

(4)发包人可以与总承包人订立建设工程合同,也可以分别与勘察人、设计人、施工人订立勘察、设 计、施工承包合同。

The contract letting party may enter into a constiuction project contract with a general contractor, or enter into a survey contract, design contract or construction contract with a surveyor, designer or constructor respectively.

 

总之,正确翻译与运用情态动词shall和may对于英汉法律翻译来说都是非常基本的要求。由于汉语法律中 没有与shall和may完全对等的法律词语与法律解释,那么对shall和may的翻译就没有最完美的解 决方案。

英文合同中有时也出现情态动词may和musl。may用于约定当事人的权利(可以做什么),没有任何义务 的含义,不带有强制性,有时表示允许或许可,相当于中文的“可以”、“得”等含义。其否定形式may not用 于禁止性义务(不得做什么),语气不如shall nol强烈。must用于强制性义务(必须做什么),但这一义务 不一定具有法律的约束力,其否定形式一•般不会出现在英文合同中。了解和掌握情态动词的确切含义有助 于正确理解英文合同条款的内容。由于合同中权利和义务的约定构成了合同的主体,情态动词如选用不当, 有可能会引起法律纠纷。

A business secret the parties leant in concluding a contract shall not be disclosed or unfairly used, no matter the contract is established or not.

当事人在订立合同过程中知悉商业秘密,无论合同是否成立,不得泄露或者不正当地使用。

Local authorities and all departments shall support the Customs offices in exercising iheir functions and powers according to law; they may not illegally interfere in the Customs enforcement of law.

三、Must的用法

must虽然也是法律篇章中的一个主要情态动词,而且具有最强的强制性,但儿乎没有该词宜接的否定形式 (即must not)的位置,尽管该词的否定形式在普通问题的篇章:中并不少见:如Cars must not be parked here.

(此地不准停车。)以及You must not tell a lie.(你不可以说慌如同shall not和 may not一样,must not也表示一种禁令,通常译为“不可以”或“不准”,但不能或不宜译为“不得”。

例:任何单位和个人实施他人专利的,除本法第十四条规定的以外,都必须与专利权人订立书面实施 许可合同,向专利权人支付专利使用费。…专利权的所有权单位或者持有单位应当对职务发明创造的发 明人或者设计人给予奖励。

Except as provided for in Article 14, any entity or individual exploiting the patent of another must conclude a written licensing contract with the patentee and pay the patentee a fee fbr the exploitation of its or his patent. … The entity owning or holding the patent right on a job-related invenlion-creation shall reward the inventor or designer.

四、shall, may和must的否定句

shall在否定句中,不管其句型如何-或在该情态动词后加上not、或在句首添上一个No,或与 任何其他形式的否定词搭配 <如shall serve no more than … two terms),在绝大数情况下,与shall搭配的否 定词都被译成“不得”。此外,neither party … shall + do的句型也同样翻译成“任何一方不得做某事”。

例:.The Seller shall present the following documents required for negotiation to the banks (卖方必须将下列单据 提交银行附议).shall的否定形式sh】l not在英文合同中常表示不得发生的行为。

例:.Party A shall not supply the contracted commodity to other buyers in the above-mentioned territory (甲方不 得向上述地区其他买主供应本合同项下商品)。但必须注意的是,在英文合同中,shall在表示“应该”时不可 随便用should代替,should虽然也表示“应该”,但它没有shall那样重的含义,因为should并不表示法律义 务,只表示一般的义务或道义上的义务,有时甚至表示“原亥’或”最好如此”的含义。当should出现在合同 中时,它常放在句子的开头,表示一个隐含的条件状语,相当于由if、in case或in the event that引导的 状语从句,其含义相当于中文的“如果”、“万一”而不是“应该工

125/781

 

例J: . Should the verification conclusion contradict the conditions of an auction target stated in an auction contract, the auctioneer has the right to demand a change or rescind the contract (如果鉴定结论与委托拍卖合同教明的拍 卖标的状况不相符,拍卖人有权耍求变更或者解除合同)。

在下列例句中的最后一句卖方不应负责“,就不能改成“卖方不得负责”,否则该句子在中文词语搭配上 就违背习惯用法。

例 . Partial shipment or transshipment shall be pennitted unless otherwise stated on the face hereof. The Seller shall not be responsible for non-shipment or late shipment of the contracted goods due to causes beyond the Sellers5 control or causes due to the failure of the Buyers to provide in time the relative letter of credit or other instructions requested by the Sellers.

应准许分批付运和转运,除非本合同正面另有规定。合同规定的货物若因卖方无法控制的原因或由于 买方未能及时提供有关的信用证或卖方所要求的其他指示而不付运或迟付运,卖方不应负责。

又如 the Purchaser shall thereupon be deemed to have accepted the title of the Vendor and shall not be entitled to raise any requisition or objection in respect of any of the matters aforesaid.

买主即被认为已经接受卖主的所有权,并无权在上述任何问题方面提出任何要求或反对。

如果把后半句改成“并不得有权…”,则整句译文就会显得不伦不类。因此,具体情况具体分析,此处只 是揭示shall在否定句中一个最常用的译法而已;主 要适用于本文揭示的在肯定句中shall可被译成“须” 或“应,,这一类型的否定句;基本上不适用shall可以不译的这一类型的否定句。

可汉译为“不得”的情态动词当然并非是只有跟shall有关的否定句,与may相关的否定句也同样可译成“不 得“:

例.外观设计专利被授予后,任何单位或个人未经专利权人许可,不得为生产经营目的制造、销售其 外观设计专利产品。

After the grant of the patent right for a design, no entity or individual may, without the authorization of the patentee, make or sell the product incorporating its or his patented design, for production or business pui-poses.

例.申请人可以对其专利申请文件进行修改,但是对发明和实用新型专利申请文件的修改不得超出原 说明书和权利要求书记载的范围…

An applicant may amend his or its application for a patent, but the amendment to the application for a patent for invention or utility model may not go beyond ihe scope of the disclosure contained in the initial description and the claims…

例.Neither Party may assign this Agreement, in whole or in part, without the other Party’s prior written consent, except to (i) any corporation resulting from any merger, consolidation or other reorganization involving the assigning party.

任何一方未经另一方事先书面同意,不得转让本协议的全部或部分,除非转让给⑴涉及转让方的因兼 并、合并或其他重组而产生的任何公司..

43.英文合同中违约金、罚金和损害/损失赔偿金的条款

  • 个完整的合同应当有违约责任条款,违约责任条款就布•两个作用:一、督促作用,通过违约责任的的强 示作用,督促合同当事人全面履行合同;二、弥补损失作用,在一方违约情况下,可以通过追究对方的违 约责任,弥补损失。国际商务合同中违约一般不称违约金而是称损害赔偿。违约金条款第一不要遗漏,第 二要全面,第三幅度可以高,但不要太高,因为太高导致条款无效,等于让裁判庭自己决定。一般的损害赔 偿方法可表述如下:(直接财产损失十可得利益损失十减损支付的费用)一(应该避免的损失十避免的成本或 因违约损害而获取的收益十属于受害方自己过错造成的损失)=违约方应该支付的损害赔偿数额(W受害方的 实际损失)。

一、 货物买卖合同中约定的违约金

例:承包方应当为这种违约向发包方支付按每天%的比例计算的损失

contractor shall pay to the employer at the rate of per day liguidated damages for such default

例:除合同第21条不可抗力原因外,如卖方不能按合同规定的时间交货,买方应同意在卖方支付罚款的条 件下延期交货。罚款可由议付银行在议付货款时扣除,罚款率按每一天收一%,不足一天时以一天 计算。但罚款不得超过迟交货物总价的一%。如卖方延期交货超过合同规定一天时,买方有权撤销合同, 此时,卖方仍应不迟延地按上述规定向买方支付罚款。 买方有权对因此遭受的其它损失向卖方提出索赔。

Should the Seller fail to make delivery on time as stipulated in the Contract, with the exception of Force Miycurc causes specified in Clause 21 of this Contract, the Buyer shall agree to postpone (he delivery on the condition that the Seller agree to pay a penalty which shall be deducted by the paying bank from the

paymenl under negotiation. The rate of penally is charged at% for every days, odd days less than

days should be counted as days. But the penalty, however, shall not exceed% of the total value of the goods involved in the delayed delivery. In case the Seller fail to make delivery days

later than the time of shipment stipulated in the Contract the Buyer shall have the right to cancel the

Conlract and the Seller, in spite of the cancellation, shall nevertheless pay the aforesaid penalty to the

Buyer without delay. The buyer shall have the right to lodge a claim against ihe Seller for the losses sustained if any.

例:乙方不按合同规定购买补偿商品或甲方不按合同规定提供商品时,均应按合同条款承担违约责任,赔 偿由此造成的经济损失,并向对方支付该项货款总值的一%的罚款。

Party B shall, if it fails to comply with this agreement to make purchase of the goods delivered by Party A as reimbursement, or Party A shall, if it fails to comply with this agreement to deliver the goods it is due to provide, be deemed liable for a breach of agreement and shall compensate the non-breaching Party for the loss caused thereupon and shall pay the non-breaching Party a fine accounting for % of the total value of the goods in question.

例:甲方不能拖欠乙方所有费用,如果违约,需向乙方支付违约金(总合同金额)0.1%/天。

Party A cannot default payment due to Party B, if breach of payment clause herein, should pay the penalty to the Party B at rate of 0.1%/Day on base of total contract amount.

 

例:买方未按合同规定日期付款,每延期一天,应偿付卖方以延期付款总额%的罚金。

In case that Buyer delays in paying the payment according to this Contract. Buyer shall pay to Seller penalty for each delay day, which is equal to _% of total amount.

例: 如果卖方不能按合同规定及时交货,除因不可抗力者外,若卖方同意支付延期罚款,买方应同意延

期交货。

In ease that Seller fails to deliver the Products to Buyer in accordance with this Contract, except for the force majeure. Buyer should agree to Seller, s late delivery on the condition that Seller agrees to pay delay penalty.

例:罚款通过在付款时扣除,但罚款总额不超过延期货物总值的5 %,罚款率按每星期0. 5 %计算,少 于七天者按七天计。

Penalty shall be deducted from the due payment, but the maximum penalty shall not be greater that the 5% of total amount of the Products. The penalty shall be charged according to 0.5% weekly rate, and the delay period which is less than 7 days shall be deemed as 7 days.

例:如果卖方交货延期超过合同规定船期十星期时,买方有权取消合同。尽管取消了合同,但卖方仍须立 即向买方交付上述规定罚款。

Buyer has the right (o cancel this Contract in ease that Seller delays in delivering the Products over 10 weeks. Seller must immediately pay to Buyer the above mentioned penalty after Buyer’ s cancellation of this Contract.

例: 如果发生任何货物的迟延交付,则买方有权要求预定损害赔偿,每迟延一整周,其金额为该迟交货 物价款的0. 5%,或约定的其他比率,但以买方通知卖方交货迟延为前提。买方在约定的交货日期后15天 内照此通知卖方,则损害赔偿金应从约定的交货日或约定 的交货期间的最后一天起算;如果买方在约

定的交货口期后超过15天才通知卖方,则损害赔偿金应从通知日起算。延迟交货的预定损番赔偿金不应超 过迟交货物价款的5%,或其他可能约定的最高数额。

When there is delay in delivery of any goods, the Buyer is entitled to claim liquidated damages equal to 0.5% or such other percentage as may be agreed of the price of those goods for each complete week of delay, provided the Buyer notifies the Seller of the delay. Where the Buyer so notifies the Seller within 15 days from the agreed date of delivery, damages will run from the agreed date of delivery or from the last day within the agreed period of delivery. Where the Buyer so notifies the Seller after 15 days of the agreed date of delivery, damages will run from the date of the notice. Liquidated damages for delay shall nol exceed 5% of the price of the delayed goods or such other maximum amount as may be agreed.

例:除天灾人祸等不可抗力因素及因买方未尽本合同责任之情形以外,如卖方逾期完成以上任何i项义务, 须从逾期第四天起按日支付该笔逾期款项0.1%的罚款,但该罚款不应超过本合同总价之3%。

Except for force majeure or a failure by the Buyer to perform its obligations under this Contract, if the Seller fails to complete on time any of its tasks set forth above, it shall pay a penalty of ().1 % per day on the late amount, commencing on the fourth day of such delay, provided that such penalty shall not exceed 3% of the Conlract Price.

例:买方应婚偿或补偿卖方因买方造成的交货延误所受到的所有损失,包括(但不限于)货物贮存的费用, 该费用以每天每吨人民币83元计算。

The Purchaser shall indemnify the Seller for all costs incurred by il as a result of any delay in the delivery of the Metal Building System caused by the Purchaser, including, without limitation, the cost of storage which shall be charged al the rate of Rmb 83 per ton per day.

例:由于卖方原因造成不能按期装运的,则卖方应从合同规定的最晚装运日的第卜一天起,按照实际延迟的 天数,每月付给买方货值金额1.25%的迟装费。

If the cotton fails lo be shipped as scheduled due to the Seller’s reasons, the Seller shall pay the Buyer a delayed delivery fee equivalent to 1.25% of the value of the commodity for the delay incurred in the contracted latest shipment date from the eleventh day after the month ihe cotton was due to be shipped.

例:由于买方原因造成不能按期装运的,则买方应从合同规定的最晚装运日的第十一天起,按照实际延迟的 天数,每月付给卖方货值金额1.25%的迟装费。

If the cotton fails to be shipped as scheduled due to the Buyer’s reasons, the Buyer shall compensate the Seller carrying charges equivalent to 1.25% of the value of the commodity for the delay incuncd in the contracted latest shipment date from the eleventh day after the month the cotton was due to be shipped.

例:甲方未按时交付车辆的,自延期之日起至实际交付H止,按乙方已付款依银行迟延付款的规定向乙方 支付违约金。延期交付车辆超过 日的,乙方有权解除合同,并要求甲方按相当于已交车款的 %支

付违约金或适用定金条款。

Party A Jf fail to deliver vehicle, should pay breach fine reference to bank’ s priscription on delayed payment according to party B’ s paid sum from the date of delay to actual delivery. In case fail to deliver excess days party B is entitle to cancel this contraci and require party A pay breach fine by % of paid sum or apply clause of earnest money.

例:Inspection Certificate issued by SGS at discharging which should he presented to the seller within 30 days after completion of discharging date. Otherwise any claim shall be deemed to be waived. Its Certificate is final and must show clearly actual weight (0.3% franchise allowed). No quantity claim will be made for quantity ditYerence not exceeding 0.3% of B/L weight. If shortage or surplus is beyond (he allowed franchise, the excess of (he 0.3% franchise of shortage or surplus shall be settled commercially by remittance within 30 days upon receipt of claim. Packing material weight will not be calculated.

SGS在卸货时颁布的检查证书须在完成卸货之日起30天内向卖方出示。否则任何索赔将被视为无效。证书 必须是最终的而必须清楚地标明实际重量(0.3%的免赔是允许的)。提单重量差别没有超过0.3%,则不提出 索赔。如果在免赔的基础上超出或是不足,超过了 0.3%重量差,无论是超出还是不足都将在收到索赔之日 起30天之内通过商业汇款的方式解决。包装材料的重量不计在内。

例:Subject to 0.3% franchise against B/L weight. Buyer shall have the right to send claim concerning the Quantity and Quality of the material within 30 days from the date of B/L.

按照提单.范量0.3%的免赔质量,买方有权在提单之日起30天之内提出关於材料数量和质量的索赔要求。 例:Should the seller fails to effect on time as stipulated in this contract owing to causes other than force majeure as provided in clause force majeure of this contract, the seller shall lost his pbg, and it shall be automatically transferred to the buyer’ s account by the banking system. In this case the buyer has the right to cancel this contract bul may agree to give the seller a grace period of five (5) days for delayed shipment. Penalty shall be charged at the rate of 0.3% of total I VC value for everyday the shipments is delayed. The penally shall be calculated from the 1st day after the latest date of shipment in ihe contract / 1c. The total value of penalty shall not exceed 3% of the total value of the commodity.

如果出於本合同中所述不可抗力以外的原因,卖方没有•按时依照本合同规定履行职责,卖方将失去其保证 金,保证金由银行系统自动转到买方账下。在此情况下,买方有权取消本合同,但是同意为预期的交付提 供5天的优惠期。罚金按照每逾期一天收取总提单价值的0.3%。罚款自本合同或信用证规定的最迟日起之 接的第一天算起。总罚款不应超过商品总值的3%。

例:If either party of this Contract fails to perform its obligation as stated in this contract, other than by reason of Force Majeure as per Clause 14, The concern parly shall pay 2% penalty to the other party, the penalty must be paid within 30days.

若买卖双方任何一方未能履行合同条款,除因条款第十四条款所述的不可抗力事件外,违约方须向对方支 付2%违约金.支付时间为判定为违约后30天内,

例:迟交货和罚金:如果卖方未能按合同规定及时交货(除了本合同15条款所言的不可抗力),买方同意在 卖方付罚金的前提下迟交货。罚金的金额不超过迟交货的合同货物部分的价值的5%,罚金按每7日0.5% 计算,少于7日的增加天数按7日计。如果卖方未能于合同规定的交货期之后的十周内发运,买方有权取 消该合同,除此之外,卖方仍耍将有关罚金不加拖延地付给买方。

Should ihe Sellers fail to make delivery on time as stipulated in the Conlract, with exception of Force Majeure causes specified in Clause 15 of this Contract. The Buyers shall agree to postpone (he delivery on condition that the Sellers agree to pay a penalty which shall be deducted by the paying bank from the payment. The Penalty, however, shall not exceed 5% of the total value of the goods involved in the late delivery. The rate of penalty is charged at 0.5% for every seven days. Odd days less than seven days should be counted as seven days. In case the Sellers fail to make delivery ten weeks later than the time of shipment stipulated in the Contract, the Buyers shall have the right to cancel the contract and the Sellers, in spite the cancellation, shall still pay the aforesaid penalty to ihe Buyers without delay.

二、租房合同中约定的违约金

例:甲方应按合同签订的出租日期将出租的房屋交乙方使用。如甲方逾期不交房屋的,则每逾期一天应向 乙方支付租金双倍的违约金。 Party A shall hand over the leasing items to party B on the date as prescribed in

this contract totherwise giving twice of the rent as liquidated damages by the day.

例:乙方逾期交付租金及物业管理费,除如数补交外,按日支付逾期租金款项的万分之四的滞纳金,逾期 交付水电费等其他费用的,按逾期交纳款项的千分之一支付滞纳金。In case of delay in paying rent or fees of property management beyond the prescribed period, party B shall undertake belated payment 4/KXJ00 more of rent by the day. For fees of power or water, it shall be 1/1000 more by the day.

例:中方逾期付款每天按应支付费用0.3%向乙方支付违约金。支付乙方的款项应以人民酹,并以电汇方式 汇入指定的帐户.

If payment is over 3() days, an interest of 0.3% per day will be levied. The Client’ s payment should be made payable to Osage Art Consultancy specified RMB dollar account.

例:租赁期间,甲方提前收回房屋的,甲方应按即时月租的租金向乙方支付十二个月的违约金。相反乙方 未经甲方同意中途擅自退租的,乙方应按即时月租金向甲方支付十二个月的违约金。In case party A takes back the leasing items before prescribed time and party A shall pay 12 times as much as the rent then and there as compensation .On the contrary ,in case party B quit the contract and move out of the leasing items before the prescribed time, he shall also pay 12 times as much as the rent then and there as compensation.

例:If Party B fails to pay the Deposit or other fees payable under this Contract, or Party A has paid for Party B such other fees payable by Party, Party B shall pay late payment interests fbr the period of late payment at the rate of 0.5%o of the outstanding amount per day.

如乙方未能按照本合同规定支付应付的保证金和其他款项给甲方,或甲方为乙方垫付应由乙方支付的其他 款项,乙方应付迟延支付期间的迟延利息,该迟延利息应按日息为所欠款项的0.5%)计能。

三、雇佣合同中的违约金

例: 因乙方未及时足额支付甲方员工劳动报酬(包括但不限于工资、加班工资等),导致甲方遭受任何处

罚、索赔、损失的,均应由乙方向甲方作出足额补偿。

If Party B fails to make full payment of labor remuneration of Party A’ s Staff on time (including but not limited lo pay and overtime payment), and therefore Party A suffers any penalty, claim or loss, Party B shall make full compensation to Party

例: 乙方未按本合同和附件的约定按时足额支付退回补偿和(或)额外退回补偿的,除应足额支付外,

还应在甲方提出要求时,按应付金额百分之一百的标准向甲方加付违约金。

If Party B fails to pay return compensation and/or additional rctuni compensation in full and on time in accordance with the provisions of this Contract and the Attachments hereto, it shall, in addition to full-amount payment, pay to Party A penalty, at the rate of 100% of the sum due upon request.

例:乙方应严格遵守甲方的工作规定以及规章制度,尽职尽责,否则,甲方有权随时解除合同并追究因此 而造成的经济损失,并有权对所造成的经济损失在乙方的报酬中作相应扣除。

Party B should abide by Party A’ s working systems, rules and regulations. Otherwise, Party A is entitled to cancel the contract and claim a coiTesponding compensation of any economic loss from Party B ‘ s payment.

四、知识产权、专利合同违约金条款

例:.如乙方的技术资料不能按本合同附件二规定的时间交付,乙方则须按下列比例支付罚款给中方:

If Party B fails to despatch the said documents within the stipulated period as per Appendix 2 Party B shall pay penalty to Party A in the following proportions:

(1)迟交1至4周,罚款为合同总价的X%;

percent of the total Contract price for delay from I to 4 weeks.

⑵迟交5至8周,罚款为合同总价的X%:

percent of the total contract price for delay form 5 to 8 weeks.

(3)迟交超过8周,罚款为合同总价的X%;

percent of the total contract price for delay exceeding weeks;

例:乙方按本条规定被罚款时,并不解除其继续交付技术资料的义务。

The payment of penalties by Party B to Party A as stipulated in Article 9 shll not rclcve party B of its obligation to deliver the said documents.

如果动方迟交技术资料6个月以上,甲方有权终止合同。乙方须将甲方已给交付的全部金额,并加年利X% 的利息,一并退还甲方二

Whenever the delay in delivering the said documents exceeds 6 months, Party A shall be entitled to terminate the Contract at its discretion and Party B shall be obliged to re- fund Party A all its payments together with the corresponding ingcrcst at the rate of… percent per annum.

由于乙方责任,验收不合格,造成甲方有能正常投产而终止合同时,乙方应退还甲方已经支付给乙方的全 部金额,并加年利X %的利息。

If the verification tests fail with the responsibility lying with Party B and

if, as thcrcsult, Party A cannot start normal production with the Contract having to be terminated t Party B shall erfund all the payments previously made by Party A to Party B together with the interest at the rate of… percent per annum.

如因乙原因,产品部分性能指标没能达到合同产品的规定时,机具体情况,乙方须按合同总价X%予以赔 偿,但是,若因甲方原因产品没能达到性能指标时,甲方应按合同规定支付金部金额。

If only some aspects of the properties of the Product arc not up (o the standards asstipulatcd in the Contract and the responsibility lies with Party B, Party B shall compensate Party A with … percent of the total Contract price according to Concrcdt circumstances. Ifthc responsibility lies with Party A ♦ Party a shall pay the total Contract price in accordancewith the stipulations.

例:若任何一批技术文件的交付晚于本合同附件二规定的交付日期,从规定交付日期的第二天算起,乙方 应按下列规定向甲方支付:

  1. 6 If any portion of the technical documentations is delivered late as specified in Appendix 2 of the contract. Party B shall, from the 2nd day, pay to Party A a penalty as follows:

 

迟交1—4周每交迟1周罚款为合同总值的0.1%:

For late delivery of 1 to 4 weeks, the rate of penalty shall be 0.1 % of the total contract price per each delayed week;

但上述罚款的合计不能超过合同总值的5%。

However, the total amount of the above penalty shall not exceed 5% of the total contract price.

乙方在按照8. 6款的规定被罚款时,将不解除乙方继续交付技术资料义务。

The payment of any penalty by Party B according to 8. 6 shall not release the obligation of Party B to continue the delivery of the technical documentations.

例:乙方如果迟交技术文件超过4个月则甲方有权终止合同。在这种情况下,乙方必须将甲方己经支付的 全部金额并加上年利10%,尽速一并退还甲方。最迟不得超过乙方接到甲方终止合同的通知后三十天。

In case the late delivery of the technical documentations exceeds 4 months, Party A shall have the right to terminate the contract. In this case, Party B shall refund lo Party A the amount which Parly A has paid to Party B plus the related interest at the rate of 10% per year immediately, but in no case shall such

refunding by Party B exceeds 30 days from receipt from Party A of the notice to terminate the contract.

例:按本合同第七章规定,由于乙方责任,验收三次不合格,且在双方同意延长的时间内,乙方仍不能消 除缺陷时,则甲方有权终止合同。乙方将甲方全部已付金额连同年利10%,在8. 8款所规定的时间内,一 并退还甲方,并承担由此给甲方造成的一切损失。

  1. 9 In case the acceptance of the contract products according to Chapter 7 cannot be successful after three attempts due to Party B*s responsibility, and within the mutually agree-upon extended period, Party B still cannot correcl the defects, Party A shall have the right to terminate the contract. In this case, Party B shall

refund to Party A the amount which Party A has paid to Party B plus the related interest at the annual rate of 10% within the time specified in 8. 8 and be responsible for the losses thus caused to Party A.

五、工程合同中的违约金

例:工程期间,因乙方原因未能按期完工,乙方应当承担责任,并每一天按合同总额的千分之一支付甲方 违约金,即美元整。

In the event Party B shall fail to complete the work in time owing to reasons that Party B shall be held liable» Party B shall pay a penalty for such default based on one out of a thousand of the total price for installation work per day, i.e. U.S.D, only for each day of such default.

例:发包人应按本合同规定的金额和日期向设计人支付设计费,每逾期支付一天,应承担应支付金额千分 之二的逾期违约金,且设计人提交设计文件的时间顺延。逾期超过30天以上时,设计人有权暂停履行下阶 段工作,并书面通知发包人.发包人的上级或设计审批部门对设计文件不审批或本合同项目停缓建,发包 人均应支付应付的设计费。

The Employer should pay charges for design to the Designer at the amount and date provided in this Contract. For each day of overdue payment, 2%o of (he overdue payment shall be paid as damages for overdue payment and the time for delivery by the Designer shall be extended accordingly. Where the delay of payment has exceeded 30 days, the Designer shall have (he right to suspend the performance of the work at the next stage and give written notice to the Employer. In case the higher authority or competent department of design approval would not approve the design documents or the engineering construction of this contract is suspended or stopped, the Employer should pay the payable charges for design.

例:本改造工程的委托业务如果在超过指定工期15天仍然没有完成,则按超过天数每天向甲方支付本合同 金额0.1%的违约金。但如果因甲方原因造成超过指定工期15天仍然没有完成,则乙方不支付违约金,工 期顺延或双方协商其他解决办法。本条款不适用于由第三者造成的玳大伤害、战争、动乱等不可抗力情况。

Party B agrees to pay as default fine the sum of (0.1 % of contract price) for each consecutive calendar day if contractor fail to complete the work after 15 days of original completion day. If contractor can not complete the work owing to ihe reasons caused by owner, party B shall not pay any default fine, the work will be delayed or could come up other solutions by both parties. This item shall not apply grievous injury, war, turmoil etc force majeure.

例:.如果由于承包商的原因导致性能测试的再次失败,而双方并无继续重新测试的协议,则对最后一次 测试的结果进行评估。承包商将根据附录X的规定向业主支付违约赔偿费,费率不超过合同价格的X X%。

In the event of any repeat of a perfoiTnance test failing for reasons imputable to the Contractor, and there being no mutual agreement to continue re-iesting, ihe results of the final test will be measured and the Contractor will be liable to pay to the Owner liquidated damages on the scale set out in Appendix (•••) up to a maximum of (•••) % of the Contract Price.

如果承包商因自身的原因未能在合同生效后的X个月内获得整个工厂的最后验收合格证书,承包商须根据 附录X的规定向业主每月支付相当于合同价格X X%的拖延赔偿费,但最多不超过合同价格的X X%。

If the Contractor is unable for reasons within his control to obtain a final acceptance certificate for the whole Plant by (•••) months from the effective date of this Contract, he shall be liable to pay to the Owner for each month’s delay liquidated damages of (…)% of the Contract Price up to a maximum of (…)% of the Contract Price in accordance with Appendix (•••).

例:如果承包商未能按第81条规定的全部工程竣工期限完成整个工程,或未能在第76条规定的时间内完 成任何区段,则承包商应向雇主支付投标书附件中写明的相应金额作为该项违约的损害赔偿费,而不是作 为自相应的竣工期限起至颁发整个工程或相应区段的移交证书之日止之间的每日或不足一日的罚款,但上 述损害赔偿费应限制在投标书附件中注明的前提下,雇主可从应支付或将支付给承包商的任何款项中扣除 该项损害赔偿费。此损害赔偿费的支付或扣除不应解除承包商对完成该项工程的义务或合同规定的承包商 的任何其他义务和责任。

If the Contractor fails to comply with the time for Completion in accordance with Clause 81, for the whole of the Works or. if applicable, any Section within the relevant time prescribed by Clause 76, then the Contractor shall pay to the Employer the relevant sum stated in the Appendix to Tender as liquidated damages for such default and not as a penalty (which sum shall be the only money due from the Contractor for such default) for every day or part of a day which shall elapse between the relevant Time for Completion and the date staled in a Taking-Over Certificate of the whole of ihe Works or the Appendix to Tender. The Employer may, without prejudice to any other meihcxi of recovery, deduct the amount of such damages from any money due or to become due to the Contractor. The payment or deduction of such damages shall not relieve the Contractor from his obligation to complete the Works, or from any other of his obligations and liabilities under the Contract.

例:发包人应按本合同规定的金额和日期向设计人支付设计费,每途期支付一天,应承担应支付金额千分 之二的逾期违约金,且设计人提交设计文件的时间顺延。逾期超过30天以上时,设计人布■权暂停履行下阶 段工作,并书面通知发包人。发包人的上级或设计审批部门对设计文件不审批或本合同项目停缓建,发包 人均应支付应付的设计费。

The Employer should pay charges for design (o the Designer at the amounl and date provided in this Contract. For each day of overdue payment, 2%o of the overdue payment shall be paid as damages for overdue payment and the time for delivery by the Designer shall be extended accordingly. Where (he delay of payment has exceeded 30 days, the Designer shall have the right (o suspend the performance of the work at the next stage and give written notice to the Employer. In case the higher authority or competent department of design approval would not approve the design documents or the engineering construction of this contract is suspended or stopped, the Employer should pay the payable charges for design.

例:由于乙方原因逾期竣工的,每逾期一天,乙方向甲方支付工程造价0.1%。(大写:千分之一)的违约金

If Party B causes any delay to the completion of this project, then Party B must pay to Party A a fee of 0.1 %o( in words: l/1000)ofthe total overall project fee for each day beyond the scheduled completion date.

44.商务货物买卖合同中的保险条款

保险条款是国际货物买卖合同的重要组成部分之一,它涉及买卖双方的利益。一般来说,保险条款所涉 及的内容有保险金额、投保险别、保险费、保险单证和保险适用条款等。保险金额(Amount Insured)是指保 险公司可能赔偿的最高金额,习惯上按发票金额加一成(10%)预期利润和业务费用。

一、常用条款约定

I、Insurance: To be covered by (he Seller for 110 percent of the invoice value against War Risks and Strike Risk as per Institute Cargo Clauses.118.保险:由卖方根据货物协会条款投保一切险和战争险、罢工险,保险额为商业 发票金额的110%。

2、保险:由一方负责,按本合同总值110%投保 险。

Insurance: To be covered by the for 110% of (hcfull invoice value against.

3、除经约定保险归买方投保者外,由卖方向中国的保险公司投保。如买方需增加保险额及/或需加保其他 险,可于装船前提出,经卖方同意后代为投保,其费用由买方负担。

Except in cases where the insurance is covered by the Buyers as arranged, insurance is to be covered by the Sellers with a Chinese insurance company. If insurance for additional amount and /or for other insurance terms is required by the Buyers, prior notice to this effect must reach the Sellers before shipment and is subject to the Sellers? agreement, and the extra insurance premium shall be for the Buyers’ account.

 

4> 保险:由买方投保 Insurance: to be arranged by the Buyer.

5、INSURANCE: To be covered by the seller fori 10% of invoice value against All Risks and war risks.运输保险: 由卖方负责按发票金额的110%投保一•切险及战争险,

  • …risks clauses of the P.I.C.C. subject to C.I.C.

根据中国人民保险公司的保险条款投保……险

  • marine insurance policies or certificates in negotiable form, for 110% full CIF invoice covering the risks of War & W.A. as per the Peoples Insurance Co. of China dated 1/1/1976. with extended cover up to Kuala Lumpur with claims payable in (at) Kuala Lumpur in the cunency of draft (in*espective of percentage)

作为可议付格式的海运保险单或凭证按照到岸价的发票金额110%投保中国人民保险公司1976年1月1日 的战争险和基本险,负责到吉隆坡为止。按照汇票所使用的货币在吉隆坡赔付(无免赔率)

8、insurance policy or certificate settling agent’s name is to be indicated.

any additional premium to cover uplift between 10 and 17% may be drawn in excess of the credit ualue

保险单或凭证须表明理赔代理人的名称,保险费如增加10-17%可在本证金额以外支付

  • insurance policy (certificate) … Name of Assured to be showed: A.B.C.Co.

Ltd.保险单或凭证作成以A.B.C.有限公司为被保险人

  • insurance policy or certificate covering W.A. (or F.P.A.) and war risks as per ocean marine cargo clause and ocean marine cargo war risk clauses of the People’s Insurance Company of China dated 1/1/1981

保险单或凭证根据中国人民保险公司1981年1月1日的海洋运输货物保险条款和海洋运输货物战争险条款 投保水渍险(或平安险)和战争险

11、insurance policy/certificatc covering all war mines risks

保险单/凭证投保一•切险、战争险、地雷险(注:mines解释为地雷,屈于战争险的负责范围,可以接受)

12、 W.A. this insurance must be valid for period of 60 days after the

discharge of goods 水渍险在货物卸船后60天有效

13、in triplicate covering all risks and war risks including W.A. and breakage

in excess of five per cent on the whole consignment and including W/W up to

buyers godown in Penang

投保一切险和战争险包括水渍险,破碎损失有5%绝对免赔率,按全部货物计算,包括仓至仓条款,负责到 买方在槟城的仓库为止(的保险单)一式三份

14、insurance policy issued of endorsed to order … for the face value of

invoice plus 10% covering including war with 15 days after arrival of goods at

destination, only against FPA and T.P.N.D.

按发票面值加10%投保战争险,货物到达目的地后15天有效,仅负责平安险和盗窃提货不着险的保险单开 给或背书给……

15、 insurance policy or certificate issued by an insurance Co. with W.P.A.

clause covering the merchandise for about 10% above the full invoice value

including unlimited transhipment with claims payable at Singapore

由保险公司签发的保险单或凭证按发票总金额另加10%投保水渍险,包括非限定转船的损失,在新加坡赔

16、covering all eventual risks 投保一切以外风险

17、covering all marine risks 投保一切海运风险

18、marine insurance policy including “both ot blame” collision clauses and

fully covering the shipment海运保险单包括负责船舶互撞条款和全部货载

19> insurance … including deviation clauses 保险包括绕道条款

20、covering overland transportation all risks as per overland transportation

cargo insurance clauses (train, trucks) of the People’s Insurance Company of

China dated…

按照中国人民保险公司X年X月X日陆上运输货物保险条款(火车、汽车)投保陆上运输一切险

21、covering air transportation all risk as per air transportation cargo

insurance clauses of P.I.C.C.

按照中国人民保险公司X年X月X日航空运输货物保险条款投保航空运输一切险

22、insurance policy or certificate covering parcel post all risks including

war risks as per parcel post insurance clauses and parcel post war risk

insuracne clauses of the People’s Insurance Company of China dated…

保险单或凭证按照中国人民保险公司x年xiixri邮包保险条款和邮包战争险条款投保邮包一切险和邮包战 争险

 

23、covering all risks including war risks as per ocean marine cargo clauses and air transportation cargo insurance clauses and ocean marine cargo war risk clauses and air transportation cargo war risk clauses of the People’s Insurance Company of China dated…

按照中国人民保险公司X年X月X日海洋运输货物保险条款和航空运输货物保险条款以及海洋运输货物战争 险条款和航空运输货物战争险条款投保海空联运一切险和战争险

24、covering all risks as per ocean marine cargo clauses and overland transportation cargo insurance clause (train, truck) of P.I.C.C. dated…

按照中国人民保险公司X年X月X日海洋运输货物保险条款和陆上运输货物保险条款(火车、汽车)投保海陆 联运一切险

25 covering all risks including war risks as per overland transportation cargo insurance clauses (train,truck) and air transportation cargo insurance clauses and air transportation cargo war risk clause and war clauses (for cargo iransporlation by rail) of the People’s Insurance Company of China dated…

按照中国人民保险公司X年X月X日陆运货物保险条款(火车、汽车)和空运货物保险条款以及空运货物战争 险条款和铁路货运战争条款投保陆空陆联运一•切险和战争险

26、including shortage in weight in excess of ().5% (with 0.5% franchise) on the

whole consignment包括短量损失有0.5%绝对免赔率(0.5%相对免赔率),按全部货物计算

27x including risk of breakage and clashing 包括破裂或凹疙险

28 > including risk of chipping & denting 包括碎裂或凹弯险

29、including risk of bad odour 包括恶味险

30、including damage by hooks, oils, muds and contact with other cargo (insured value)包括钩损、油污、泥污以及和他物接触所致的损失(以保险价值为限)

31、including damage caused by rain fresh and/or water, internal combustion (total or partial loss) 包括淡水雨淋,自燃所致的损失(包括全部或部分损失)

32、including loss and/or damage caused by sea water, fresh-water, acid,grease 包括海水、淡水、酸蚀、油脂所致的损失

33、 including T.P.N.D. loss and/or damage caused by heat, ships sweat and

 

odour, hoop-rust, breakage of packing

包括偷窃提货不着,受热船舱发汗,串味,铁箍锈损,包装破裂所致的损失

34、including damage caused by infestation mould 包括虫蛀霉烂的损失

35、including damage due to rough handling during transit subject to C.T.C.

按照中国保险条款包括运输途中操作不当所致的损失

36、including loss and/or damage from any external cause as per CIC

按照中国保险条款包括外来原因所致的损失

37、including damage by slings, stains, grease, acids

包括吊具、斑污、油脂、酸蚀造成的损失

38、excluding risk of breakage 不包括破碎险

39、including the breakage does not cover the goods remarked in th invoice as

originally damage包括破碎险,但不负责发票所示之货物的原残损失

40、excluding natural loss in weight 不包括途耗短jft的损失

41、including 60 days after discharge of the goods at port of destination (or

at station of destination) subject to C.T.C.

按照中国保险条款货物在目的港卸船(或在目的地车站卸车)后60天为止

  • including W.A. & risk of fire for 60 days in customs warehouse after

discharge of the goods at port of destination subject to CIC

按照中国保险条款投保水渍险和火险,在目的港卸货后存入海关仓库60天为止

43、this insurance must be valid for a period of 60 days after arrival of

merchandise at inland destination本保险扩展到货物到达内地的目的地后60天有效

  • insurance policy or certificate covering EP.A. including the risk of war

and risks of S.R.C.C. as per I.C.C. dated…and institute war clauses dated…and

institute S.R.C.C. clauses dated…

按照X年X月X日伦敦保险学会条款和X年X月X日学会战争险条款以及X年X月X日学会罢工、暴动、民变险条 款投保平安险、战争险和罢工、暴动、民变险

  • the People’s Insurance Company of China investment insurance (political risks ) clauses

中国人民保险公司投资保险(政治风险)条款

139/ 781

 

46> property insurance clauses 财产保险条款

47、the People’s Insurance Company of China Erection all risks clauses 中国人民保险公司安装工程一切险条款

48 > the People’s Insurance Company of China contractors all risks clauses

中国人民保险公司建筑工程-•切险条款

二、险别 Risks & Coverage

  • free from particular average (ERA.) 平安险
  • with particular average (W.A.)水渍险(基本险)
  • all risk一切险(综合险)
  • total loss only (T.L.O.) 全损险
  • war risk 战争险
  • cargo (extended cover) clauses 货物(扩展)条款
  • additional risk 附加险
  • from warehouse to warehouse clauses 仓至仓条款
  • theft,pilferage and nondelivery (T.P.N.D.)盗窃提货不着险
  • rain fresh water damage 淡水雨淋险
  • risk of shortage 短量险
  • risk of contamination 沾污险
  • risk of leakage 渗漏险
  • risk of clashing & breakage 碰损破碎险
  • risk of odour 串味险
  • damage caused by sweating and/or heating 受潮受热险
  • hook damage 钩损险
  • loss and/or damage caused by breakage of packing 包装破裂险
  • risk of rusling 锈损险
  • risk of mould 发霉险
  • strike, riots and civcl commotion (S.R.C.C.) 罢工、暴动、民变险
  • risk of spontaneous combustion 自燃险
  • deterioration risk 腐烂变质险
  • inherent vice risk 内在缺陷险
  • risk of natural loss or normal loss 途耗或自然损耗险
  • special additional risk 特别附加险
  • failure to delivery 交货不到险
  • import duty 进口关税险
  • on deck 仓面险
  • rejeclion 拒收险
  • aflatoxin黄曲霉素险
  • tire risk extension clause-for storage of cargo at destination Hongkong, including Kowloon, or Macao

出口货物到香港(包括九龙在内)或澳门存仓火险责任扩展条款

  • survey in customs risk 海关检验险
  • survey at jetty risk 码头检验险
  • institute war risk 学会战争险
  • overland transportation risks Pili运险
  • overland transportat沁n all risks 陆运综合险
  • air transportation risk 航空运输险
  • air transportation all risk 航空运输综合险
  • air transportation war risk 航空运输战争险
  • parcel post risk 邮包险
  • parcel post all risk 邮包综合险
  • parcel post war risk 邮包战争险
  • investment insurance (political risks)投资保险(政治风险)
  • property insurance 财产保险
  • erection all risks 安装工程一切险
  • contractors all risks 建筑工程一切险

2.the stipulations for insurance 保险条款

  • ) marine insurance policy 海运保险单
  • specific policy 单独保险单
  • voyage policy航程保险单
  • time policy期限保险单.
  • floating policy (or open policy) 流动保险单
  • ocean marine cargo clauses海洋运输货物保险条款
  • ocean marine insurance clauses (frozen products) 海洋运输冷藏货物保险条款
  • ocean marine cargo war clauses海洋运输货物战争险条款
  • ocean marine insurance clauses (woodoil in bulk)

海洋运输散装桐油保险条款

  • overland transportation insurance clauses (train, trucks) 陆上运输货物保险条款(火车、汽车)
  • overland transportation insurance clauses (frozen products) 陆上运输冷藏货物保险条款
  • air transportation cargo insurance clauses 航空运输货物保险条款
  • air transportation cargo war risk clauses 航空运输货物战争险条款
  • parcel post insurance clauses 邮包保险条款
  • parcel post war risk insurance clauses 邮包战争保险条款
  • livestock & poultry insurance clauses (by sea, land or air) 活牲畜、家禽的海上、陆上、航空保险条款

45.英文合同的生效口和有效期条款

The Effective date and Duration Provision of Contract

  • 以合同的生效日作为计算基准日

合同的生效日期在合同中非常重要,合同有效期一般都是以合同生效日作为基准日。合同中约定的当事人 的权利义务享有或承担的起始日期都是以合同的生效日作为计算基准日。

如:

The BUYER shall make an advance payment of twenty million US Dollars ($2,000,(300.00) to the SELLER within fifteen (15) days after the EFFECTIVE DATE of this PURCHASE and SALES CONTRACT.

买方在采购合同生效之日起15个工作日内向卖方支付200万美元的预付款。

再如:The CONTRACTOR shall complete WORK within six (6) months after the EFFECTIVE DATE of this

DESIGN CONTRACT.

承包商自本设计合同生效之日起六个月内完成工作。

本合同的有效期从合同生效日起算共 年。

The Conlract shall be valid for a period of years from the Date of Effectiveness of the Conlract.

如:This AGREEMENT shall commence on 7th, November 2007(“* EFFECTIVE DATE °) and shall maintain in full force and effect for three(3) years after the EFFECTIVE DATE。

本合同自2007年11月7日生效,有效期为三年。

 

为避免争议,一般在落拟合同时直接在合同中约定生效日,这种约定主耍存以下几种表达方式:

例I在定义部分,就“生效日”进行定义,如:

EFFECTIVE DATE means the date on which the CONTRACT, after it is signed, be approved by the Ministry of Commerce of the People,达 s Republic of China.

本合同生效日是中华人民共和国商务部批准之日。

例2 在合同中单列一个生效和有效期条款,比如:

This AGREEMENT shall commence with effect from 2nd October 2005( “EFFFECTIVE DATE ” ) and shall continue until 2nd October 2010 unless terminated earlier in accordance with its (cans and conditions.

本合同自2005年10月2 口起生效,除非根据本合同约定条款终止,有效期至2010年10月2 口。

  • 在所附条件成立时为合同生效基准日

合同生效除了以具体的日期表述外,还可以约定以某个事件的发生或不发生作为其生效起点,相当于附 条件,只有在所附条件成立时合同才生效,比如在一个中外合资合同中:

The AGREEMENT shall take affect upon the approval from the Ministry of Commerce of the People’ s Republic of China.

本协议自中国商务部批准之日起生效。

再如:The AGREEMENT shall be deemed to have come into effect on the date when Italy has passed the LAW to cooperate with China conccniing SERVICES.

当意大利方面依据法律批准了与中国的该服务时,本协议视为生效。

如合同白签字之日起经过六个月仍不能生效,则双方有权取消本合同。

If the Conlract cannot come into force within 6 (six) months after the date of signing the Contract, both parties shall have the right to cancel the Contract.

This AGREEMENT shall take effect from the EFFECTIVE DATE provided that if the EEFFECITVE DATE has not occurred by 30 November 2000, this AGREEMENT shall (unless the PARTIES agree otherwise) automatically tenninate and each of the PARTIES hereto shall be released from any further obligations hereunder0

本协议生效日期为2000年11月30日,但如果届时未能生效,除非各方另有约定,本协议自动解除,各方 互不承担责任。

采购协议的生效视另一个事件是否发生。为避免合同签订后其效力处于不确定的状态拖得太长,可在合同 中约定,在某种条件下,合同永不生效,比如:

This AGREEMENT shall never take effect provided that PARTY B cannot gel the approval from ihe competent authority within thirty (30) days after the signature of this AGREEMENT.

合同签订后30日内乙方没有获得自己政府批准,则本协议自动解除。

143 / 781

 

三、关于合同有效期的持续期间

合同有效期的约定方式比较固定,通常为:

I)从生效日到某个具体口期;

  • ) 一个固定期间;(
  • 一方可以通过通知随时终止。

例】明确约定一个具体日期。

This AGREEMENT shall become effective as of 1 May, 2004 and remain valid until 31st, December 2007.

本协议有效期从2OQ4年五月I日至2007年12月31日。

本合同自生效之H起 年有效,有效期满后合同将自动失效。

The Contract shall he in force for 5 years from the effective date of the Contract. After the expiration f its term of validity, the contract shall automatically become null and void.

The term of this PATENT LICENSE AGREEMENT shall be from the EFFECTIVE DATE to the full end of the term or terms for which PATENT RIGHTS have not expired on if only TECHNOLOGY RIGHTS are licensed and no PATENT RIGHTS are applicable, for a term of 15 years

本专利许可协议有效期从生效日起至专利权有效期内的期间,为期15年,只耍技术权利得到许可,而且该 技术权利不涉及专利权问题。

.以专利的有效期结束作为合同有效期最后一日。在合同中约定一个固定期间,作为合同有效期。如:

The AGREEMENT shall remain in effect for a period of five ⑸ years from the EFFECTIVE DATE, unless earlier terminated under the provisions hereunder.

本协议从生效之日起有效期为5年,除非依据本协议另有约定提前解除。

在一个勘探开发合同中:

The term of the CONTRACT shall include an exploration period, a development period and a production period: 本合同有效期包括勘探期、开发期和生产期:

The exploration period, beginning on COM M ENC EM ENT DATE, shall be divided into two (2) phases and shall consist of five (5) consecutive CALENDAR YEARS, unless otherwise required.

开发期从起始日连续5年,分为两个阶段,除非另有约定:

The two ⑵ phases shall be as follows: 两个阶段为:

  1. the first phase of three (3) CALENDAR YEARS (the first CALENDAR YEAR through the third CALENDAR YEAR) for core testing;

第一阶段为期三年(第i年至第三年),为核心测试阶段。

  1. the second phase of two ⑵CALENDAR YEARS (the fourth CALENDAR YEARS through the fifth CALENDAR YEARS ) for PILOT DEVELOPMENT.

第二阶段为两年(第四年至第五年),为实验开发阶段。

一方通知对方随时终止合同的约定:

This AGREEMENT shall take effect as of the date first above written and shall maintain in full force and effect until earlier termination by PARTY A in accordance with the terms and conditions herein.

本协议于上述日期生效,在甲方依据本协议约定通知提前终止之前,应一直保持效力。

PARTY A shall have rhe right to terminate this AGREEMENT at any lime in its own discretion by serving a notice to PARTY B.

甲方有权在任何时候向乙方发出通知终止本协议。

This AGREEMENT shall come into effect on [the date of execution] , and shall continue in force until terminated by cither PARTY giving to the other not less than days notice expiring on Ltermination date].

本协议应于日起生效,应一直有效至任何一方提前至少日通知另一方终止协议,在此情形下,协议应于 [终止日期]终止。

以下是一条典型的期限条款,其中对于终止日期提供了多种选择:

This AGREEMENT shall [come] [be deemed to have come] into effect on [insert date] [the date of execution ] , and, unless tenninated earlier in accordance with clause X, shall continue in force until

本协议应[或者应视为]于[插入日期]起生效,除非按照本协议笫X条提前终止,否则应一直有效直至

[Option I: fixed date] insert date.[选择一:固定日期」插入日期

[Option II: expiry of notice on a fixed date or subsequent anniversary] [选择二:需提前通知终止,且终止日期为合同签署后某一个特别约定的日期」

terminated by either PARTY giving to the other not less than [years’ /months’ /days’ ] notice expiring on [insert earliest termination date] [or the same day in any subsequent year].

任何一方提前[X年/月/日]通知另一方终止协议,在此情形下,协议应于[插入最早的终止日期][或此 后每周年的同一日期]终止。

 

[Option III: expir)f of notice given at any time][选择三:可于任何时候通知终止]

terminated by either PARTY giving to the other not less than [years’ /months, /days’ ] notice, which may expire at any time.

任何一方提前[X年/月/日]通知另一方终止协议,在此情形下,协议可于通知的任何时间终止。

[Option IV: minimum period and thereafter subject to termination at any time]

terminated by either PARTY giving to the other not less than [years, /months’ /days’ ] notice expiring at any lime after [insert date giving minimum period 1 .

[选择四:规定一段最短的有效期限,在该期限届满之后,可于任何时候通知终止]

在[插入最短的有效期限]后,任何一方提前[X年/月/日]通知另一方终止协议,在此情形下,协议 可于通知的任何时间终止。

再如:

This AGREEMENT shall lake effect on the date first above written and shall maintain in full force and effect for 3 years subject to an automatic extension of a maximum of 3 years.

有效期三年,但如果义务尚未履行完毕,则可以自动延长不超过三年的期限。

The duration of the AGREEMENT shall be 1 (one) year effective from the date of signing by both PARTIES and may be automatically extended for an additional period of 3 months upon mutual agreement of the PARTIES. 本协议有效期从签署之日起为一年,期满如各方皆同意,自动续期三年。

This AGREEEMENT shall have effect for an initial period of five (5) years commencing on and from the date of this AGREEMENT and thereafter for an unlimiled number of subsequent periods of five (5) years, each of which shall commence on and from the day immediately following the conclusion of the immediately preceding five (5) year period, until tenninated in accordance with the provisions hereunder.

本协议从为期5年的第一阶段起,随后不限制次数的连续的每次为期5年的阶段,每个阶段紧接前一个阶 段,直到依据本协议约定终止。

这实际上并未直接约定合同的有效期,因为可以无限延期,有效期并不确定,只能依靠签约方的通知终止。

四、合同有效期结束后未尽事项的约定

由于合同终止,合同双方的权利义务自然终止,但是否意味着合同双方对对方不再承担任何的责任,合同 终止,合同所有条款的效力是否全部失效。为了避免出现这样的争议,在草拟合同时,最好在合同中加上 下面这两个标准条款,以专利许可协议为例:

No termination of this AGREEMENT or the license granted hereunder shall relieve LICENSEE of any obligation or liability accrued hereunder prior to such termination.

合同终止前产生的义务和责任并不因此而终止。

 

The obligations of the PARTIES under this Clause 5 of CONFIDENTIALITY shall survive the expiry or the termination of this AGREEMENT for whatever reason.

合同终止,但保密义务仍然继续。

不过,如果这种义务是约束自己的客户,则最好约定一个合同终止后的保密最高时限,比如:

The obligations of the PARTIES under this Clause 5 of CON Fl DENT1ALIT Y shall survive the expiry or the tennination of this AGREEMENT by three years for whatever reason.

因此,保密义务在合同终止后三年内继续存在,但三年后该义务解除。

46.英文合同中付款条款对信用证使用的约定

信用证 英语为:letter of credit。缩写为:L/C或LOC。

信用证(LetterofCrcdil,L/C)是指由银行(开证行)依照(申请人)的要求和指示或自己主动,在符合信 用证条款的条件下,凭规定单据向第三者(受益人)或其指定方进行付款的书面文件。即信用证是一种银 行开立的有条件的承诺付款的书面文件。

在国际贸易活动,买卖双方可能互不信任,买方担心预付款后,卖方不按合同要求发货:卖方也担心 在发货或提交货运单据后买方不付款。因此需要两家银行做为买卖双方的保证人,代为收款交单,以银行 信用代替商业信用。银行在这一活动中所使用的工具就是信用证。

一、Kinds of L/C信用证类别

  • .revocable IVC/irrevocable IJC 可撤销信用证/不可撤销佶用证
  • .confirmed L/C/unconfirmed L/C 保兑信用证/不保兑信用证
  • .sighi L/C/usance L/C 即期信用证/远期信用证
  • .transferable L/C(or) assignable L/C (or) transmissible L/C /untransferable L/C

可转让信用证/不可转让信用证

  • .divisible L7C/undivisible L7C可分割信用证/不可分割信用证
  • .revolving L/C 循环信用证
  • .L/C with T/T reimbursement clause 带电汇条款信用证
  • .without recourse UC/with recourse IJC 无追索权信用证/有追索权信用证

9doeumentary L7C/clean L/C 跟单信用证/光票信用证

  • .deferred payment L/C/anticipatory L/C 延付信用证/预支信用证
  • .back to back UCreciprocal L/C 对背信用证/对开信用证
  • .traveller’s L/C (orzcircular L/C) 旅行信用证

二、Names of Parties Concerned 有关信用证当事人

147/ 781

 

  • .opener 开证人
  • applicant开证人(申请开证人)
  • principal开证人(委托开证人)
  • accountee 开证人
  • accreditor开证人(委托开证人)
  • opener开证人
  • for account of Messrs 付(某人)帐
  • at the request of Messrs 应(某人)请求
  • on behalf of Messrs 代表某人
  • by order of Messrs 奉(某人)之命
  • by order of and for account of Messrs 奉(某人)之命并付其帐户
  • at the request of and for account of Messrs 应(某人)得要求并付其帐户
  • in accordance with instmetion received from accreditors

根据己收到得委托开证人得指示

  • .beneficiaryr受益人
  • beneficiary 受益人
  • in favour of以(某人)为受益人
  • in one*s favour 以 为受益人
  • favouring yourselves 以你本人为受益人
  • .drawee付款人(或称受票人,指汇票)
  • to drawn on (or :upon)以(某人)为付款人
  • to value on以(某人)为付款人
  • to issued on 以(某人)为付款人
  • .drawer 出票人
  • .advising bank 通知行
  • advising bank 通知行
  • the notifying bank 通知行
  • advised through…bank 通过 银行通知
  • advised by airmail/cable through…bank 通过 银行航空信/电通知

6.opening bank 开证行

  • ) opening bank 开证行
  • issuing bank 开证行
  • establishing bank 开证行
  • .negotiation bank 议付行
  • negotiating bank 议付行
  • negotiation bank 议付行
  • .paying bank 付款行
  • .reimbursing bank 偿付行
  • .the confirming bank 保兑行

三、Amount of the L/C 信用证金额

Amount of the L/C 信用证金额

  • .amount RMB ¥…金额:人民币
  • up to an aggregate amount of Hongkong Dollars…累计金额最高为港币
  • fora sum (or :sums) not exceeding a total of GBP…总金额不得超过英镑

4」oihccxlcnlofHKD…总金额为港币

  • for the amount of USD…金额为美元
  • fbr an amount not exceeding total of JPY…金额的总数不得超过 日元的限度

四、The Stipulations for the shipping Documents 信用证的跟单要求

I .available against sunender of the following documents bearing our credit number and the full name and address of the opener.

凭交出下列注名本证号刷和开证人的全称及地址的单据付款

  • .drafts to be accompanied by the documents marked (x) below .

汇票须附附下列注有(X)的单据.

  • .accompanied against to documents hereinafter 随附下歹U 单据
  • .accompanied by following documents 随附下列单据
  • .documents required 单据耍求
  • .accompanicd by the following documents marked (x) in duplicate 随附下列注有(X)的单据一式两份
  • .drafts arc to be accompanied by…汇票要随附(指单据)

五、Draft (Bill of Exchange)信用证对汇票的要求

  • .thc kinds of drafts 汇票种类
  • available by drafts at sight 凭即期汇票付款

(2 ) draft (s) to be drawn at 30 days sight 开立 30 天的期票

  • sight drafs 即期汇票
  • time drafts 远期汇票

 

2.drawn clauses出票条款(注:即出具汇票的法律依据)

  • all darfts drawn under this credit must contain the clause “Drafts drawn

Under Bank of…credit No….dated.

本证项下开具的汇票须注明“本汇票系凭…银行…年…月…日第…号信用证下开具”的条款

  • drafts arc to be drawn in duplicate to our order bearing the clause “Drawn

under United Malayan Banking Corp. Bhd. Irrevocable Letter of Credit No…. dated

July 12, 1978”

汇票一式两份,以我行为抬头,并注明“根据马来西亚联合银行1978年7月12日第……号不可报销信用证 项下开立”

  • draft (s) drawn under this credit to be marked:”‘Drawn under…Bank L/C

No Dated (issuing date of credit) ”

根据本证开出得汇票须注明“凭……银行……年……月……日(按开证日期)第……号不可撤销信用证项下 开立“

  • drafts in duplicate at sight bearing the clauses’Drawn under…L/C

No….dated.

即期汇票一式两份,注明“根据……银行信用证……号,日期……开具”

  • draft (s) so drawn must be in scribed with the number and date of this L/C

开具的汇票须注上本证的号码和日期

  • draft (s) bearing the clause:”Drawn under documentary credit No…. (shown

above) of…Bank”

汇票注明“根据……银行跟单信用证……号(如上所示)项下开立”

六、Invoice信用证对发票的要求

I .signed commercial invoice 已签署的商业发票

in duplicate 一式两份

in triplicate 一式.三份

in quadniplicate 一式四份

in quintuplicate 一式五份

in sextuplicate 一式六份

in sepluplicate 一式七份

in octuplicate 一式八份

in nonuplicate 一式九份

in dccuplicatc 一式卜份

2.bcncficiary’s original signed commercial invoices at least in 8 copies issued in the name of (he buyer indicating (showing/cvidcncing/spccifying/dcclaration of) the merchandise, country of origin and any other relevant information.

以买方的名义开具、注明商品名称、原产国及其他有关资料,并经签署的受益人的商业发票正本至少i式 八份

3.Signed attested invoice combined with certificate of origin and value in 6

copies as reuired for imports into Nigeria.

以签署的,连同产地证明和货物价值的,输入尼日利亚的联合发票一式六份

4.beneficiary must certify on the in voice… have been sent to the accountcc

受益人须在发票上证明,已将……寄交开证人

5.4% discount should be deducted from lota! amount of the commercial invoice

商业发票的总金额须扣除4%折扣

6.invoice must be showed: under A/P No…. date of expiry 19th Jan. 1981

发票须表明:根据第……号购买证,满期日为1981年1月19日

-combined invoice is not acceptable 不接受联合发票

七、Bill of Loading信用证对提单的要求

  • .full set shipping (company’s) clean on board bill (s) of lading marked

“Freight Prepaid*’ to order of shipper endorsed to … Bank, notifying buyers

全套装船(公司的)洁净已装船提单应注明“运费付讫”,作为以装船人指示为抬头、背书给……银行,通知 买方

  • .bills of lading made out in negotiable form 作成可议付形式的提单
  • .clean shipped on board ocean bills of lading to order and endorsed in blank

marked “Freight Prepaid0 notify: importer (openers,accountee )

洁净已装船的提单空白抬头并空白背书,注明“运费付讫”,通知进1:1人(开证人)

 

  • .full sei of clean “on board ° bills of lading/cargo receipt made out to our

ordcr/to order and endorsed in blank notify buyers M/S … Co. calling for

shipment from China to Hamburg marked “Freight prepaid1* / uFreight Payable at

DcstinationM

全套洁净”已装船”提单/货运收据作成以我(行)为抬头/空白抬头,空白背书,通知买方……公司,要求货 物字中国运往汉堡,注明“运费付讫”厂运费在目的港付”

  • .bills of lading issued in the name of…提单以 为抬头
  • .bills of lading must be dated not before the date of this credit and not

later than Aug. 15, 1977

提单日期不得早于本证的日期,也不得迟于1977年8月15日

  • .bill of lading marked notify: buyer/Treight Prepaid’H‘Liner termsnureceived

for shipmenf’ B/L not acceptable提单注明通知买方,“运费预付”按“班轮条件”,“备运提单”不接受

  • .non-negotiable copy of bills of lading 不可议付的提单副本

7kx Insurance Policy (or Certificate)信用证对保险单(或凭证)的耍求

(I ) …risks clauses of the P.I.C.C. subject to C.LC.

根据中国人民保险公司的保险条款投保……险

  • marine insurance policies or certificates in negotiable form, for 110%

full CIF invoice covering the risks of War & W.A. as per the People’s Insurance

Co. of China dated 1/1/1976. with extended cover up to Kuala Lumpur with claims

payable in (at) Kuala Lumpur in the currency of draft (irrespective of

percentage)

作为可议付格式的海运保险单或凭证按照到岸价的发票金额110%投保中国人民保险公司1976年1月1日

的战争险和基本险,负责到吉隆坡为止。按照汇票所使用的货币在吉隆坡赔付(无免赔率)

  • insurance policy or certificate settling agent s name is to be indicated,

any additional premium to cover uplift between 10 and 17% may be drawn in excess

of the credit ualue

保险单或凭证须表明理赔代理人的名称,保险费如增加10-17%可在本证金额以外支付

  • insurance policy (certificate) … Name of Assured to be showed: A.B.C.Co.

Ltd,保险单或凭证作成以A.B.C.有限公司为被保险人

  • insurance policy or certificate covering W.A. (or ERA.) and war risks as

per ocean marine cargo clause and ocean marine cargo war risk clauses of the

People’s Insurance Company of China dated 1/1/1981

保险单或凭证根据中国人民保险公司1981年1月1日的海洋运输货物保险条款和海洋运输货物战争险条款 投保水渍险(或平安险)和战争险

  • insurance policy/certificate covering all war mines risks

保险单/凭证投保一切险、战争险、地雷险(注:mines解释为地雷,属于战争险的负责范I制,可以接受)

  • A. this insurance must be valid for period of 60 days after the

discharge of goods水渍险在货物卸船后60天有效

九、Certificate of Origin 信用证对产地证的要

I .certificate of origin of China showing 中国产地证明书

stating 证明

evidencing 列明

specifying 说明

indicating 表明

declaration of 声明

  • .certificate of Chinese origin 中国产地证明书
  • .Certificate of origin shipment of goods of … origin prohibited

产地证,不允许装运……的产品

  • .declaration of origin 产地证明书(产地生明)
  • .certificate of origin separated 单独出具的产地证
  • .certificate of origin Hform A” “格式 A”产地证明书
  • .genetalised system of preference certificate of origin form “A”

普惠制格式“A”产地证明书

十、Packing List and Weight List信用证对装箱单与重量单的要求

  • .packing list deatiling the complete inner packing specification and contents

of each package 我明每件货物之内部包装的规格和内容的装箱单

  • .packing list detailing…详注 的装箱单
  • .packing list showing in detail…注明 细节的装箱单
  • .wcight list 重量单
  • .weight notes磅码单(重量单)
  • .dctailcd weight list 明细重量单
  • .weight and measurement list 重量和尺码单

H^一\ Inspection Certificate信用证对检验证书的要求

  • .certificate of weight 重量证明书
  • .certificate of inspection certifying quality & quantity in triplicate issued

byC.LB.C.由中国商品检验局出具的品质和数量检验证明书一式三份

  • .phytosanitary certificate 植物检疫证明书
  • .plant quarantine certificate 植物检疫证明书
  • .fumigation certificate 熏蒸证明书
  • .certificate stating that the goods are free from live weevil 无活虫证明书(熏蒸除虫证明书)
  • .sanitary certificate 卫生证书
  • .hcalth certificate 卫生(健康)证书
  • .analysis certificate 分析(化验)证书
  • .tank inspection certificate 油仓检验证明书
  • .record of ullage and oil temperature 空距及油温记录单
  • .certificate of aflatoxin negative 黄曲寄素检验证书
  • .non-anatoxin certificate 无黄巾阂素证明书
  • .survcy report on weight issued by C.I.B.C.

中国商品检验局签发之重量检验证明书

  • inspection certificate 检验证书
  • inspcction and testing certificate issued by C.I.B.C.

中国商品检验局签发之检验证明书

十二、Other Documents信用证对其他单据的要求

I .full tet of forwarding agents* cargo receipt全套运输行所出具之货物承运收据

  • .air way bill fbr goods condigned to…quoting our credit number

以……为收货人,注明本证号码的空运货单

  • .parcel post receipt 邮包收据
  • .Parcel post receipt showing parcels addressed to…a/c accountee

邮包收据注明收件人:通过……转交开证人

  • .parcel post receipt evidencing goods condigned to…and quoting our credit number以……为收货人并注明本证号码的邮包收据
  • .ccr(ificatc customs invoice on form 59A combined certificate of value and

origin for developing countries

适用于发展中国家的包括价值和产地证明书的格式59A海关发票证明书

  • .pure foods certificate 纯食品证书
  • .combined certificate of value and Chinese origin 价值和中国产地联合证明书

十三、The Stipulation for Shipping Terms 信用证对装运条款的要求

卖方应在合同规定的装运H期前30天,以 一方式通知买方合同号、品名、数量、金额、包装件、

毛重、尺码及装运港可装日期,以便买方安排租船/订舱。装运船只按期到达装运港后,如卖方不能按时装 船,发生的空船费或滞期费由卖方负担。在货物越过船弦并脱离吊钩以前一切费用和风险由卖方负担。

The Seller shall, 30 days before the shipment date specified in (he Contract, advise the Buyer by of

the Contract No., commodity, quantity, amount, packages, gross weight, measurement, and the date of shipment in order that the Buyer can charter a vessel/book shipping space. In the event of the Seller’s failure to effect loading when the vessel arrives duly al the loading port, all expenses including dead freight and/or demurrage charges thus incurred shall be for the Scllcfs account.

十四、Date & Address of Expiry 有效日期与地点

在装运之前一天,买方应通过一流银行开立一份不可撤销的、以卖方为受益人的、金额为合同总价%的 有效期至少为个月的即期信用证。%凭最终用户签字的设备验收证书2周内电汇支付。

—days before shipment, (he Buyer shall establish with first class bank a % irrevocable, L/C at sight in favor of th e Seller. The UC should with a minimum validity of four months. 10%paid by T/T within 2 weeks against Accepta nee Certificate signed by Enduser .

十五、The Guarantee of the Opening Bank 开证行付款保证

  1. we hereby engage with you that all drafts drawn under and in compliance with the terms of this credit will be duly honored .

我行保证及时对所有根据本信用证开具、并与其条款相符的汇票兑付

  1. we undertake that drafts drawn and presented in conformity with the terms of this credit will be duly honoured . 开具并交出的汇票,如与本证的条款相符,我行保证依时付款
  2. we hereby engage with the drawers, endorsers and bona-fide holders of draft(s) drawn under and in compliance with the terms of the credit that such draft(s) shall be duly honoured on due presentation and delivery of documents as specified (if drawn and negotiated with in the validity date of this credit).

 

凡根据本证开具与本证条款相符的汇票,并能按时提示和交出本证规定的单据,我行保证对出票人、背书 人和善意持有人承担付款责任(须在本证有效期内开具汇票并议付)

  1. provided such drafts are drawn and presented in accordance with the terms of this credit, we hereby engage wilh the drawers, endorsors and bona-fide holders that the said drafts shall be duly honoured on presentation .

凡根据本证的条款开具并提示汇票,我们担保对其出票人、背书人和善意持有人在交单时承兑付款

  1. we hereby undertake to honour all drafts drawn in accordance wilh the terms of this credit. 所有按照本条款开具的汇票,我行保证兑付

十六、Special Conditions 特别条款

(双方另行约定)

十七、In Reimbursement 索偿文句

信用证内容须严格符合本售货合约的规定,否则修改信用证的费用由买方负担,卖方并不负因修改信 用证而延误装运的责任,并保留因此而发生的一切损失的索赔权。

The contents of the covering Letter of Credit shall be in strict conformity with the stipulations of the Sales Contract. In case of any variation there of necessiuuing amendment of the L/C, the Buyers shall bear the expenses for effecting the amendment. The Sellers shall not be held responsible for possible delay of shipment resulting from awaiting the amendment of the UC and reserve the right to claim from the Buyers for the losses resulting therefrom.

十八、合同中常见的有关信用证的约定

买方于成交后通过 中国银行开出以卖方为抬头的不可撤销的信用证,卖方在货物装船启运后凭本合

同交货条款所列单据在开证银行议付货款。信用证有效期为装船后天止。

After conclusion of business the Buyer shall open with the Bank of China, , an irrevocable letter of credit in favor of the Sellers payable at the issuing Bank against presentation of the shipping documents as stipulated under Clause of the Terms of Delivery of this Contract after departure of the carrying vessel . The said letter of credit shall remain in force till the day after shipment.

相关信用证中的条款必须与销售确认书一致。

The stipulations in the relative L/C must strictly conform to the stated conditions in our sales confirmation.

付款:凭保兑的、不可撤销的、可转让的、可分割的即期有电报套汇条款/见票/出票一天期付款信用证, 信用证以 为受益人并允许分批装运和转船。该信用证必须在 前开到卖方,信用证的有效期应为

上述装船期后第15天,在中国 到期,否则卖方有权取消本华货合约,不另行通知,并保留因此而发

生的一切损失的索赔权。

Terms of Payment: By confirmed, irrevocable, transferable and divisible letter of credit in favour of payable

at sight with TT reimbursement clause/ days’ /sight/date allowing partial shipment and transshipment. The

covering Letter of Credit must reach the Sellers before and is to remain valid in.China until the 15th day after the aforesaid time of shipment, failing which the Sellers reserve the right lo cancel this Sales Contract without further notice and to claim from the Buyers for losses resulting therefrom.

买方须于**年**月**日将保兑的,不可撤消的,可转让可分割的即期信用证开到卖方。信用证议付有效期 延至上列装运期后15天在中国到期,该信用证中必须注明允许分运及转让。

By confirmedJrrevocabledransferable and divisible L/C to be available by sight draft to reach the sellers bcforc****and to remain valid for negotiation in China until 15 days after the aforesaid time of shiprncnt.Tjc L/C must specify that transhipment and partial shipments are allowd.

信用证内应明确规定卖方有权可多装或少装所注明的百分数,并按实际装运数量议付。(信用证之金额按本 售货合约金额增加相应的百分数。)

The covering Letter of Credit shall stipulate the Sellers’s option of shipping the indicated percentage more or less than the quantity hereby contracted and be negotiated for the amount covering the value of quantity actually shipped. (The Buyers are requested to establish the UC in amount with the indicated percentage over the total value of the order as per this Sales Contract.)

3.信用证内容须严格符合本售货合约的规定,否则修改信用证的费用由买方负担,卖方并不负因修改信用 证而延误装运的责任,并保留因此而发生的一切损失的索赔权。

The contents of the covering Letter of Credit shall be in strict conformity with the stipulations of the Sales Contract. In case of any variation there of necessitating amendment of the L/C, the Buyers shall bear the expenses for effecting the amendment. The Sellers shall not be held responsible for possible delay of shipment resulting from awaiting the amendment of the IJC and reserve the right to claim from the Buyers for the losses resulting therefrom.

47.英文合同中的陈述与保证条款

Provision of Representation and Warranty in Contract

合同中的陈述和保证一般包括两方面内容:其一是对公司是否有权签署本协议所做的陈述和保证,包括公 司组建设立情况、公司是否对签约人授权签署本合同等;其二是依据合同性质和合同标的需要合同另一方 作出特别保证的内容,比如,公司是否存在正在进行的诉讼等。通过这个条款对这些信息作出保证,保证 其在本协议下真实有效。如果一方违反这个保证,另一方可以采取包括终止合同在内的救济措施,从而最 大限度地保护自己。

一、公司是否有权签署本协议所做的陈述和保证

例:卖方谨此保证下列事项属实:

The Seller hereby represents and warrants as to itself that:

本公司为依中华人民共和国法律合法组织存在、享rr良好商誉之法律主体;

it is a duly organized legal entity, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the People’s Republic of China;

本公司订立本合约及履行因本合约所致生之义务,不违反订约时之任何中国法令,或违反其它任何本公司 为当事人的合约。

its entry into and performance of its obligations under this Agreement do not violate any legal requirements in the People’s Republic of China as of the date hereof or any material agreements to which it is a party.

例:甲方为依照公司设立地法律依法设立并存续的有限责任公司,具备签署执行本协议、依照本协议规定 行使本协议规定权利和履行本协议规定义务的所有法人权力。

Party A is a limited liability company duly incorporated and validly existing under the laws of its place of incorporation, and has all corporate power and authority to executed this agreement, exercise the rights and perform the obligations hereunder in accordance with the provisions of this agreement.

例:甲方保证如下:

PARTY A represents and warrants that:

it is duly incorporated with limited liability and validly exists under the laws of New Zealand; 本公司是依照新西兰法律成立的并有效续存的有限责任公司:

it has coiporate power and has taken all necessary corporate and other action to enter into and complete this AGREEMENT.

本公司具有法人权利,己采取必要的法人和其他行为签订和履行本协议。

例 乙方承诺并保证其具有完全权利签署、履行和完成本协议项下所约定的义务;本协议已经被乙方适当

地签署,在得到政府主管部门的批准(如果要求的话)的前提下,根据条款对甲方产生合法有效、有约束 力和强制性义务。

PARTY B represents and warrants that it has full power and authority to enter into, perform and comply with its obligations under this AGREEMENT; this AGREEMENT has been duly executed and delivered by PARTY B and. subject to the approval by the governmental authorities (if required) constitutes legal, valid, binding and enforceable obligations of PARTY A in accordance with its terms.

例 各方声明并保证: Each PARTY represents and warrants that:

它是在美国国内正式成立和注册的公司,符合各项规定,它有权力且授权签订并履行本协议及由其签署并 递交的、与之有关的任何其他协议和文件(包括本合同在内统称为“文件

 

It is duly organized and registered and in good standing in the United States, has power and authority to enter into and perform?this AGREEMENT and any other agreements and documents executed or delivered by it in connection herewith (collectively, with this AGREEMENT, fcfcthe DOCUMENTS”).

二、对是否得到授权的陈述与保证

例本公司董事会已依法授权木公司进行与本合约相关的订立与履行事宜,并记载于董事会记录中:

its Board of Directors has taken all necessary action to duly authorize the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement which actions arc reflected in the minutes book of the corporation; and

例文件的签署、递交和履行已经通过一切必要的行为获得正式授权。

Its execution, delivery and performance of the DOCUMENTS have been duly authorized by all necessary action.

例 甲方已经得到履行本协议所必需的同意、批准和授权,所有合同文件均已提交,本协议在审批部门批 准后生效。

PARTY A has obtained all consents, approvals and authorizations necessary for the valid execution and delivery of this AGREEMENT and all of the contracts refeiTed to herein to which it is a party; provided, however, that this AGREEMENT shall be subject to the approval of the Examination and Approval Authority before the same may become effective.

例 受让人签署、交付、履行本协议行为和本协议规定的转让以及受让人履行完毕的行为在受让人的公司 授权范围之内。

The execution, delivery and performance by the Transferee of this Agreement and the completion by the Transferee of the transfer contemplated hereunder arc within the transferee\ corporate power and authority.

例 承包商声明并保证,承包商经依法授权,本合同经承包商依法授权、签署并提交对方,对承包商形成 合法、有效、具有法律约束力的合同责任,依照本合同规定具有强制执行效力。

The contractor represents and warrants that the contractor is empowered legally and this contract has been duly authorized, executed, and delivered by the contractor, and constitutes a legal, valid, and binding obligation of the contractor, enforceable in accordance with its terms.

三、对是否有权力履行合同义务或承担合同责任的陈述与保证

例:甲方谨在此声明及保证甲方为出租房屋的合法拥有人并有合法地位出租此房屋予乙方。就本合同及出 租此房屋予以乙方之事,甲方已取得所有有关机构的批准,包括政府批准及抵押权人的同意。甲方于本合 同所做出的声明及保证,如有错误或违反者,甲方须就因此而引起的任何损失、损害、支出及费用做出全 部补偿。

Party A hereby represents and warrants that Party A is legal owner of the leased property and has the necessary legal capacity to lease the property to Party B. Party A has also obtained all the necessary authorizations from all relevant authorities in the People’s Republic of China in respect of this Agreement and the leasing of the property to 159/781

 

Party B, including government approval and/or mortgagee consent (if applicable) Party A shall be liable to Keep Party B be fully indemnified against any costs, expenses, losses and damages incurred to suffered by Party B as a result of any breach of Party A’s representations or warranties herein (including but not limited to legal costs)

房东保证本约期间不将租赁标的物出售或抵押给第三人。

The Landlord hereby covenants that the Premises will not be sold or mortgaged to any third person during the term of this Agreement.

四、对是否存在债务纠纷或者是否存在对履行合同的能力产生障碍的陈述与保证

例 发包商再次保证: The SUBCONTRACTOR hereby represents and warrants:

发包商是根据中国法律依法成立,合法经营和良好续存的公司,在中华人民共和国工商管理机关注册。

  • The SUBCONTRACTOR is a company duly organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the People’s Republic of China, being registered at the State Administration fbr Industry and Commerce of the People’s Republic of China.

本分包合同的签订与履行是在本公司的经营能力和范围内,不违反任何法律、法规和签约的其他协议。

  • The conclusion and performance of this SUBCONTRACT are within the corporate powers and authority of the SUBCONTRACTOR and do not contravene any laws, regulations or any agreements to which the SUBCONTRACTOR is a party.

不存在任何对发包商的经营、财产、资格、财务和其他状况产生负面影响并进而将影响到分包商履行本协 议义务的能力的任何未决案件、诉讼、被法院或行政机关立案。

  • There is no pending action or issue in or action by any court or administration authority which could exert a material adverse impact on the business, properly, status, finance and other aspects of the SUBCONTRACTOR so as to affect the capability of the SUBCONTRACTOR (o carry out its obligations under (his AGREEMENT.

例 各方保证如下: Each PARTY hereby represents and waiTants that:

本协议已由各方代表签署,具有合法有效、约束力以及强制性义务,其效力除非以下情况可以例外:申请 破产,资不抵债或其他类似的法律影响债权人的权利实施。

this AGREEMENT has been duly executed and delivered on its behalf and constitutes its legal, valid, binding and enforceable obligation, except to the extent that enforceability may be limited by applicable bankmptcy, insolvency or other similar laws affecting the enforcement of creditor rights;

不存在涉及第三方的、有碍于本协议签署或者妨碍本协议义务履行的安排或约定。

there are no existing arrangements or agreements with third parties, the terms of which prevent the PARTIES from entering into this AGREEMENT or which would impede the perfonnance of its obligations under the AGREEMENT.

五、对产品质量或者保障的陈述与保证

例:WARRANTIES 质量保证条款

The Seller guarantee that the Equipment supplied under this Contract is made of the best quality materials with first class workmanship, brand new, up to standard in all respects and in good condition.

卖方保证提供的设备是全新制造的,用最好的材料及新设计,符合各方面的标准并状况良好。

例::让与人将保证按合同要求向引进方提供的技术资料和软件是让与人实际使用的和最新的并被证实了的 技术资料和软件,并保证在合同执行过程中及时向引进方免费提供改进、修改和开发的新的技术资料和软 件。

The Licensor shall guarantee that the Technical Documentation and Software supplied by the Licensor to the Licensee in accordance with the Contract shall be of the latest and well-proved Technical Documentaiion and Software which are actually used by the Licensor and that the improved, modified and developed Technical Documentation and Software shall be supplied in time by the Licensor to the Licensee in the course of implcnicntation of the Contract, wiihout charge.

例:许可方保证是本专有技术的合法所有者或持有者,并且有权许可被许可方使用

Licensor guarantees that it is the legilimale owner or holder of Know-how and in the lawful position lo grant the license to Licensee.

例: 许可方保证本专有技术是最新的现代化用的,能依照合同附件二的规定予以开发。

Licensor guarantees that Know-how is well developed and industrialized, and is exploitable in accordance with Technical Documentation specified in Appendix 2.

例:许可方保证合同附件一规定的合格的合同产品能在工作现场采用本专有技术制造出来。

Licensor guarantees that qualified Contract Products as specified in Appendix 1 can be manufactured by exploiting Know-how at Job Site.

例:许可方保证所提供的技术资料是完整的、正确的、清晰的,并保证能按合同附件二的规定及时交付。 Licensor guarantees that Technical Documentation is complete, correct, and clear, and shall be delivered in accordance with the schedule specified in Appendix 2.

例:许可方保证按时派遣合格的技术人员提供正确和充分的技术服务和技术培训。

Licensor guarantees that qualified professional technical personnel shall be dispatched in duelime to provide correct and sufficient Technical Service and Technical Training.

例:本专有技术在工作现场的保证期为验收通过之日后的 个月,详见合同附件五。保证期满,被

许可方的授权代表应签署一份保证期满证书给许可方。

The guarantee period for the Know-how at Job Site is months from the date of the acceptance, details of

which are specified in Appendix 5. A guarantee expiration certificate shall be signed by the authorized representative of Licensee at its expiration and submitted to Licensor.

例:许可方保证不会发生被许可方被指控有关合同产品上的侵权责任。

Licensor guarantees that Licensee shall not be claimed for product liability in relation to Contract Prcxlucts.

  1. Notwithstanding在合同条款中的用法

在合同翻译,尤其是英译中时,经常可以见到“ noiwiihsianding Ihe foregoing ”之类的句子,通常这类句子 可以直接译为“尽管有上述规定”,翻译与though, though, even if使用并没有太大区别,基本上都 可以翻译成“尽管…”, “即使…”,表示一种让步,但是它引导的并不是让步状语从句,后面接的内容 应放在次要位置考虑。

例 Notwithstanding the foregoing, the buyer* s obligation to pay the purchase agreement price, or any other sums due under the purchase agreement, is ont so suspended.

尽管有前述规定,但买方支付采购订单价格的义务或其他到期款项并不因此推迟。也就是说,即使发生了 不可抗力,买方照常付款,不得延迟。

例 Notwithstanding any other provision of the contract, if the contractor intends to claim any additional payment pursuant to any clause of these conditions or otherwise, he shall give notice to his intention to the engineer, with a copy to the employer, within 28days after the event giving rise to the claim has first arisen.

尽管本合同有其他任何规定,如果承包商根据本合同的任何条款或其他有关规定打算索取任何追加付款, 他都应在引起索赔的事件第一次发生后28天内,将其索赔意向通知工程师,并将一份副本呈交业主。

在上面这句话,notwithstanding 后面紧跟any other provision of the contract,表明后面的内容应优先考 虑。其他条款不得与其抵触。

例] Notwithstanding any other provisions of applicable laws, the parties agree that all taxes and duties payable arising from the transfer shall be borne by both the transferor and transferee in equal shares.

除相关法律其他规定外,协议双方同意,因转让发生的所有应纳木兑款应由双方均摊。

例 Notwithstanding the provisions of /Xrticlc 91 of these Regulations, when a business establishment in charge of consolidated tax filing fails to compute the taxable income of different business establishments appropriately on a separate basis, the local tax authorities may make reasonable apportionment of the taxable income among these business establishments, under their respective proportion of business income, costs and expenses, assets, the number of staff and workers, or the amount of wages.

虽有本细则第九十一条的规定,负责合并中报缴纳所得税的营业机构不能合理地分别计算各营业机构的应 纳税所得额时,当地税务机关可以对应税所得总额,按照营业收入比例、成本和费用比例、资产比例、职 工人数或者工资数额的比例,在各营业机构之间合理分配。

例 If, notwithstanding Sub-Clause 65.1, any damage occurs to any bridge or road communicating with or on the routes to the site due to the transport of materials or plant, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer of the matter in question, with a copy to the Employer, as soon as he becomes aware of such damage or as soon as he receives any claim from the authority entitled to make such claim.

 

尽管有65.1款的规定,但如果发生因运输材料或设备而对通往现场或位于通往现场路线上任何桥梁或道路 造成任何损害时,承包人在得知此类损害之后,或者收到有权提出此类索赔的机构的任何索赔要求之后, 应立即通知工程师,并将一份副本呈交给业主。

例 The Engineer shall, from time lo time, have authority to issue instructions on the following matters that: I) any works shall, in the opinion of the Engineer, be removed and re-executed, notwithstanding any previous test thereof or interim payment therefor, because the following items fail to meet the requirements and provisions of the Contract:

工程师有权随时对下列事项发出指示:1)尽管事先已对其进行过任何检验或临时付款,但对工程师认为任 何工程因以下各项不符合合同规定的,均应拆除并重新施工:(【)材料、工程设备或工艺;或(2)由承包 人设计或承包人对其负有责任的设计。

例 Notwithstanding any other provision of the Contract, if the Contractor intends to claim any additional payment pursuant to any Clause of these Conditions or other provisions, the Contractor in question shall, within 28 days after the event giving rise to ihe claim has first arisen, notify the Engineer of his intention, with a copy to the Employer.

尽管本合同有其它规定,如果承包人根据本合同的任何条款或其他有关规定打算索取任何追加付款的话, 他都应在引起索赔的事件第一次发生后28天内,将其索赔意向通知工程师,并将一份副本呈交业主。

4列 The Works shall be measured net, notwithstanding any general or local custom, except where otherwise provided for in the contract.

无论通常的和当地的习惯如何,工程计量应该计量净值,但合同另有规定的除外。

例 Notwithstanding the provisions of this Clause or any other Clause of the Contract, no payment certificates shall be issued by (he Engineer until the performance security is submitted by the Contractor under the Contract and approved by the Employer.

尽管有本条款或任何其它合同条款的规定,在承包人提交履约保证并经一业主批准之前,工程师不对任何支 付款额开具证书。

例 Notwithstanding the issue of the Defects Liability Certificate, the Contractor and the Employer shall remain liable for the fultlllment of any outstanding obligation incurred under the provisions of the Contract when the Defects Liability Certificate is issued. To determine the nature and extent of the obligations in questioir the Contract shall be deemed to remain in force and be binding upon the parties thereto.

尽管颁发了缺陷责任证书,但承包人和业主仍应对在缺陷责任证书颁发时尚未履行的义务承担责任。为了 确定任何此类义务的性质和范围,合同应被认为对合同双方仍然有效。

例 Notwithstanding IB 6.2, the Owner reserves the right to accept or reject any Bid, and to annul the bidding process and to reject all Bids, at any time prior to the award of the Contract, without thereby incurring any liability to the affected Bidder or Bidders or any obligation to inform the affected Bidder or Bidders of grounds for its action.

 

尽管有IB6.2款的规定,业主在授予合同前,有保留授受或拒绝任何投标、废除投标程序、拒绝所有投标的 权利,而且不承担由此而对投标人造成的不利条件的责任,同是也不承担通知受影响的投标人有关业主作 出这一决定的原因的义务。

例 If ihe Party A places an order within the time designated in this offer, the price for the goods will remain firm notwithstanding any variation in the costs of producing the goods.

如果甲方在要约指定的时间内发出订单,货物的价格保持不变,即使生产成本发生变化。

例 Notwithstanding any other provisions to the contrary herein, insurance coverage and limits shall be subject to approval of all the parties.

即使存在与合同相悖的规定,保险范围及责任限制应以各方当事人同意为准。

例 The indemnity, release, holding harmless, dcfcndancc and protection obligations assumed in Article XX shall apply in respect of ihe full liability of the indemnify for claims, notwithstanding the indemnify may be entitled to contribution thereto from any other person and notwithstanding such liability may relate to negligence of a third party, provided that in such event the indemnifying party shall be fully subrogated to the rights of the indemnify against such third party.

条款中所规定的补偿、免责、免受损害,抗辩以及保护义务适用于向被补偿人主张的全部货任,即使被补 偿人有向他人主张的权利,即使这种责任可能与第三方的过失有关,但是在此等情况下,补偿人取得被补 偿人向第三方主张的全部权利。

例 Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 91 of these Regulations, when a business establishment in charge of consolidated tax filing fails to compute the taxable income of different business establishments appropriately on a separate basis, the local tax authorities may make reasonable apportionment of the taxable income among these business establishments, under their respective proportion of business income, costs and expenses, assets, the number of staff and workers, or the amount of wages.

虽有本细则第九十i条的规定,负责合并申报缴纳所得税的首’也机构不能合理地分别计算各营业机构的应 纳税所得额时,当地税务机关可以对应税所得总额,按照营业收入比例、成本和费用比例、资产比例、职 工人数或者工资数额的比例,在各营业机构之间合理分配。

例 If, notwithstanding Sub-Clause 65.1, any damage occurs to any bridge or road communicating with or on the routes to the site due to the transport of materials or plant, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer of the matter in question, with a copy to the Employer, as soon as he becomes aware of such damage or as soon as he receives any claim from the authority entitled to make such claim.

尽管有65.1款的规定,但如果发生因运输材料或设备而对通往现场或位于通往现场路线上任何桥梁或道路 造成任何损害时,承包人在得知此类损害之后,或者收到有权提出此类索赔的机构的任何索赔要求之后, 应立即通知工程师,并将一份副本呈交给业主。

例 The Engineer shall, from lime lo time, have authority to issue instructions on the following matters that: 1) any works shall, in ihe opinion of the Engineer, be removed and re-executed, notwithstanding any previous lest

164 / 781

 

thereof or interim payment therefor, because the following items fail to meet the requirements and provisions of the Contract:

工程师有权随时对下列事项发出指示:1)尽管事先已对其进行过任何检验或临时付款,但对工程师认为任 何工程因以下各项不符合合同规定的,均应拆除并重新施工:(【)材料、工程设备或工艺;或(2)由承包 人设计或承包人对其负有责任的设计。

例J Notwithstanding any other provision of the Contract, if the Contractor intends to claim any additional payment pursuant to any Clause of these Conditions or other provisions, the Contractor in question shall, within 28 days after the event giving rise to the claim has first arisen, notify the Engineer of his intention, with a copy to the Employer.

尽管本合同有其它规定,如果承包人根据本合同的任何条款或其他有关规定打算索取任何追加付款的话, 他都应在引起索赔的事件第一次发生后28天内,将其索赔意向通知工程师,并将一份副本呈交业主。

  • .英文合同中款项支付条款约定

支付条款即国际贸易合同中规定的款项交付方式的条款。一般而言,分为汇付、托收和信用证三种支付方 式,下面分别介绍具体的合同条款设置:

  • 汇付条款

汇付(remittance)通常有四个关系人:汇款人remitter,收款人payee or beneficiary,汇出行remitting bank,汇入行 paying bank。汇付方式分为信汇 mail transfer (M/T),电汇 Telegraphic imnsfer (T/T),票汇 remittance by banker’s demand draft(D/D)o

汇付通常用于预付款和赊账交易,应当在合同中明确规定汇付的时间、具体的汇付方法和金额等内容。

例:买方应于合同签署后30天内电汇货款10% (计5000美元)付给卖方。

10% of the total contract value amount 5000 US Dollars as advance payment shall be remitted by the buyer to the seller through telegraphic transfer within 30days after signing this contract.

例:合同签订后20个工作日内,买方向卖方电汇支付合同总价的10%,计3000美元(或相当于该金额的 人民币)作为合同预付款。

Within the contract after the signing of 20 working days, the buyer should pay 10% of the total contract price to seller through telegraphic transfer, including 3000 US Dollars (or equal to the same value of RMB) as advance payment of the conlract.

例:在设备基本设计审查结束后15个工作日内,买方向卖方电汇支付合同总价的10%,计美元3万元。

Within 15 working days upon the end of the review on equipment design , the buyer should pay 10% of the total contract price to the seller through telegraphic transfer, total sum of US Dollar 30, 000.

例:买方应不迟于10月15日将100%的货款经由票汇预付给卖方。

The buyer shall pay 100% the sales proceeds in advance by Demand Draft to reach the Sellers not laler than Oct.

15.

例:买方应于3月20日前将全部货款以电汇(信汇/票汇)方式预付给卖方。

The buyers shall pay the total value to the sellers in advance by T/T (MZT or D/D) not later than Mar. 2().

  • 托收条款

以托收(collection)方式结算货款的贸易,合同必须规定交单条件和付款、承兑责任以及付款期限等内容。 托收关系人包括:委托人principal,托收银行remitting bank,代收银行collecting bank,付款人payer0 托收种类包括:1、付款交单 documents against payment, D/P,包括即期付款交单 documents against payment at sight, D/P sight 和 远期付款交单 dcx:uments against payment after sight, D/P after sight« 2、承兑交单 documents against acceptance, D/A

例:即期付款交单

买方凭卖方开具的即期跟单汇票,于第一次见票时立即付款,付款后交单。

Upon first presentation the buyers shall pay against documentary draft drawn by the sellers at sight. The shipping documenls are to be delivered against payment only.

例:远期付款交单

买方对卖方开具的见票后15天付款的跟单汇票,于笫一次提示时予以承兑,并应于汇票到期日即予付款, 付款后交单。

The buyers shall duly accept (he documentary draft drawn by the sellers at 15 days sight upon firs presentation and make payment on its maturity. The shipping documents are to be delivered against payment only.

承兑交单

买方对卖方开具的见票后15天付款的跟单汇票,于第一次提示时予以承兑,并应于汇票到期日即予付款, 承兑后交单。

The buyers shall duly accept the documentary draft drawn by the sellers at 15 days sight upon firs presentation and make payment on its maturity. The shipping documents are to be delivered against acceptance.

例:货物装运后,卖方应将以买方为付款人的即期汇票连同本合同的各种货运单据,通过卖方银行寄交买 方银行转交买方,并托收货款。买方凭卖方开具的即期跟单汇票于见票时立即付款,付款后交单。

After delivery, the seller shall send through the seller’s bank a draft at sight drawn on the buyer together with the shipping documents to the buyer through the buyer’s bank fbr collection. Upon first presentation the buyer shall pay against documentary draft drawn by the seller at sight. The shipping documents are to be delivered against payment only.

例:货物装运后,卖方应将以买方为付款人的远期汇票连同本合同的各种货运单据,通过卖方银行寄交买 方银行转交买方,并托收货款。买方对卖方开具的见票后30天付款的跟单汇票,于提示时承兑,并于汇票 到期时付款,承兑后交单。

After deliver); the seller shall send through the seller’s bank a usance draft drawn on the buyer together with the shipping documents to the buyer through the buyer’s bank for collection. The buyer shall duly accept the documentary draft drawn by the seller at 30days sight upon first presentation and make payment on its maturity. The shipping documents are to be delivered against acceptance.

  • 信用证条款

用信用证letter of credit, L/C结算,应在合同中对开证时间、开证行、受益人、种类、金额、装运期和到 期H等进行明确规定。信用证的当事人包括:开证申请人applicant,开证银行opening bank: Issuing bank,通知 银行 advising bank; notifying bank,受益人 beneficiary,议付银行 negotiating bank,付款银行 paying drawee bank.

例:即期信用证支付条款

买方应通过卖方可接受的银行于装运月份前30天开立并送达卖方不可撤销的即期信用证,有效期至装运月 份后15天在中国议付。

The buyers shall open through a bank acceptable to the sellers an irrevocable sight letter of credit to reach the sellers 30 days before the month of shipment, valid for negotiation in China until the q5th day after the month of shipment.

例:远期信用证支付条款

买方应通过卖方可接受的银行于装运月份前. 30天开立并送达卖方不可撤销的见票后三十天付款的信用证, 有效期至装运月份后十五天在北京议付。

The buyers shall open through a bank acceptable to the sellers an irrevocable letter of credit at 30days’ sight to reach the sellers 30days before the month of shipment, valid for negotiation in Beijing until the 15th day after ihe month of shipment.

循环信用证支付条款

买方应通过为卖方可接受的银行于第一批装运月份前30天开立并送达卖方不可撤销的即期循环信用证,该 证在2010年期间,每月自动可供20, (X)。美元,并保持有效期至2011年1月15日在北京议付。

The buyers shall open through a bank acceptable to the sellers an irrevocable revolving letter of credit at sight to reach the sellers 30 days before the month of first shipment. The credit shall be automatically available during the period of 2010 for 20,000 US Dollar per month, and remain valid for negotiation in Beijing until Jan. 15, 2011.

例:买方应通过卖方接受的银行于装运月份前15天开立并送达卖方不可撤销的即期信用证,有效期于装运 月份后第15天在中国议付。

 

The buyer shall open through a bank acceptable to the seller an irrevocable letter of credit at sight to reach the seller 15 days before the month of shipment, valid for negotiation in China until the 15th day after the month of shipment.

例:保兑的不可撤消的无追索权的以中国远洋运输公司为受益人的信用证,合同货物全部货款为美元,凭 即期汇票并附运输单据向装运港的中国银行议付。

By confirmed, irrevocable L/C without recourse in favour of COSCO for the total value of the contracted goods in USD, payable at sight against presentation of shipping documents to the Bank of China in the port of loading.

也可以信用证与汇付、托收结合的方式结算,如:

例:80%发票金额凭即期光票支付,其余20%即期付款交单。100%发票金额的全套货运单据随附于托收项 下,于申请人付清发票全部金额后交单。

80% of the invoice value is available against clean draft at sight while the remaining 20% of documents be held against payment at sight under this credit. The full set of the shipping documents of 100% invoice value shall accompany the collection item and shall only be released after full payment of the invoice value.

  • .英文合同签署和证明部分

英文合约架构中的最后一个部份就是结尾辞与当事人的签名。除了表明签名人确实有.签名的正当权限外, 还会载明签名的日期。至于签名栏的部份,如果当事人是公司的活,除了要盖公司印鉴以外,还要有代表 人的签名,并且通常会注明代表人的职位(出匕)、签署职权等。

一、签署

例:

本文件之签署人已详细阅读上述之协议,并获得充分授权后,代表双方当事人缔结之,特此为证。

All signatories hereto acknowledge that they have read the foregoing Agreement and by their initials and signature that they have full and complete authority to execute the document for and in the name of the party for which they have given their signature.

例:

IN WITNESS WHEREOE the parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be executed by duly authorized representatives & of both parties on the date and year first written above.

By:代表人: By:代表人:

Title:职务 Title:职务

本约由被授权之人,于本约序文所记载日期,代表双方当事人缔结之,特此为证。

 

在合同中IN WITNESS WHEREOF作为所协议事项的证据,该短语常用于合同的结尾条款.结束语, 通常以IN WITNESS WHEREOF开头,意思是“作为所协议事项的证据“,全用大写,承诺从是日起,合约 就由双方授权的高级职员或代表执行。

例:

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Contract in duplicate by Iheir duly authorized representatives on the date first above written.

作为所协议事项的证据,双方授权代表于上面首次写明的日期正式签订本协议一式两份。

例:

本合同由双方授权代表在上述日期代表各方签署订立,特此为证。本合同于双方签字盖章之日起生效,至 原厂提供的质保期结束时终止。

IN WITNESS WHERE OF, the parties hereto have caused this agreement to be executed by duly authorized representatives on the date first written above. The effective date of ihis contract shall commence upon the date of signature and seal by parties hereto, which shall terminate on end and conclusion of guarantee period by original manufacturer.

.例:

买卖双方代表于2010年 月 日已阅读以上条款并订立本合同,以示即日起执行,合同通过电子邮件或传真 双方签字盖章后正式生效。

In witness whereof this contract is executed by and between the seller and buyer on th , 2010 and the duly authorized representatives of the seller and the buyer having read the clauses of the contract and signed on this day . this Contract shall be effective after mutual signatures and affixing of badges , Once both parties sign the contract by Email/ fax .

合同有时用这样的表达:NOW THESE PRESENTS WITNESS 兹特立约为据

本句话也是用于WHEREAS条款之后引出具体协议事项。PRESENTS = the present writings是主语, WITNESS是谓语:

例:

兹特立约为据,并由订约双方协议如下:

NOW THESE PRESENTS WITNESS that it is hereby agreed between the parlies hereto as follows:

例:

IN THE PRESENCE OF the parties hereto have hereunder set 由eir respective hands and seals: 作为协议事项的证据,订约双方各自签名盖章如F:

例:IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Parties have caused this Agreement to be executed by their respective duly authorized representatives and delivered as of the day and year first above written.

169/ 781

 

兹此,双方已经其各自正式授权的代表于文首所载日期签署并交付本协议,以昭信守。

二、WITNESS证明,在合同前文中常用作首句的谓语动词: 例:

This Agreement, made by …

WITNESSES

WHEREAS…, it is agreed as follows:

本协议由……签订证明:鉴于……特此达成协议如下:

IN WITNESS WHEREOF作为所协议事项的证据:该短语常用于合同的结尾条款:

例:IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Contract in duplicate by their duly authorized representatives on the date first above written.

作为所协议事项的证据,双方授权代表于上面首次写明的日期正式签订本协议一式两份。

合同有时有见证人,IN THE PRESENCE OF见证人。在订约双方当事人签名的下方由见证人签名作证, 一般是相关的律师(Attorney)或公证处(Notary Public):

例:

For and on behalf the first Party (甲方代表):

The EMPLOYER (雇主)…

Capacity (职位)…

In the Presence of (见证人) …

Capacity (职位)…

Address (地址)…

例:INWITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Agreement in English and in duplicate to be executed by their duly authorized officers representatives as of the day first above written.

作为所协议事项的证据,与约双方已使英文和一式二份的本合约从上面首次写明的日子起由其正式授权的 高级职员或代表执行。

英文合同结尾部分.签名 例:IN WITNESS WHEREOF the Parties hereto have executed this Agreement 由c day and year first above written.

作为见证人,双方在上述n期年月门执行此协议。

 

  • .英文合同中“除非另有规定”的表达

“除非另有规定”在英文合同中使用很频繁,从字面表面看是一些对例外情况的约定,实际上是对主句约 定内容的特别强调。使用得当,可以起到强制性效果,但使用不当,可能被对方钻空子。这个概念有多种 表达方式,如:除非合同另有约定、除非法律另有规定、除非双方另有商定等。

“除非合同另有规定”常见的用法包括:

unless otherwise specified in the Contract

Unless otherwise agreed herein

Save as otherwise provided in this Contract

Save insofar as the contract otherwise provides

Save where the provisions of contract

Except where otherwise provided

except insofar as it is otherwise provided in the contract 等等。

Except as provided elsewhere

例 The contractor shall make his own arrangements for the engagement of all labor, local or otherwise, and save insofar as the contract otherwise provides, for the transport, housing, feeding and payment thereof.

承包人必须自行安排雇佣所有当地和外地的劳工,并负责劳工的交通、食宿和工资,除本合同另有规定的 例外。

例J Unless otherwise specified in the credit, banks will reject a transport documenl issued by a forwarding agent. Provided that unless such transport document is the FIATA combined Transport Bill of Lading approved by the Inleniational Chamber of Commerce or othcnvisc the transport document indicates that it is issued by a forwarding agent acting as a carrier or an agent of a named carrier.

除非信用证另有规定,银行将拒受运输行出具的运输单据,但是有“国际运输商协会联合会”的联合运输 提单或注明运输行作为承运人或某承运人的代理人出具的运输单据除外。

例 During the lease term of the equipments, any benefit accrued from the possession or use of the leased equipments belongs to ihe lessee, except otherwise agreed by the contract.

在设备租赁期间因占有、使用该设备获得的收益,归承租人所有,但合同另有约定的除外。

例 In the case of carriage by sea or by more than one mode of transport including carriage by sea, banks will refuse a transport document stating that the goods are or will be loaded on deck,unless otherwise specifically specified and authorized in the credit.

如屈海运或多种类型运输中包括海运,除非信用证特别授权,银行将拒受注明货装舱面或要装舱面的运输 单据。

(列 Wherever, in the provisions of this Contract, any such notice, consent, approval, certificate or determination as

171/ 781

 

are made and issued by any person are mentioned, unless otherwise specified in this Contract, such notice, consent, approval, certificate or detennination shall be in writing, and the words unotify^ , “certify” or udetermine n shall be construed accordingly. Provided that any such consent, approval, certificate or determination shall not unreasonably be withheld or delayed.

本合同条款中,无论何处提及由任何人发出或颁发的任何通知、同意、批准、证明或决定,除合同另有说 明者外,均指书面的通知、同意、批准、证明或决定,而通知、证明或决定字样均应据此解释。对于任何 此类通知、同意、批准、证明或决定都不应被无故扣压或拖延。

例 Unless otherwise expressly specified in the Conlract, the Engineer shall have no authority to relieve the Contractor of any of his obligations under the Contract.除在合同中明确规定外,工程师无权解除合同规定的承 包人的任何义务。

例 Unless otherwise agreed by the Parties to the Contract, all expenses and disbursements, such as cabling, (raveling and other expenses incurred in connection with the sale of products, shall be borne by the Agent. Provided that the Agent shall also bear the expenses for maintaining offices and other expenses for the performance of the obligations of the Salesmen and for the implementation of ihe instructions given by the Seller.

除另有约定外,所有的费用和支出,如电讯费,差旅费以及其他有关商品销售的费用,都应由代理商承担。 除此以外,代理商还应承担维持其办公处的费用,及其它履行销售人员义务和执行卖方指示而发生的费用。

例 Unless otherwise expressly provided for in this Conlract, the Agent shall have no obligations to account lo any Bank for any amount received in respect of any loan maintained by the Agent or any of ils affiliates or for the profits related to rhe loan. The Agent and its affiliates may make loans to. accept deposits from, and generally engage in any kind of business with, the Borrower as though the Agent in question were not as an Agent.

除木合同另有明确规定外,代理行没有义务向任何银行说明由于它或它的附属机构贷款而收到的金额或其 利润。代理行及其附属机构可以向借款人贷款,接受借款人存款,并一般地与借款人进行各种经营活动, 如同不是代理行一样。

例]Except as otherwise provided herein, all notices and demands sent by registered airmail shall be deemed received 8 days after they have been sent and notices or demands sent by telex shall be deemed received at the time of the dispatch thereof.

除非本合同另有规定,所有通知和请求以航空挂号信寄出后八n应视为送达收悉,以电传形式发出时则以 发送时视为送达收悉。

伤!J The institution Providing such security shall be subject to the approval of the Employer, the cost of

complying with the requirements of this Clause shall be borne by the Contractor, unless the Contract otherwise provides.

提供的担保机构须经雇主同意。除非合同另有规定外,执行本款时所发生的费用由承包商负担。

例J Notwithstanding any reference to arbitration, Both Parties shall continue to perfonn their respective obligations under the Contract unless otherwise agreed.

除非另有规定,仲裁不得影响合同双方继续履行合同所规定的义务。

例 Save as otherwise provided in this Contract, each Party shall bear its own legal and other professional costs in relation to the preparation , negotiation and excution.

除非本合同另有规定,各方负责自身为准备、谈判和签署合同所花费的律师服务费用。

例 Insurance to be covered by the Buyer unless otherwise

除非另有协议,保险均由买方负责

例 In this contract, the following terms shall, unless otherwise specially defined, have the following meanings:

在本合同中,下列词语,除非另有特别规定,具有下列涵义:

例 Except as provided elsewhere> this Contract may be terminated in either of the following cases 除非另有规定,本合同在下述任一情况下终止:

例 The Contractor shall be deemed to have satisfied himself as to the conectness and sufficiency of the Tender and of the rates and prices stated in the Bill of Quantities, all of which shall,except insofar as it is otherwise provided in the Contract, cover all his obligations under the Contract (including those in respect of the supply of goods, materials. Plant or services or of contingencies for which there is a Provisional Sum) and all matters and things necessaiy for the things necessary for the proper execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of any defects therein.

应当认为承包商对自己的投标书以及工程量表中开列的各项费率和价格的正确性与完备性是满意的,除非 合同中另有规定,所有这些应包括了他根据合同应当承担的全部义务,(包括有关物资、材料、工程设备或 服务的提供或者为意外事件准备的临时金额),以及该工程的正确实施、竣工和修补其任何缺陷所必须的全 部有关事宜。

例 In the Conditions of Contract (”these Condilions1*), which include Particular Conditions and these General Conditions, the following words and expressions shall have the meanings stated. Words indicating persons or parties include corporations and other legal entities, except where the context requires otherwise.

在包括专用条件和本通用条件的合同条件(“本合同条件”)中,以下措辞和用语的含义如下所述。除非上 下文中另有要求,指当事人和当事各方的词包括公司和其它法律实体。

例 Save as expressly stated elsewhere in the License, neither party shall be liable to the other party for consequential indirect, special, exemplary, or punitive losses or damages including loss of use or of profit or of contracts or of data, even if such party had been advised of the possibility thereof.

除非许可中另有明确规定,任一方均不就后续、间接、特殊、惩罚性损失或赔偿金(包括使用损失、利润 损失、合同损失或数据丢失)向另一方承担责任,即使该方已被告知该等损失发生的可能性。

 

例 If Acceptance Standard still fails to be fulfilled in the further tests. Licensor shall pay Licensee liquidated damages as specified in Appendix 1, unless othenvise stipulated in Contract.Licensee shall sign the acceptance certificate upon acceptance of the liquidated damages, while Licensor shall not be released from its guarantee obligations.

如果在如下的考核中仍不能达到验收标准,除非合同另布•规定,许可方应按照合同附件一的规定赔偿被许 可方违约金,被许可方应在收到违约金后签署验收证书,但许可方的保证义务并没有免除。

例 Bank charges in respect of transfers are payable by the first beneficiary unless otherwise specified by the bank. The transferring bank shall have no obligations to effect the transfer until such charges arc paid.

除非银行另有规定,有关转让的银行费用应由第一受益人支付。在该费用付清之前,转让行无办理转让的 义务。

例 The risk of damage to or loss of the goods shall be borne by the seller prior to the delivery of the subject matter and by (he buyer after delivery, except as otherwise stipulated by law or agreed upon by the parties.

货物毁损、灭失的风险,在货物交付之前由卖方承担,交付之后由买方承担,但法律另有规定或者双方另 有约定的除外。

例 Where the seller sells the goods delivered to a canier for carriage and is in transit, unless othenvise agreed upon by the parties, the risk of damage to or missing of the goods shall be borne by the buyer as of the time of establishment of the contract.

卖方交由承运人运输的在途货物,除双方另有约定的以外,毁损、灭失的风险自合同成立时起由买方承担。

例 Unless otherwise provided by law, the seller shall have the obligation to warrant that no third party shall exercise against the buyer any rights with respect to the delivered subject matter.

卖方就交付的标的物,负有保证第三人不得向买方主张任何权利的义务,但法律另有规定的除外。

例 This provision shall apply to all documentary credits, including standby letters of credit, to the extent to which the credits in question shall be applicable, and shall be binding on the Parties to the Contract, unless otherwise expressly agreed by the Parties thereto.

本条规定适用于i切跟单信用证,并包括在其适用范闱内的备用信用证,除非另有约定,对合同各有关方 面均具有约束力。

伤!! Unless otherwise specified in the credit, banks will accept a document bearing a date of issuance prior to that

of the credit, subject to such document being presented within the time limits specified in the credit and in these articles.除非信用证另有规定,银行将授受出单日期早于信用证开证日期的单据,但该单.据须在信用证和本 条文规定的时限之内提交。

例 Bank charges in respect of transfers are payable by the first beneficiary unless otherwise specified by the bank. The transferring bank shall have no obligations to effect the transfer until such charges are paid.

174 / 781

 

除非银行另有规定,有关转让的银行费用应由第一受益人支付。在该费用付清之前,转让行无办理转让的 义务。

  • .英文合同中“根据、依照、按照”的表达

“根据,依据、按照”的表达在英文合同中使用非常频繁,特别是重要的贲任义务条款和规定,要么依据 法律法规,要么依据本合同其他条款的相应规定。因此,必须对此类表达非常明确,不可含糊。常用的表 达方式有:

in accordance with; under; pursuant lo, according to, subject to» on the basis of 等等

例 中标人的投标保证金, 在中标人按本须知第34条规定签订合同,按本须知第35条规定交纳了履约 保证金,并按本须知第36条规定交纳了招标服务费后予以退还。

The successful Bidder’s bid security wil 1 be discharged upon the Bidder signing the contract,

pursuant to ITB Clause 34, and furnishing the performance security, pursuant to ITB Clause 35,and payment of Tendering service fee pursuant to ITB Clause 36.

例 Agency shall not commence work on any project pursuant to this Agreement without first estimating costs for preparation, including copy, service layout, art. engraving, typography, processing, paste up and production. After determining the estimated cost, completion of the work shall be subject to Advertiser’s prior approval.

根据此协议,代理商不可以不进行任何贽用评估就开始对任何项目的工作,包括:复印,服务设计,版画, 版面设计,加工,粘贴和生产。在决定预计费用后,工作的完成应由广告商的预先批准。

例J The bid security is required lo protect the Tendering Agent and the Tenderer against the risk of Bidder’s

conduct which would warrant the security’s forfeiture, pursuant to ITB Clause 15.7.

投标保证金是为了保护招标机构和招标人免遭因投标人的行为而蒙受损失。招标机构和招标人在因投标人 的行为受到损害时可根据本须知第15.7条的规定没收投标人的投标保证金。

例 During the term of this Agreement, Agency may not accept employmenl from render services to represent or otherwise be affiliated with any person, firm, corporation or entity in connection with any product or service directly or indirectly competitive with or similar to any product or service of Advertiser with respect to which the Agency is providing any service pursuant to (his Agreement.

在此协议期间,代现商不得接受来自雇用机构的聘用,来代表或和任何与广告商的任何或类似的产品或服 务直接或间接竞争的人,公司,企业或实体联系,根据此协议,代理商不可提供任何服务给他们。

例 This Agreement shall be constmed and enforced in accordance with the laws of the state of China. 本协议应根据中国的法律来理解和实施。

例 招标人根据招标项目的具体情况,可以组织潜在投标人踏勘项目现场。

In accordance with the specific circumstances of the project for which bids are invited, the bid inviting parly may organize an on-lhe-spot survey of the project for the potential bidders.

例 On ihe FOB basis, the Buyer shall book shipping space in accordance wilh the date of shipment specified in the Contract.

按照FOB条件,由买方负责根据合同规定的装运日期洽定舱位。

例 Advertiser shall not be obligated to reimburse Agency for any travel or other out-of-pocket expenses incuned in the performance of services pursuant to this Agreement unless expressly agreed by Advertiser in advance.

广告商将没有责任支付根据此项协议任何在执行此服务中所产生的任何旅行费用或其它实付费用,除非提 前由由广告商明确同意。

伤!! The contractor shall, in accordance with this contract, enjoy full autonomy in its business operation and

be responsible for their own profits and losses.

承包方依合同规定自主经营、自负盈亏。

例J The Bidder’s separation of price components in accordance with ITB Clause 11.2 above will be solely for the

purpose of facilitating the comparison of bids by the Tendering Agent and the

Tenderer and will not in any way limit the Tenderer’s right to contract on any of the terms

投标人根据本须知第11.2条的规定将投标价分成几部分,只是为了方便招标机构和招标人对投标文件进行 比较,并不限制招标人以上述任何条件订立合同的权力。

伊!I If, in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, a shareholder fails to pay its subscribed

Capital Contribution, the shareholder in question shall bear the responsibility of default to the other shareholders who have fully paid their capital contribulions.

股东不按照前款规定缴纳所认缴的出资,应当向己足额缴纳出资的股东承担违约责任。

例 The Company acknowledges that the consultant is an employee of THE CONSULTANT and is subject lo the UT’s policies, including policies concerning consulting, conflicts of interest, and intellectual property.

咨询方承认服务方是德克萨斯大学的一个雇员,并且遵守UT的政策,包括咨询、利益冲突和知识产权方面。

伤This company shall establish a board of directors. The board shall, in accordance with the provisions of Article 46 and Article 66 of this contract, exercise and perform its duties. The term of office of the board of directors shall be three years.

本公司设立的荒事会,依照合同第四卜六条,第六十六条规定履行职责。荒事会每届任期为三年。

伊(J Party B shall provide economic assurance according to Party A’s requirement. The warrantor should be

national enterprises or other companies that has complete compensational abilities.

甲方根据乙方的资信情况,有权要求乙方提供经济担保。经济担保人必须是具有代为履行或代偿能力的国 有企业或其他经济组织。

例 In the event of any dispute between Areas arising as to whether a particular vessel shall be considered fbr commission, Manufacturer shall be the sole arbitrator to give final judgement according to the situation.

假如在地区之间出现了对i种特别船只是否应被考虑收取佣金产生分歧,生产商应是根据此情况给出最终 裁决的唯一•仲裁者。

伤!! When, under the laws and approval from the relevant authorities, this company is converted into a company limited by shares, the total amount which shares are converted into shall be equivalent to the amount of the company’s net assets.

本公司依照法律并经有关部门批准变更为股份有限公司时,折合的股份总额应当相等于公司净资产额。

例 投标人根据招标文件载明的项目实际情况,拟在中标后将中标项目的部分非主体、非关键性工作进行

分包的,应当在投标文件中载明。

Article 30 If a bidder, on the basis of the actual circumstances of the project as specified in the bid invitation documents, intends to subcontract out some of the non-principah non-key parts of the work after its bid is accepted, it shall specify the same in the bid documents.

例 投标人根据招标文件载明的项目实际情况,拟在中标后将中标项目的部分非主体、非关键性工作进行

分包的,应当在投标文件中载明。

If a bidder, on the basis of the aclual circumslances of the project as specified in (he bid invitation documents, intends to subcontract out some of the non-principaL non-key parts of the work after its bid is accepted, il shall specify the same in the bid documents.

例中标人按照合同约定或者经招标人同意,可以将中标项目的部分非主体、非关键性工作分包给他人完 成。接受分包的人应当具备相应的资格条件,并不得再次分包。

Subject to the provisions of the contract or the consent of the bid inviting party, the winning bidder may subcontract out the completion of some of the non-principal, non-key parts of the work for ihe project which il has won.

  • .英文合同中有关“如果、假如、一旦、倘若、万一”的表达

英文合同中表达’如果、假如”之类的假设用语及句型非常多,语言色彩的丰富,除了我们最为熟悉的if外, 还有诸如:in case, in (the) case of, In event of, in the event♦ where,

provided always that if 以及主谓语倒装句型等。

 

例 In case there is any breach of the provisions under this agreement by either Party during the effective period of this Agreement, the Parties hereto shall first of all try to settle to mutual satisfaction the matter in question as soon as possible.

在本协议有效期间,任何一方对本协议的条款有违背时,缔约双方应首先尽可能迅速友好地解决有关问题, 使双方都满意。

例 If Advertiser fails to notify Agency of its choice, it shall be presumed that Advertiser elected to be charged on an hourly rate basis.

如果广告商没有通知代理商它的选择,那就假定广告商被选为以每小时为基础上来收费的对象。

例 In event of non-delivery exceeding 4 weeks on planned delivery dare, (he Buyer has the right to receive (his pcrfbnnancc bond; the full amount shall be automatically and unconditionally drawn into the Buyer’s account.

如果卖方延迟交货时间超过预定交货期的4个星期,则此笔2%的履约保证金将无条件的自动划入买方的银 行帐号内作为赔偿损失。

例] In the event, that the Buyer fails to perform this obligation, the Seller shall have the right to withdraw, cancel all or part of the contract without obtaining the Buyer’s consent and without paying any compensation to the Buyer. 如果买方未能履行上述义务,卖方有权全部或部分撤销、解除合同,无需买方同意旦无需向买方支付任何 赔偿。

例 In the event that one Party considers it necessary for the development and business operations of the Company to increase the registered capital of the Company and proposes to increase the registered capital, the non-proposing Party shall give its fullest consideration to such proposal.

如果一方认为,为了公司的发展和’也务经营而有必要增加公司的注册资本,并提议增加注册资本,则非提 议方应对此提议给予充分考虑。

例 In any event inadequate to compensate such disclosing party; and therefore such disclosing party may seek injunctive relief and/or specific performance as well as monetaryr damages against the party that breaches this Agreement.

如果赔偿不足,资讯权利人可以向违反本协议的一方寻求强制性的救济/或履行本协议以及追索赔偿金。

忻!! The agreement shall be written in Chinese and in English. Both languages are equally authentic. In the

events of any discrepancy between the two aforementioned versions, ihe Chinese version shall prevail.

本协议由中文和英文书就。两种语言具有同等效力。如果两种上述版本产生歧义,应以中文版本为准。

例 Provided always that if, in the opinion of the engineer, compliance with any such instructions shall involve the contractor in any cost.

如果工程师认为,服从这个指令会使承包商发生额外费用。

例J In case the quality, quantity, weight of the goods are not in conformity with the provisions of the Conlract

after arrival of ihe goods at the port of destination, the Buyer may, under survey report issued by an inspection organization agreed by the parties thereto, lodge claim with the Seller, with the exception, however, of those claims for which the insurance company and/or the shipping company shall be responsible.

在货物运抵目的港后,一旦发现货物质量、数量或重量与合同规定的不符,买方可以根据双方同意的检验 组织所出具的检验证书,向卖方索赔。但是,应由保险公司或航运公司负责的损失除外。

例 In the case of can iage by sea or by more than one mode of transport including carnage by sea, banks will refuse a transport document stating that the goods are or will be loaded on deck, unless specifically authorized in the credit.

如属海运或多种类型运输中包括海运,除非信用证特别授权,银行将拒受注明货装舱面或将装舱面的运输 单据。

例 In case the money to be paid by Party B is not enough to cover the value of the long-term L/C opened by Party A, the margin payments shall be made by Party B with the down payment before the long-term L/C expires, in order to enable Party A to pay the long-term L/C on time.

如乙方支付的货款不能相抵甲方所开的远期信用证之金额,其差额部分由乙方用预付款方式,在甲方所开 的远期信用证到期前汇付甲方,以使甲方能按时议付远期信用证。

仅ij In case the products fail to meet the standards of Party A, Party A may refuse the delivery. Provided that Party A may accept the delivery of the products at the discount price to be agreed between Party A and Party B on a cause-by-case basis.

如果出现产品不符合甲方标准的情况,甲方可拒绝收货。但甲方可根据甲乙双方视每次具体情况的折扣议 价予以接受。

例 This agreement shall be executed in the languages of Chinese and English. In case of any dispute as to the interpretation, the Chinese version shall prevail.

本协议以中文和英文签署,如果两种语言出现解释异议,以中文为准。

伤!! All disputes arising from the execution of or in connection with the Contract shall, through friendly

consultations, be settled by the Parties to this Contract. In case, through consultations, the Parties hereto fail to reach the agreement on the disputes, the disputes in question shall be submitted for arbitration.

因执行本合同所发生的或与本合同有关而发生的一切争议,双方应通过友好协商解决。如经协商仍达不成 协议时,则应提交仲裁解决。

例 In case Party B considers it necessary to employ a foreign auditor registered in another country to undertake annual financial verification and examination. Party A shall give its consent. All the expenses thereof shall be borne by Party B.

如果乙方认为需要聘请另一•国注册审计师对年度财务进行审查,甲方应予以同意,其所需的-•切费用应由 乙方负担。

伤!] Where delivery of the Goods is required by the Purchaser on CIF or CIP basis, the Supplier shall arrange and pay for cargo insurance, naming the Purchaser as the beneficiary. Insurance is to be effected by the Supplier in a freely convertible currency for one hundred and ten percent (110%) invoiced value on an , all risks” and u war risk“ basis. Where delivery is on an FOB or FCA basis, insurance shall be the responsibility of the Purchase匚

如果买方要求按CIF/CIP价格条件交货,其货物保险将由卖方办理、支付,卖方应用一种可以自由兑换的货 币办理以发票金额110%投保的一切险和战争险。并以买方为受益人。如果按FOB/FCA价格条件交货,则 保险是买方的责任。

彳列 Where the Supplier is required under the Contract to deliver the Goods CIF or CIF, transport

of (he Goods to the port of destination or such other named place of destination, as shall be specified in the Contract, shall be arranged and paid for by the Supplier, and the cost thereof shall be included in the Contract Price. 如果合同要求卖方以CIF/CIP价格条件交货,卖方应负责办理、支付将货物运至目的港或本合同中指定的其 他目的地的一切运输事项,有关费用应包括在合同价中。

倒装句型表达形式:

份Should any document be missing or damaged during the transport Consultant shall be notified accordingly and within (wo (2) weeks the missing or damaged document shall be replaced by Consultant free of charge.

如果在邮寄过程中上述资料发生丢失、损坏,在询方应在接到通知后两周内免费予以替换。

例 Should LICENSOR wish to bring legal proceedings, as a result of 由e WORK with Mickey mouse image being used without authorisation to do so, or to defend itself in proceedings brought by a third party, LICENSEE hereby by supplying LICENSOR with all information and/or evidence relevant thereto.

如果许可人希望采用法律手段,起诉米老鼠形象作品的非授

例J Should any inspected or tested Goods fail to confonn to the Specifications, the Purchaser may reject the

Goods, and the Supplier shall either replace the rejected Goods or make alterations necessary to meet specification requirements free of cost to the Purchaser.

如果任何被检验或测试的货物不能满足规格的要求,买方可以拒绝接受该货物,卖方应更换被拒绝的货物, 或者免费进行必要的修改以满足规格的要求。

例 Party B shall be liable for any dead freight or demurrage, should they fail to have the quantity of the goods ready for loading in time as stipulated, while the carrying vessel has arrived at the port of shipment as advised.

如果乙方没有根据规定,及时地把装运货物准备好,而装运船只已经到达所通知的港口,乙方应负责所有 的空舱费和滞期费。

  • .英文合同一般性条款的基本要求

英文合同常见的必备条款-•般包括如下部分:

PRELIMINARY STATEMENT 前言

DEFINITIONS 定义

OPERATIVE CLAUSES具体操作条款

CONDITIONS PRECEDENT如有必要,根据交易具体情况设定相应先决条件

REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES 陈述和保证

TERM合同期限

TERMINATION合同终止

CONTINUING OBLIGATIONS双方持续的义务

CONFIDENTIALITY 保密义务

. BREACH OF CONTRACT 违约责任

FORCE MAJEURE不可抗力

SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES 争议的解决

APPLICABLE LAW 适用法律

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 其他规定

下面我们分部分结合实例具体讲解:

一、关于 PRELIMINARY STATEMENT 前言

例 This Master Marketing Scn iccs Agreement (the “Agreement”) is entered into as of [MONTH DAY, YEAR] (the ^Effective Dale”)by and between: a Delaware corporation wilh a principal place of business at (”VENDOR”) and

RESEARCH IN MOTION LIMITED, a company incorporated in the Province of Ontario and having its principal place of business at 295 Phillip Street, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3W8「RIM”)

WHEREAS:

本销售服务主协议(下称:协议)由一家主营业地位于特拉华州(美国一译注) 的公司(下称:供方) 与位于安大略省(加拿大一译注),主营业地在295 PhiHip Street, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L3W8 (下称:需方) 于(年月 日)签订的,鉴于:

  1. RIM is a leading distributor and marketer of innovative wireless solutions for the worldwide marketplace;

需方是在全球市场从事领先的无线解决方案开发的主要销出商;

(译注:R1M是加拿大生产黑巷BlackBerry移动电子邮件系统终端的公司)

  1. VENDOR is in the business of [INSERT A DETAILED DESCRIPTION OE THE VENDOR’S BUSINESS IN NO MORE TH/\N 3 SENTENCES1;and 供方的主要经营为:
  2. RIM and VENDOR (each a “Party” and collectively the “Parties”) wish to enter into an add background information if appropriate视交易具体情况决定是否应介绍合同背景

例J After friendly consultations conducted in accordance with the principles of equality and mutual benefit, the Parties have agreed to [describe subject matter of the Contract] in accordance with Applicable laws and the provisions of this Contnict.

双方本若平等互利的原则,经友好协商,依照[相关法律名称]以及其他有关法律,同意按照本合同的条 款,[描述合同标的]。

伊]independent contractor arrangement whereby VENDOR shall perform certain Services (as defined herein) on the lenns and conditions set forth in this Agreemenl.

NOW THEREFORE in consideration of the mutual promises and covenants herein contained, the Parties hereby covenant and agree as follows:

双方希望建立专项承包商关系,并据此,供方按照本协议的约定提供某种服务。鉴于双方的相”承诺,特 此立约如下:

Now the Parties Hereby Agree as follows:双方现协议如下:

二、关于 Definitions 定义

例 Unless the terms or context of this contract otherwise provide, all term used in this Contract shall have the meanings set out as follows.

除本合同条款或上卜.文另有所指,本合同中所有相关用语的定义见如卜, 例J Unless the terms or context of this Contract otherwise provide, the following terms shall have the meanings set out below:

除非本合同条款或上下文另有所指,下列用语的含义如下:

 

快!I “Affiliate” means any entity which, directly or indirectly, is controlled by , under common control with, or in control of a Party; the term “control” being used in the sense of power to elect or appoint a majority of directors or to direct the management of a company.

“关联机构”指任何直接或间接被一方控制、与该方受共同控制、或者控制该方的公司:“控制”这一用词 的含义指拥有选举或委派董事会多数董事或指示公司管理部门的权力。

u Applicable Laws“ mean the laws, regulations, rules, and legislative, executive or judicial notices, orders, decisions or other documents binding on either Party or the subject matter of this Contract.

“有关法律”指对本合同一方或本合同标的适用的法律、法规、规章,以及立法、行政或司法机关颁布的 通知、命令、决定或其他公示文件。

例”Business Day5‘ means, in respect of Party A and any action to be taken by Party B in the PRC, any day on which the companies in the PRC are generally open for business in the PRC, including a Saturday or Sunday which the PRC government temporarily declares to be a working day (“Working Rest Day”),but excluding a statutory holiday, or a Saturday or Sunday other than a Working Rest Day; in respect of any action to be taken by Party B in [Party B Home Country], any day on which the companies in [Party B Home Counlry] are generally open for business in (Party B Home Country].

“工作日”就甲方而言,指中华人民共和国境内公司通常对外营业的任何一日,包括中国政府宣布为临时 工作日的星期六或星期日(”调休工作日”),但不包括法定节假日以及调休工作日以外的星期六或星期日; 就乙方而言,指乙方所在国境内公司通常对外营业的任何一日。

例”China” and “PRC” mean the People’s Republic of China, [but for purposes of this Contract do not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau and the region of Taiwan] [“中国”指中华人民共和国,但在本合同中,不包括存港和澳门特别行政区以及中国的台湾地区]

例]u Confidential Information1‘ means any business, marketing, technical, scientific or other information disclosed by any Party which, at (he time of disclosure, is designated as confidential (or like designation), is disclosed in circumstances of confidence, or would be undertstood by the Parties, exercising reasonable business judgement, to be confidential.

“保密资料”指某方所披露的符合以下条件之一的商业、营销、技术、科学或其他信息:在披露时标明为 保密(或有类似标记)的、在保密情况下披露的、或双方根据合理的商业判断应理解为保密资料的。

例 “Effective Date” means the [date of this Contract first shown above] [the date on which each of the conditions precedent in Article , have been satisfied or waived in accordance wilh the terms thereof).

“Expiration Date“ means the day on which the initial Term or any extended Tenn expires in accordance with the provisions of Articles .1 and .2.

“生效日”指本合同首部所载之日[,或者第条(先决条件)中所设定的先决条件根据该条有关规定成就或 被放弃之日]。

例 0 Intellectual Property Right” or “PR” means any and all rights in any invention, disvcovery, improvement, utility, model, copyrightable work, industrial design or mask work, algorithm, data structure, trade secrets or know-how. Confidential Information, or any idea having commercial value. 1PR shall include any trademark, trade dress, trade name, domain name, or other marks that serve to indetify and distinguish goods or services as coming from, or falling under the control of, a single source. IPR shall include all rights of whatsoever nature in computer software and data, all intangible rights or privileges of a nature similar to any of the foregoing in every case in any part of tc world and whether or not registered, and all rights in any applications and granted registrations for any of the foregoing rights;

“知识产权”指针对以下任何一项所拥有的权利(在每种情况下其权利范围均包括世界任何地区并且无论 是否经登记):发明、发现、改进、实用新型、外观设计、有著作权的作品、工业设计或掩模、算法、数据 结构、商业秘密或专有技术、保密资料、或具有商业价值的想法。知识产权还包括商标、商号、装潢、域 名,以及表明或突出某一货物或服务来源泉于某一实体(或者提供方受某一实体控制)的其他标记。知识 产权包括所有针对计算机软件及数据的任何性质的权利(以及与上述权利性质类似的所有无形权利或特权), 还包括上述权利的申请权以及获准登记权。

例 References to Schedules, Annexes, Articles and Sections are references to schedules, annexes, articles and sections of this Contract.

本合同中提及附录、附件和条款均指本合同的相应附录、附件和条款C 例 References in this Contract to laws, mlcs or regulations or (o contracts, contracts or other documents, shall mean the same as amended from time, and references to government ministries, bureaux, departments, commissions, agencies, etc. shall include all successor entities thereto.

本合同中提及法律、法规或规章,或合同、协议或其他文件,也包括其修订后的版本,本合同中提及政府 部、局、部门、委员会、署,也指这些机构的继受机构。

伊!j In this Contract, the masculine form includes the feminine form and the singular form includes the plural form, and vice versa.

在本合同中所使用的男性称谓也包括女性,单数也包括复数,反之亦然。

例 Headings arc for convenience of reference only and shall not affect the construction or interpretation of this Contract.

在各条款标题仅为方便杳阅,对本合同的理解或解释无影响。

三、关于OPERATIVE CLAUSES具体操作条款

双方就合同的标的情况设立有关具体内容,如品名、质量、标准价格、支付方式等。

四、关于交易具体情况设定相应先决条件Conditions Precedent

也可以没有这部分内容

五、关于陈述与担保 Representatins and Warranties

Add undertakings if appropriate

如有必要,根据交易具体情况设定相应单方陈述和保证条款,内容包括

例 Each party represents and wanants to the other Party that on the date hereof:

双方分别向对方陈述并担保,于本合同签订日:

  • it is [an independent legal person] duly organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the place of its establishment;

根据其成立地的法律,该方[为独立法人、]依法定程序设立、有效存续、且相关手续完备

  • it has full authority to enter into this Contract and to perforin its obligations hereunder;

该方有全权订立本合同以及履行本合同项下义务:

  • it has authorized its representative to sign this Contract and from and after the Effective Date the provisions of this Contract shall be legally binding upon it;

该方已授予其授权代表签署合同的权力,从生效日开始,本合同的条款对其具有法律约束力

  • its execution of this Contract and its performance of its obligations hereunder(i)will not violate any provision of its business license, articles of incorporation, articles of association or similar organizational documens; (ii) will not violate any Applicable Law or any governmental authorization or approval; and (iii) will not violate or result in a default under any contract to which il is a party or to which il is subject;

该方签订本合同以及履行本合同项下义务:

  • 不会违反其营业执照、成立协议、章程或类似组织文件的任何规定
  • 不会违反有关法律或任何政府的授权或批准:并且
  • 不会违反其作为当事人一方(或受之约束)的其他任何合同,也不

会导致其被认定在该合同项下未履约:

  • no lawsuit, arbitration or other legal or governmental proceeding is pending or, to its knowledge, threatened against it that would affect its ability to perform its obligations under this Contract; and

不存在将影响该方履行本合同项下义务的能力的、已经发生且尚未了结的诉讼、仲裁申请或其他司法或行 政桂序,而旦据其所知无人威胁将采取上述行动:并且

  • it has disclosed to the other Party all documents issued by and governmental department that may have a material adverse effect on its ability to full perform its obligations under this Contract, and the documents previously provided by it to the other Party do not contain any misstatements or omissions of material facts.

该方已经向对方提供可能对其全面履行其在本合同项下义务的能力造成重大不利影响的相关政府机构颁发 的所有文件,并旦该方此前提供给对方的文件中没有对任何重要事实的不实陈述或者漏述◎

 

consequences of Inaccuracy in Representations

if any of the above representations and waiTanties of a Party are not accurate in all material respects on the date hereof, then such Party shall be in breach of ihis Conlract.

如果在本合同签订日,一方的上述陈述和担保的任何一项与实际情况有实质性不符,则构成该方违约。

六、关于Term合同期限

伊!J Subject to the provisions of Article .2jhc term of the Contract (“Term”) shall be two years, commencing on the Effective Date.

根据合同第2条规定,本合同期限(“本合同期限”)为两年,于[合同生效日]开始,并于[合同到期日] (“合同到期日”)届满。

例Exlension合同期限的续展

The Term shall expire automatically on (he Expiration Date, unless extended for an additional term through a written contract signed by the authorized representatives of the Parties at least [sixty (60)] days prior to the Expiration Date.

本合同于到期日自动终止,除非在到期日之前双方授权代表至少提前[六十(60)]天签署书面协议,续展本 合同期限。

七、关于Termination合同终止

insert other conditions triggering tennination as appropriate 根据情况设定其他导致合同终止的条款

伊!I Either party may terminate this Contract if the other party fails to fulfill or perfonn any of its obligations hereunder in the event that such failure remains unremedied sixty(60)days after the service of a written notice by the party to the defaulting party specifying the failure in question and requiring il to be remedied. The tennination of this Contract shall not release either party form performance any of its obligations due at the time of such tennination.

如果一方未能完成或履行其在本合同项下的任何义务,而且未能在另一方向该方送书面通知,指出该方违 约行为并要求该方予以改正后六十(60)天该方仍未予以改正,另一方则可以终止本合同。本合同的终止, 不得解除任何一方在终止到期应履行的任何义务。

例Termination合同终止

  • This Contract shall terminate upon the expiration of the Term unless extended pursuant to Article? .2. 本合同于合同到期日终止,除非双方按照第3 .2条的规定续约。
  • This Contract may be terminated at any time prior to expiration of the Tenn by the mutual written contract of the Parties.

本合同其限届满之前,双方可通过书面协议随时终止本合同。

 

  • At any time prior to the expiration of the lenn, a Party (^Notifying Party “)may terminate this Contract through notice to ihc other Party in writing if:

本合同期限届满之前,如果发生以下情形之一,一方(“通知方”)可随时向对方发出书面通知后终止本合 同:

  • The other Party materially breaches this contract, and such breach is not cured within the Cure Period granted pursuant to Article 3(a) (Remedies for Breach of Contract); or

对方违反本合同项下某一主要义务,且未在通知方根据3 (a)条(违约救济)规定发出的书面违约通知中 规定的补救期内对违约予以补救;

  • the other Party becomes bankmpl, or is the subject of proceedings for liquidation or dissolution, or ceases to carry on business or becomes unable to pay its debts as they come due; or

对方破产,或者成为解散或清算程序的对象,或者歇业,或者无力偿还到期债务:

  • the conditions or consequences of Force Majeure (as hereinafter defined) which have a material adverse effect on the affected Party’s ability to perform continue for a period in excess of six (6) months and the Parties have been unable to find an equitable solution pursuant to Article ,2(c) (Consequences of Force Majeure) hereof; or

不可抗力(如下文所定义)事件或其影响持续超过六(6)个月,旦双方无法按照第[]条(不可抗力的后果) 的条款达成一项公正的解决方案:

  • a fundamental provision of this Contract (without which one or both of the Parties would not have entered into ihc Contract) is declared or becomes invalid under Applicable Law.

根据有关法律,本合同的某一基本条款(如果没有”该条款则一方或双方不会订立本合同)被判定为无效或 成为无效条款;

八、关于Continuing Obligations双方持续的义务

The provisions of Article (Termination), Article (Breach of contract) (but only with respect to claims arising prior to the termination hereof or with respect to other continuing obligations). Article (Confidentiality) and Article (Settlement of Disputes) shall survive the termination of this contract.

以下各条的条款在本合同终止后继续有效:第[]条(合同终止),第[]条(违约)(但其效力仅限于本合同 终止前发生的违约事件以及违反其他持续义务的情形),第[]条(保密义务),以及第[]条(争议的解决〔

九、关丁• Confidcniialily保密义务

例 The existence of this Contract, as well as its content, shall be held in confidence by both Parties and only disclosed as may be agreed to by both Parties or as may be required to meet securities disclosure or export permit requirements. Neither Party shall make public statements or issue publicity or media releases with regard to this Contract or the relationship between the Parties without the prior written approval of the other Party.

187 / 781

 

双方应对本合同的存在及其内容保密,只rr在双方均同意的情况下(或者根据rr关证券市场规定须披露或 为获得出口许可证须披露的情况下)方可向有关方披露。未经对方事先书面同意,任何一方均不得就本合 同或双方的关系发表公开声明或发布宣传或新闻稿。

例 From time to time prior to and during the term of this Contract either Party (^disclosing Party “)has disclosed or may disclose Confidential Information to the other Party (“Receiving Party “). The receiving Party shall, during the term of this Contract and for two years thereafter:

本合同订立前以及在本合同期间,一方(“披露方”)曾经或者可能不时向时方(“受方”)披露该方的保 密资料。在本合同期限内以及随后2年间,受方必须:

  • maintain the confidentiality of Confidential Information;

对保密资料进行保密:

  • not to use Confidential Infonnation for any purpose other than those specifically set out in this Contract; and 不为除合同明确规定的目的之外的其他目的使用保密资料:
  • not disclose any such Confidential Information to any person or entity, except to its employees or employees of its AffiliatesJts agents, attorneys, accountants and other advisors who need to know such information to perform their responsibilities and who have signed written confidentiality contracts containing terms al least as stringent as the terms provided in this Article .

除为履行其职责而确有必要知悉保密资料的该方雇员(或其关联机构、该方律师、会计师或其他顾问的雇 员)外,不向其他任何人披露,且上述人员须签署书面保密协议,其中保密义务的严格程序不得低于本条 的规定。

色!| The provisions of Article 11 above shall not apply to information that:

上述第11条的条款对以下信息不适用:

  • can be shown to be known by the receiving Party by written records made prior to disclosure by the disclosing Party;

受方有在披露方向其披露前存在的书面记录证明其已经掌握:

  • is or becomes public knowledge otherwise than through the receiving Party’s breach of this Contract; or 并非由于受方违反本合同而已经或者在将来进入公共领域:或者
  • was obtained by the receiving Party from a third party having no obligation of confidentiality with respect to such information.

受方从对该信息无保密义务的第三方获得。

快!I Each party shall formulate rules and regulations to inform its directors, senior staff, and other employees, and those of their Affiliates of the confidentiality obligation set forth in this Articles .

每一方应制订相应的规章制度,告知该方(以及该方的关联机构)堇事、高级职员以及其他雇员本条规定 的保密义务。

份!I Upon the expiration or termination of this Contract, [and in any event upon the disclosing Party’s request at any time], the receiving Party shall (i) return to the other Party, or at the disclosing Party s direction destroy, all materials (including any copies thereof) embodying the other Party’s Confidential Information and (ii) certify in writing to the other Party, within ten days following the other Parly’s request, that all of such materials have been returned or destroyed.

本合同终止后(或经披露方随时提出要求),受方应(1)向对方归还(或经对方要求销毁)包含对方保密 资料的所有材料(包括其复印件),并且(2)在对方提出此项要求后十(10)日内向对方书面保证已经归 还或销毁上述材料。

十、关于Breach of Contract违约责任与救济

  • Remedies for Breach of Contract 违约救济

例 Except as otherwise provided herein, if a Party (/’breaching party”) fails to perform any of its material obligations under this Contact, then the other Party (“‘aggrieved party”) may at its option:

除本合同其他条款另有规定外,如果一方(“违约方”)未履行其在本合同项下主要义务,则对方(“受损害 方”)除享有有关法律赋予的权利外,还可选择采取以下救济措施:

  • give written notice to the breaching party describing the nature and scope of the breach and demand that the breaching party cure the breach at its cost within a reasonable lime specified in the notice (“Cure Period”); and 向违约方发出书面通知,说明违约的性质以及范围,并且要求违约方在通知中规定的合理期限内自费予以 补救:并且
  • if the breaching party fails to cure the breach within the Cure period, the aggrieved party may claim direct and foreseeable damages arising from the breach.

如果违约方未在该书面通知中规定的补救期内予以补救,则受损害方可就违约引起的可以预见的直接损失 提出索赔。

  • Limitation on Liability 责任限制

例 Notwithstanding any other provision of this Contract, neither Party shall be liable to the other Party for damages for loss of revenues or profits, loss of goodwill or any indirect or consequential damages in connection with the performance or non-performance of this Contract .The aggregate liability of a Party for all claims for any loss, damage or indemnity whatsoever resulting from such Party’s performance or non-perfonnance of this Contract shall in no case exceed United States Dollars (US$ ) or the RMB equivalent thereof.

无论本合同其他条款有何规定,任何一方均不向对方承担因本合同的履行或不履行而造成的收入或利润丧 失、商誉丧失或任何间接或附带性损失的赔偿责任。在任何情况下,一方因本合同的履行或不履行而造成 的损失、损害或补偿索赔所承担的责任累计总额不得超过]底元(US¥[])或等值的人民币。

十,一1、关于Force Majeure不可抗力

  • Definition of Force Majeure 不抗力的定义

例 ” Force Majeure^ shall mean all events which arc beyond the control of the Parties to this Contract, and which are unforeseen, unavoidable or insurmountable, and which prevent total or partial performance by either of the Parties. Such events shall include earthquakes, typhoons, flood ,fire, war, strikes, riots, acts of governments, changes in law or the application thereof or any other instances which cannot be foreseen, prevented or controlled, including instances which arc accepted as Force Majeure in general intcniational commercial practice.

“不可抗力”指超出本合同双方控制范围的、无法预见并且无法避免或无法克服的事件,该事件使得本合 同一方部分或者完全不能履行本合同。这类事件包括但不限地地震、台风、洪水、火灾、战争、罢工、暴 动、政府行为、法律规定或者其适用发生变化,或者其他任何无法预见、避免或者控制的事件,包括在国 际商务初中中通常认定为不可抗力的事件。

  • Consequences of Force Majeure 不可抗力的后果

例 if an event of Force Majeure occurs, a Party’s contractual obligations aftcctcd by such an event under this Contract shall be suspended during the period of delay caused by the Force Majeure and shall be automatically extended, without penalty, for a period equal to such suspension.

如果发和不可抗力事件,一方在本合同项下受不可抗力影响的义务在不可抗力造成的延误期间自动中止, 并且其履行期限应自动延长,延长期间为中止的期间,该方无须为此承担违约责任。

例 The Party claiming Force Majeure shall promptly inform the other Parties in writing and shall furnish within [fifteen (I5)| days thereafter sufficient proof of the occurrence and duration of such Force Mcijeure. The Party claiming Force Majeure shall also use all reasonable endeavours to terminate the Force Majeure.

提出受不可抗力影响的一方应及时书面通知对方,并且在随后的[十五(15)]日内向对方提供不可抗力发生 以及持续期间的充分证据。提出受不可抗力影响的一方还应尽一切合理的努力排除不可抗力。

例 In the event of Force Majeure, the Parties shall immediately consult with each other in order to find an equitable solution and shall use all reasonable endeavours to minimize the consequences of such Force Majeure. 发生不可抗力的,双方应立即进行磋商,寻求一项公正的解决方案,并且耍尽一切合理的努力将不可抗的 的影响降至最小。

十二、关于Settlement of Disputes争议的解决 i Friendly consultations 友好协商

例 In the event of any dispute, controversy or claim (collectively, ^dispute”) arising out of or relating to this Contract, or the breach, termination or invalidity hereof, the Parties shall attempt in the first instance to resolve such dispute through friendly consultations.

如果发生由本合同(或者违反、终止或者无效)引起或者与其相关的争议、纠纷或者索赔(统称“争议) 双方首先应争取通过友好协商来解决争议。

  • Arbitration 仲裁 例J If any dispute is not resolved by friendly consultations within [sixty (60)] days after the date such consultations were first requested by a Party, then any Party may submit the dispute for arbitration in [Singapore] before the [Singapore International Arbitration Centre] in accordance with its rules of arbitration procedure, supplemented by the following:

如果某一争议未在一方首次提出协商之日后[六十(60)]日内通过友好协商解决,则任何一方可将该争议提 交[新加坡国际仲裁中心]在[新加坡]仲裁,仲裁按照[该中心]仲裁程序规则进行,同时应遵循以下补充规定:

  • There shall be one (1) arbitrator appointed by the arbitration body.

仲裁由该仲裁机构指定的一(1)位仲裁员审理。

  • The arbitration proceedings shall be conducted in the English language. 仲裁程序用英文进行。
  • The arbitration award shall be final and binding on the Parties, and the Parties agree to be bound thereby and to act accordingly.

仲裁裁决为终局性的,对双方均有约束力,双方同意受该裁决的拘束并IL依照裁决执行。

  • All costs of arbitration shall be borned by the Parties as determined by the arbitration tribunal.. 所有仲裁贽用由双方根据仲裁庭作出的决定承担。

Continuing Rights and Obligations 持续的权利和义务

When any dispute occurs and is ihe subject of friendly consultations or arbitration, the Parties shall continue to exercise their remaining respective rights and fulfil their remaining respective obligations under this Contract, except in respect of those matters under dispute.

当某一争议已发生并且正在通过友好协商或仲裁解决时,双方可继续行使其各自在本合同项下的其他权利, 同时应继续履行其各自在本合同项下的其他义务,但与争议事项有关的权利和义务除外。

  • Enforcement of Award 裁决的执行

例 Judgment upon any arbitral award may be entered in any court having jurisdiction over the Party against which the award has been rendered, or application may be made to any such court for judicial acceptance of the award and an order of enforcement, as the case may be. In the event of judicial acceptance and an order of enforcement, each

Party expressly waives all rights to object thereto, including any defense of sovereign immunity and any other defense based on the fact or allegation that it is an agency or instrumentality of a sovereign state.

仲裁胜诉方可谙求对仲裁败诉一方有管辖权的法院作出相应判决,或者向该法院申请对仲裁裁决予以司法 承认并发布强制执行令(以适用者为准)。在法院对仲裁裁决予以司法承认并发布强制执行令的情况下,双 方特此明确放弃其提出抗辩的所有权利,包括以主权豁免作为抗辩事由,以及基于其是一个主权国家的机 构或部门的事实或主张的其他抗辩事由。

  • Injunctive Relief申请禁制令的司法救济权利

例 Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Parties agree that each Party has the right to seek injunctive or other similar relief in any court of competent jurisdiction in respect of any claims of breach of confidentiality or IPR infringement.

无论本合同前述条款有何规定,双方同意如果一方提出对方违反保密条款或侵犯知识产权的指控,则提出 指控一方可向任何一个有管辖权的法院申请发布制止侵权、违约行为的禁制令或采取其他类似救济措施。

十三、关于Applicable Law适用法律

例 The validity, interpretation and implementation of this Contract shall be governed by the laws of [the People’s Republic of China][another jurisdiction! (withoul regard to its rules governing conflict of laws).

本合同的效力、解释以及执行适用[中华人民共和国法律儿另一司法区域的法律](但不适用有关法律冲突的 规则)

伊] Unless otherwise stipulated in this contract, the terms and conditions of this contract shall be interpreted in accordance with the 44 International Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms (INCOTERMS 2000) ** provided by International Chamber of Commerce.

除非另有约定,此合同受国际商会发布的《2000年国际贸易术语解释通则》的约束。

十四、关于Miscellaneous Provisions其他规定

Independent Contractor Relationship合同双方之间的独立关系

例]The parties are only establishing an independent contractor relationship with each other by entering into this Contract. Nothing in this Contract shall be conslnied or implied as:

合同双方签订本合同仅仅在他们之间产生独立合同关系。本合同任何条款均不得被解释为:

  • establishing between the Parties hereto any partnership or any other form of relationship entailing joint liability;

合同双方之间形成合伙关系或其他导致共同责任的关系;

  • constituting either of the Parties hereto as the agent of the other Party (except with the other Party’s prior written consent); or

使任何-一方成为另一方的代理人(对方事先书面同意的除外);或者

 

  • authorizing either Party to incur any expenses or any other form of obligation on behalf of the other Party (except with the other Party’s prior written consent).

授权♦一方为另一方招致费用或其他任何形式的义务(对方事先书面同意的除外)。

Binding Effect合同拘束力的范围

例 This Contract is made for the benefit of the Parties hereto and their respective lawful successors and assignees and is legally binding on them.

本合同的受益人为本合同双方以及该方合法的继受者和受让人并对其有法律拘束力。

Amendment 变更

例 This Contract shall not be changed verbally, but only by a written instrument signed by the Parties. 本合同不得以口头方式修改,而须以双方签署书面文件的方式修改。

伊ij Amendments to this Contract may be made only by a written instiument signed by a duly authorized representative of each of the parties and,unless prior approval from the examination and approval authority is statutorily required,such amendments shall become effective upon the signing by the duly authorized representatives of the parties.

对本合同的修改,只能通过各方正式授权的代表签署协议进行。除法律要求须经审批机关事先批准外,该 等修改经各方正式授权的代表签字后即刻生效。

No Solicitation禁止招揽对方雇员

例 Neither Party shall directly solicit fbr employment the other Party’s personnel who arc engaged in the perfonnance of this Conlract, during the Term of this Contract and within one (1) year after the Expiration Date, without the prior written consent of the other Party.

在本合同有效期内以及本合同终止一(1)年内,任何一方均不得直接向另一方参与本合同执行的雇员发出 招聘要约,经另一方书面同意的除外。

Notices 通知

例 Any notice or written communication provided for in this Contract by either Party to the other, including but not limited to any and all offers, writings, or notices to be given hereunder, shall be made in |language] by courier service delivered letter or by facsimile [or electronic mail] and confirmed by courier service delivered letter, promptly transmitted or addressed to the appropriate Party. The date of receipt of a notice or communication hereunder shall be the date of delivery confirmed by the courier service in the case of a courier service delivered letter and the next working day after dispatch in the case of a facsimile |or email |. All notices and communications shall be sent to the appropriate address set forth below, until the same is changed by notice given in writing to the other Party.

本合同规定i方向另i方发出的通知或书面函件(包括但不限于本合同项下所有要约、书面文件或通知) 均应以英文制作,并以传真[或电子邮件]的方式发送给对方,同时通过及时发送或递交给相应一方的专递信 函(并旦有回执)予以确认。收到通知或往来函件的日期,如果是以专递信函方式送达,为经专递信函服 务提供者确认的递交日如果是以传真[或电子邮件]的方式送达,为发出后的第二个工作日。所有通知及往来 函件应发送至以下地址,直到某方书面通知另一方变更地址为止。

例 Notices required or pennitted under this Contract shall be effective if in writing,written in English,sent by registered ainnaihor by (clcx or facsimile confirmed by a registered airmail letter,return receipt rcqucstcd,addrcsscd as follows;unless otherwise specified herein,notices shall be effective from the date of receipt of the telex or facsimile orjn the event the telex or facsimile is not received,eight(8) days after the service of the registered letter. 本合同所要求或允许的通知,应是用英文写就的书面通知,用航空挂号信寄出,或用电传或传真发出,随 之以航空挂号信确认,并随附回执,寄到下列地址方能生效。除非合同另有规定,通知自收到电传或传真 之日起生效,或者在未收到电传或传真的情况下,挂号信寄出后八(8)天生效。

Waiver不放弃权利

例 Failure or delay on the part of any of the Parties hereto to exercise a right under this Contract shall not operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise of such a right preclude any other future exercise thereof.

如果一方未行使或延迟行使其在本合同项下的某项权利,不构成该方对此项权利的放弃,如果该方行使过 某项权利或者部分行使某项权利,并不妨碍其在将来再次行使此项权利。

例 Unless otherwise specified herein,failure or delay on the part of any party to exercise any right,power or privilege under this Contract shall not operate as a waiver thereof,nor shall any single or partial exercise of any righl,power or privilege preclude any further exercise thereof.

除非本合同另有规定,任何一方未能或延迟行使本合同规定的任何权利、权力或特权,不得视为该方放弃 该权利、权力或特权,单项或部分行使任何权利、权力或特权,亦不得排除其时该权利、权力或特权的进 一步行使。

Assignability 可转让性

例 This Contract may not be assigned in whole or in part by the Party without the prior written consent of the other Parly hereto.

未经对方事先书面同意,任何一方不得部分或全部转让本合同。

Severability可分割性

例]The invalidity of any provision of this Contract shall not affect the validity of any other provision of this Contract.

本合同某一条款的无效不影响本合同其他条款的效力。

例 If any of the provisions of this Contract or any document executed in connection herewith is hereafter delennined lo be invalid.illegal or unenforceable in any respect under any applicable law,⑴ ihe validity,legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or iinpaired,and such remaining provisions shall remain in full force and effect;and(ii) the invalidjllegal or unenforceable provision shall be replaced by a valid Jegal and enforceable provision that comes closest to expressing the true intent of such invalidjllegal or unenforceable provision.

如果本合同或涉及本合同而签署的任何文件中的任何条款,日后根据任何适用法律被认定在某方面是无效 的、不合法的或不能强制执行的,(1)本合同或涉及本合同而签署的文件的其他条款的效力、合法性和可 强制执行性刚不受任何影响或损害,并仍然具有完全的效力:(2)该等无效、不合法或不能强制执行的条 款,应以有效、合法和能强制执行且最能表达上述无效、不合法或不能强制执行的条款木意的条款所取代。

Entire Agreement 完整协议

例 This Contract and the Schedules and annexes hereto constitute the entire agreement between the Parties hereto with respect lo the subject matter of this Contract and supersede all prior discussions, negotiations and agreements between them.

本合同及附录[和附件卜构成双方就本合同标的达成的全部协议,并且取代双方之间此前就该标的进行的所有 磋商、谈判以及达成的协议。

Schedules and Annexes 附录以及附件

例 The Schedules and Annexes hereto are made an integral part of this Contract and are equally binding with the main body of the Contract. In the event of any conflict between the terms and provisions of the main body of the Contract and the Schedules or Annexes, the terms and provisions of the main body of this Contract shall prevail. 本合同的附录[以及附件]为本合同不可分割的部分,并且与本合同正文的条款具有同等效力。如果全合同正 文的条款与附录[以及附件]的条款有冲突,以本合同正文条款为准。

Language 文本

例J This Contract is executed in the Chinese language in two originals and in the English language in two originals. Both language versions shall be equally authentic.

本合同中文正本2份,英文正本2份。两种文本具有同等效力。

例 This Contract is executed in Chinese in two(2) counterparts, and each party shall hold one copy.If ncccssaryat may be translated into other lanauages. However, if there is any discrepancy between the Chinese version and a version in any other language, the Chinese version shall prevail.

本合同用中文签署,–式二(2)份,双方各持一份。如有必要,可译成其他文字。但是,本合同的中文文 本和其他文本若存在不一致之处,则须以中文文本为准。

.Effectiveness 生效

例 This Contract shall take effect from the date of its execution by the duly authorized representatives of the parties. 本合同自各方正式授权的代表签署之日起生效。

signature 签署

例 IN WITNESS WHEREOF, each of parlies hereto has caused this Contract to be executed by its duly authorized representative on the date first set forth above.

 

双方已于本合同首页所载日期通过其正式授权的代表签订本合同,以资证明。

.Headings 标题

例 The headings to the articles hereof are for ease of reference only,and in no event shall the substance of any paragraph or the intent of the parties be inteipreted or controlled by such headings.

本合同条款标题仅为参考方便之用,不得用于解释或控制任何段落的实质内容或双方的意向。

55.E1D1C合同条件体系及应用

一、FIDIC合同主要文件构成

FIDIC专业委员会编制了一系列规范性合同条件,构成了 FIDIC合同条件体系,包括:

(红皮书)HDIC 土木工程施工合同条件

Conditions of Conlract for Work Of Civil Engineering Constniction

(新红皮书)FIDIC程施工合同条件(1999年新增)

Condition of Contract for Construction

注:《施工合同条件》(新红皮书)的全称是:由业主设计的房屋和工程施工合同条件(Conditions of Contract for Construction for Building and Engineering Works Designed by the Employer):

(黄皮书)FIDIC电气与机械工程合同条件

Conditions of Contract for Electrical and Mechanical Works

(新黄皮书)FIDIC永久设备和设计一建造合同条件(1999年新增)

Conditions of Contract for Plant and Design—Build

注:《设备与设计-建造合同》(新黄皮书)的全称是:由承包商设计的电气和机械设备安装与民用和工程合 同条件(Conditions of Contract for Plant and Designed-Build for Electrical and Mechanical Plant and Building and Engineering Works Designed by the Contractor )(>

(橘皮书)FIDIC设计一建造与交钥匙工程合同条件

Conditions of Conlract for Design— Build and Turnkey

(银皮书)卜’1DIC设计采购施工(EPC) /交钥匙工程合同条件

Conditions of Contract for EPC Turnkey Projects

(白皮书)FIDIC业主咨询工程师标准服务协议书条件(1998年第三版)

Conditions of Contract for EPC/Turnkey Projects

(绿皮书)合同的简短格式

Short Form of Contract

二、FIDIC主要合同文件的适用性

国际承包工程涉及到的FIDIC合同主要有四种:

常见的是土木工程施工方面的,正式名称为《土木工程施工合同条件》(Conditions of Contract for Works of Civil Engineering Construction),由于封皮是红色的,海外通常叫做“红皮书”;

还有黄色封皮的,是机电工程方面的,正式名称为《机电工程合同条件》(Condilions of Conlract for Electrical and Mechanical Works),常叫“黄皮书”:

再有就是白色封皮的,是设计咨询方面的,正式名称为《业主与咨询工程师服务协议模式》(Client / Consullani Model Service Agreement),也叫”白皮书”,其付费标准是按“人一日”、”人一周”或“人一月”计算;

交钥匙项目专有一个“橙皮书”,正式名称为《设计、施工及交钥匙合同条件》(Conditions of Contract for Design-Build and Turnkey, 1995),其主要特点就是参考“黄皮书”做些变通,规定从设计至施工完毕,所有 责任全都集中到承包商身上一一当然另一方面这也给承包商提供了更大的活动余地。“橙皮书”通常适用于 BOT类型的项目。

此外,FIDIC在1999年又出版了 EPC合同,正式名称为《设计、采购及施工合同条件》(Conditions of Contract for Engineering. Procurement and Construction),常叫”银皮书”,并建议可作为“橙皮书”的一个替代范本。 还有适用于•标价相对较低的小型工程的简短合同格式(The Short Form of Conlract),常叫“绿皮书这些 FIDIC合同形成了一套规范性的文件,业内人士鉴于书封皮的颜色特点,常将整个合同条件通称为“彩虹系 列”。

在国际承包工程中一般用到的都是FID1C合同“红皮书”,是土建类的项目;但是搞机电设备供货,使用信 用证付款方式的项目,一•般多用FIDIC合同“黄皮书”。两个亚洲开发银行贷款的输电线工程和几个变电站 项目,用的就都是FIDIC合同“黄皮书”,因为这类工程的供货成分大。若土建部分比重大,就要用红皮的 了。

三、FIDIC出版的各类合同条件先后有:

⑴《土木工程施工合同条件》(1987年第4版,1992年修订版)(红皮书)

(2)《电气与机械工程合同条件》(1988年第2版)(黄皮书)

 

(3)《土木工程施工分包合同条件》(1994年第1版)(与红皮书配套使用):

(4)《设计一建造与交钥匙工程合同条件》(1995年版)(桔皮书):

(5)《施工合同条件》(1999年第一版);

(6)《生产设备和设计一施工合同条件》(1999年第一版);

⑺《设计采购施工(EPC) /交钥匙工程合同条件》(1999年第一版):

(8)《简明合同格式》(1999年第一版);

(9)多边开发银行统一版《施工合同条件》(2005年版),等等。

四、1999年四种新版的合同条件

1999年9月,FIDIC出版了一套4本全新的标准合同条件:

(1)《施工合同条件》 (Conditions of Contract for Construction), 简称”新红皮书”。该文件推荐 用于有雇主或其代表一一工程师设计的建筑或工程项目,主要用于单价合同。在这种合同形式下,通常由 工程师负责监理,由承包商按照雇主提供的设计施工,但也可以包含由承包商设计的土木、机械、电气和 构筑物的某些部分.新红皮书与原红皮书相对应,但其名称改变后合同的适用范围更大。该合同主要用于 由业主设计的或由咨询工程师设计的房屋建筑工程(Building Works)和土木工程(Engineering Works)。

(2)《生产设备和设计——施工合同条件》

《生产设备和设计 施工合同条件》(Conditions of Contract for Plant and Design-Build),简称“新黄 皮书”。该文件推荐用于电气和(或)机械设备供货和建筑或工程的设计与施工,通常采用总价合同。由承 包商按照雇主的要求,设计和提供生产设备和(或)其他工程,可以包括土木、机械、电气和建筑物的任 何组合,进行工程总承包。但也可以对部分工程采用单价合同。新黄皮书与原黄皮书相时应,其名称的改 变便于与新红皮书相区别。在新黄皮书条件下,承包商的基本义务是完成永久设备的设计、制造和安装。

(3)《设计采购施工(EPC) /交钥匙工程合同条件》

《设计采购施工(EPC) /交钥匙工程合同条件》(Conditions of Conlraci for EPC/Tumkey Projects),简称 “银皮书”该文件可适用于以交钥匙方式提供工厂或类似设施的加工或动力设备、基础设施项目或其他类 型的开发项目,采用总价合同。这种合同条件下,项目的最终价格和要求的工期具有更大程度的确定性; 由承包商承担项目实施的全部责任,雇主很少介入。即由承包商进行所有的设计、采购和施工,最后提供 一个设施配备完整、可以投产运行的项目。

(4)《简明合同格式》

《简明合同格式》仆11。心0皿。日。1】1咏1),简称“绿皮书”。该文件适用于投资金额较小的建筑或工程项目。 根据工程的类型和具体情况,这种合同格式也可用于投资金额较大的工程,特别是较简单的、或重匏性的、 或工期短的工程。在此合同格式下,一般都由承包商按照雇主或其代表一一工程师提供的设计实施工程, 但对于部分或完全由承包商设计的土木、机械、电气和(或)构筑物的工程,此合同也同样适用。该合同 条件主要适于价值较低的或形式简单、或重复性的、或工期短的房屋建筑和土木工程。

FIDIC作为国际上权威的咨询工程师机构,多年来所编写的标准合同条件是国际工程界几十年来实践经验的 总结,公正的规定了合同各方的职责、权利和义务,程序严谨,可操作性强。如今已在工程建设、机械和

198 / 781

 

电气设备的提供等方面被广泛使用。现简要介绍FIDIC合同条件的发展过程和新版(99版)合同条件的适 用范围等情况。

五、新版(99版)FID1C合同条件的基木原则和主要特征 新版FID1C合同条件更具有灵活性和易用性,如果通用合同条件中的某一条并不适用于实际项目,那么可 以简单的将其删除而不需要在专用条件中特别说明。编写通用条件中子条款的内容时,也充分考虑了其适 用范围,便其适用于大多数合同。(不过,子条款并不是FIDIC合同的必要部分,用户可根据需要选用。) 新红皮书、新黄皮书和银皮书均包括以下三部分:通用条件/专用条件编写指南/投标书、合同协议、争议评 审协议。各合同条件的通用条件部分都有二十条款。绿皮书则包括协议书、通用条件、专用条件、裁决规 则和应用指南(指南不是合同文件,仅为用户提供使用上的帮助),合同条件共15条,52款。

  • .《施工合同条件》(新红皮书)

适用范围:

建造合同条件特别适合于传统的“设计-招标-建造”(Design-Bid-Consiruclion)建设履行方式。该合同条件 适用于建设项目规模大、夏杂程度高、业主提供设计的项目。新红上书基本继承了原红皮书的“风险分担” 的原则,即业主愿意承担比较大的风险。因此,业主希望做几乎全部设计(可能不包括施工图、结构补强 等);雇用工程师作为其代理人管理合同,管理施工以及签证支付;希望在工程施工的全过程中持续得到全 部信息,并能作变更等;希望支付根据工程量清单或通过的工作总价。而承包商仅根据业主提供的图纸资 料进行施工。(当然,承包商有时要根据要求承担结构、机械和电气部分的设计工作。)那么,《施工合同条 件》(新红皮书)正是此种类型业主所需的合同范本。特点:

1)框架:新红皮书放弃了原红皮书第四版的框架,而是继承了 1995年橘皮书的格式,合同条件分为20个 标题,与瓣黄皮书、银皮书合同条件的大部分条款一致,同时加入了一些新的定义,便于使用和理解。

2)业主方面:新红皮书对业主的职责、权力、义务有了更严格的要求,如对业主资金安排、支付时间和补 偿、业主违约等方面的内容进行了补充工细化。

3)承包商方面:对承包商的工作提出了更严格的要求,如承包商应将质量保证体系和月进度报告的所有细 节都提供给工程师、在何种条件下将没收履约保证金、工程检验维修的期限等。

4)索赔、仲裁方面:增加了与索赔有关的条款并丰富了细节,加入了争端委员会的工作程序,由3个委员 会负责处理那些工程师的裁决不被双方认可的争端。

  • .《设备和设计-建造合同条件》(新黄皮书)

适用范围:

《设备和设计-建造合同条件》特别适合于“设计-建造“(Design-Consiruciion)建设发行方式。该合同范本 适用于建设项目规模大、笈杂程度高、承包商提供设计、业主愿意将部分风险转移给承包商的情况。《设备 和设计-建造合同条件》与《建造合同条件》相比,最大区别在于前者业主不再将合同的绝大部分风险由自 己承担,而将–定风险转移至承包商。因此,如果业主希望:(1)如在一些传统的项目里,特别是电气和 机械工作,由承包商作大部分的设计,比如业主提供设计要求,承包商提供详细设计;(2)采纳设计-建造 履行程序,由业主提交一个工程目的、范围和设计方面技术标准说明的“业主要求”,承包商来满足该要求;

(3)工程师进行合同管理,督导设备的现场安装以及签证支付:(4)执行总价合同,分阶段支付。那么, 《设备合同范本》(新黄皮书)将适合这一需要。 特点:

(1)框架:借鉴1995年橘皮书的格式,合同结构类似新红皮书,并与新红皮书、银皮书相统一。

(2)业主方面:对设计管理的要求更加系统、严格,通用条件里就专门有一条共7款关于设计管理工作的 规定。同时赋予了工程师较大权力对设计文件进行审批;限制了业主在更换工程师方面的随意性,如果承 包商对业主提出的新工程师人选不满意,则业主无权更换:业主对承包商的支付,采用以总价为基础的合 同方式,期中支付和费用变更的方式均有详细规定。

(3)承包商方面:承包商要根据合同建立一套质量保证体系,在设计和实施开始前,都要将其全部细节送 工程师审查:增加可供选择的“竣工后检验”并严格了 “竣工检验”环节以确保工程的最终质量:另外, 新黄皮书的规定使承包商要承担更多的风险,如将“工程所在国之外发生的叛乱、革命、暴动政变、内战、 离子辐射、放射性污染等”在原黄皮书中由业主承担的风险改由承包商来承担,当然因为设计工作是由承 包商来提供的,设计方面的风险自然也由承包商承担。 (4)索赔、仲载方面:与新红皮书一样,采用

DAB工作程序来解决争端。

  • .《EP。交钥匙项目合同条件》(银皮书)

适用范围:

《EPC/交钥匙项目合同条件》是–种现代新型的建设履行方式。该合同范本适用于建设项目规模大、复杂 程度高、承包商提供设计、承包商承担绝大部分风险的情况。与其它三个合同范本的最大区别在于,在《EPC/ 交钥匙项目合同条件》下业主只承担工程项目的很小风险,而将绝大部分风险转移给承包商。这是由于作 为这些项目(特别是私人投资的商业项目)投及方的业主在投资前关心的是工程的最终价格和最终工期, 以便他们能够准确的预测在该项目上投资的经济可行性。所以,他们希望少承担项目实施过程中的风险, 以避免追加费用和延长工期。因此,当业主希望:(1)承包商承担全部设计责任,合同价格的高度确定性, 以及时间不允许逾期:(2)不卷入每天的项目工作中去:(3)多支付承包商建造费用,但作为条件承包商 须承担额外的工程总价及工期的风险;(4)项目的管理严格采纳双方当事人的方式,如无工程师的介入, 那么,《EPC7交钥匙项目合同范本》(银皮书)正是所需。另外,使用EPC合同的项目的招标阶段给予承包 商充分的时间和资料使其全面了解业主的要求并进行前期规划、风险评估的估价;业主也不得过度干预承 包商的工作:业主的付款方式应按照合同支付,而无须象新红皮书和新黄皮书里规定的工程师核查工程量 并签认支付证书后才付款。

《EPC/交钥匙项目合同条件》特别适宜于下列项目类型:(1)民间主动融资PFI (Private Finance Initiate), 或公共/民间伙伴 PPP (Public/Private Partnership),或 BOT (Built Operate Transfer)及其它特许经营合同的 项目:(2)发电厂或工厂旦业主期望以固定价格的交钥匙方式来履行项目;(3)基础设计项目(如公路、 铁路、桥、水或污水处理石、水坝等)或类似项目,业主提供资金并希望以固定价格的交钥匙方式来履行 项目:(4)民用项目旦业主希望采纳固定价格的交钥匙方式来履行项目,通常项目的完成包括所有家具、 调试和设备。特点:

(1)风险:EPC合同明确划分了业主的承包商的风险,特利是承包商要独自承担发生最为频繁的“外部自 然力”这一风险。

(2)管理方式:由于业主承担的风险已大大减少,他就没有必要专门聘请工程师来代表他对工程进行全面 细致的管理。EPC合同中规定,业主或委派业主代表直接对项目进行管理,人选的更迭不须经进承包商同 意;业主或业主代表对设计的管理比黄皮书宽松;但是对工期和费用索赔管现是极为严格的,这也是EPC 合同订立的初衷。

  • .《简明格式合同》(绿皮书)

适用范围:

FIDIC编委会编写绿皮书的宗旨在于使该合同范本适用于投资规模相对较小的民用和土木工程,如:

(I)造价在500, 000美元以下以及工期在6个月以下;

(2)工程相对简单,不需专业分包合同;

(3)重复性工作:

(4)施工周期短。

承包商根据业主或业主代表提供的图纸进行施工。当然,简明格式合同也适用于部分或全部由承包商设计 的土木电气、机械和建筑设计的项目。

类似银皮书关于管理模式的条款,“工程师” 一词也没有出现在合同条件里。这是因为在相对直接和简单的 项目中,工程师的存在没有必要性。当然,如果业主愿意,他仍然可以任命工程师。鉴于绿皮书短小、简 单、易于被用户掌握,编委会强烈地希望绿皮书能够被非英语系国家翻译成其母语,从而广泛地应用。此 外,对发展中国家、不发达国家和在世界范围邀诂招标的项目,绿皮书也被推荐使用。特点:

(1)简单:正如绿皮书的名字一样,本合同格式的最大特点就是简单,合同条件中的一些定义被删除了而 另一些被重新解释;专用条件部分只有题目没有内容,仅当业主认为有必要时才加入内容;没有提供履约 保函的建议格式;同时,文件的协议书中提供了一种简单的“报价和接受”的方法以简化工作程序,即将 投标书和协议书格式合并为一个文件,业主在招标时在协议书上写好适当的内容,由承包商报价并填写其 他部分,如果业主决定接受,就在该承包商的标书签字,当返还的一份协议书到达承包商处的时候,合同 即生效。

(2)业主方面:合同条件中关于“业主批准”的条款只有两款,从而在一定程度上避免了承包商将自己的 风险转移给业主;通过简化合同条件,将承包商索赔的内容都合并在一个条款中;同时,提供了好几种变 更估价和合同估价方式以供选择。

(3)承包商方面:在竣工时间、工程接收、修补缺陷等条款方面也和其他合同文本有一定的差异。

六、FIDIC合同文件的发展历史

1957年,FIDIC与国际房屋建筑和公共工程联合会[现在的欧洲国际建筑联合会(FIEC)怖英国咨询工程 师联合会(ACE)颁布的《土木工程合同文件格式》的基础上出版了《土木工程施工合同条件(国际)》(第 1版)(俗称“红皮书”),常称为FIDIC条件。该条件分为两部分,第–部分是通用合同条件,第二部分为 专用合同条件。1963年,首次出版了适用于业主和承包商的机械与设备供应和安装的《电气与机械工程 标准合同条件格式》即黄皮书。

1969年,红皮书出版了第二版。这版增加了第三部分,疏浚和填筑工程专用条件。

1977 年,FIDIC 和欧洲国际建筑联合会(FIEC)联合编写 Federation International Europeenne de la Conslruciion(巴黎),这是红皮书和第三版。

1980年,黄皮书出了第二版。

1987年9月红皮书出版了第四版。将第二部分(专用合同条件)扩大了,单独成册出版,但其条款编号与 第一部分一一对应,使两部分合在一起共同构成确定合同双方权利和义务的合同条件。第二部分必须根据 合同的具体情况起草。为了方便第二部分的编写,其编有解释性说明以及条款的例子,为合同双方提供了 必要旦可供选择了条文。(1988年,做了若干编辑方面的修改之后,红皮书再次重印。这些修改不影响有关 条款的涵义,只是澄清了其真正意图。)同时出版的还有黄皮书第三版《电气与机械工程合同条件》,分 为三个独立的部分:序言,通用条件和专用条件。

1995年,出版了橘皮书《设计-建造和交钥匙合同条件况

以上的红皮书(1987)、黄皮书(1987)、橘皮书(1995)和《土木工程施工合同-分合同条件》、蓝皮书(《招 标程序》)、白皮书(《客户/咨询工程师模式服务协议》)、《联合承包协议》、《咨询服务分包协议》共同构成 FIDIC彩虹族系列合同文件。

  • .英文合同中的金额大小写

凡合同大都有涉及付款或金额计算的条款,此类条款必定是核心条款,金额、数字的表达,无论大小写都 必须倍加小心,一旦出错,可能造成无法挽回的后果。但是我们注意到网上的许多合同、协议中的金额表 达十分混乱。这里简单介绍一下金额大小写的基本惯例:

为避免金额数量的差漏、伪造或涂改,英文合同对于金额有十分严格的规范。一是在小写(阿拉伯数字)的后 面用括号内的大写(文字数字)重写,即使原文合同中没有大写,英译时也有必要加上大写:二是货币单位 准确无误:三是大写要求顶格,前加动词SAY (即为),单词之间疏密均匀,在大写文字前加上“SAY”, 意为“大写”;在最后加上“ONLY”。意思为“整”。必须注意:小写与大写的金额数量要一致。

例:甲方方须每月付给乙方美元500元整。

Party A shall pay Party B a monthly salary of USD $ 500 (SAY FIVE HUNDRED US DOLLARS ONLY).

一般是中文的大写在前面,后面用括号加小写阿拉伯数字;但翻译成英文时正好相反:小写在前面,后面 是大写。

例:人民币叁仟元整(3,000元整)的英文表达为 RMB3.000 (RMB THREE THOUSAND ONLY IN WORD)

这里,中文的“整”可以用。nly in word或者仅用only表达。RMB可以用人民币符号¥代替。

英文US Dollar可以用US $代替,也可以简单用USD表达,但要注意符号“$”既可代表“美元”,又可 代表其他某些地区的货币,如港币HK$:大写前面的SAY (即) 往往被省略。美元U.S DOLLAR用单发 数均可。

例:美元叁仟元整(美元3.000元整)的英文表达为 US Dollar 3.000 (SAY USD THREE THOUSAND ONLY IN WORD)

例:AMOUNT: S 1,234,567.89 (U.S DOLLARS ONE MILLON TWO HUNDRED THIRTY-FOUR THOUSAND AND HVE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-SEVEN POINT EIGHT ONLY )

当金额用数字书写时,金额数字必须紧靠货币符号,例如:Can $891,568,不能写成:Can $891,568。另 外,翻译的还要特别注意金额中是小数点 (.)还是分节号(,),因为这两个符号极易引起笔误。

  • .从合同法的用于探讨法律英文的严谨性和规范性

STUDY ON THE PRECISION AND CRITERION OF LEGAL ENGLISH

 

FROM DICTION OF CONTRACT LAW

摘 要 Abstract

法律或者法是一种规范,是由政府或者其他权利机构制定和认可的一种规范。法律语言是指普通法国家在 立法、司法和执法所使用的一-种英语文体。法律语言是广阔嵬杂的,法律英语是法律语言的-•种,它属于 应用语言学的范畴。作为i种具有规约性的语言分支,法律英语具行其独特的语言特点,其中最重要的一 个特征就是它的精确性。迄今为止,几乎所有的从事法律语言研究的学者都认为,精确性是法律语言的灵 魂,也是法律的基本格调。本文从法律英语来谈合同法的翻译。本文主要分为三个部分,笫一部分是分析 法律翻译中存在的问题,为第二部分的法律英语翻译做一个铺垫:第二部分是谈法律英语翻译的精确性: 第三部分重点分析合同法中句子的特点及其怎样实现翻译的精确性。作者在广泛涉猎法律英语精确性和翻 译理论著作及相关论文的基础上,对法律英语精确性及其翻译进行了的探索,力求总结和归纳合同法英语 翻译的特点和技巧。

Law is the rules and behaviors for human behavior which is made and enforced by (he government. Legal language is broad and complex. It belongs to the scope of the applied linguistics. Legal English refers to an English literary style which concerns all the process of legislation, judicature and legal enforcement in common-law countries. As a branch of customary language, it has unique language features. One of the most important characteristics of legal English is the precision in its usage. So far, all the scholars devoting to the study of the law have reached the consensus that precision is not only the soul and life of legal English, but also the basic style of legal language. However, at home and abroad, there arc not sufficient books and articles probing into the characteristics of legal English. From the precision of legal English, my thesis attempts to analyze the application of the precision to legal Iranslalion. My thesis paper is divided into three parts as follows: the first chapter is a general statement about legal translatioirs problems. The second part is the precision of the legal text. The third chapter is about the sentence characteristics of the contracts and ways to achieve precision in legal translation. Based on his extensive reading many works and related papers on precision of legal translation, the author makes a systematic summary and study of the precision of legal English and its translation into Chinese.

关键词;法律英语:精确性;合同法翻译

Key Words: Legal English; precision; translation of contract

Introduction Chapter one Precision of I^gal English 1.1 Precision in Legal English Lexicon

  • The Use of Synonym
  • Precise Wording of the Expression
  • Rare Use of Adjectives and Adverbs

1.2 Precision in Legal English Syntax

  • Many “if*’ Adverbial Condition Clause
  • Frequent Use of Passive Voice
  • Frequent Use of Linking Words
  • The Frequent Use of Complex Sentences
  • Use of Declarative Sentences

Chapter two The Language Features of the Contract

  • The Usage of Modal Veit)
  • Common Words with Uncommon Meanings
  • Non-Adoption of Pronouns

Chapter three The Precision of the Contract t ranslation

  • Adoption of the Exact Words
  • Translation of Redundant Information
  • Some Aspects Affecting the Precision of Legal English Translation

Conclusion

Bibliography

Acknowledgement

Introduction

In recent years, especially with China’s entry into WTO, China’s economy develops taster and faster. In the contemporary highly legalized society, laws are closely connected with people’s economic activities. The economic and business intercourse between China and foreign countries is inevitably on the increase and various relevant legal documents are playing more and more important roles. As we all know, English is the world language. So the English legal documents are mostly and widely used. As a result, the study of legal documents and legal translation has become verjz important.

Legal English is a type of legal language, a subject in which linguistics and the science of law arc involved. The study of legal English is related to scientific and technological English, business English, tourism English, financial English and so on. Legal English belongs to the applied linguistics. Il has its own characteristics. Precision is its most distinctive feature. This part of mainly deals with the definition, development, and functions of legal Englislk and the significance of studying precision in legal English.

After the implementation of open-door policy, China has witnessed a rapid development in economy. China has more chances to trade with foreign countries, especially since its entry into the WTO. Just as I have mentioned above, laws are connected with people’s economic activities. That is to say, law is very important in business. Without law; it would be very hard to communicate with (he foreigners effectively, sometimes even causing serious consequence.

According to International Commercial Ixxw. law means the rules made by the authority for the proper regulation of a community and a correct conduct in society life. While, in the Webster, s Dictionary of American English, law means the principles, rules and regulations set up by a government, other authority, or by custom, which is applied to all the people of a group, a system or collection of such rules and principles. Obviously, law is generally expressed in some specific forms, such as agreement, contract, rule, regulation, statute, treaty, decree etc. Laws are not only connected with the economic activities but also connected with the individual, such as the inheritance of property, the rent of house and the insurance of life. All these activities are involved in law. Law penetrates into every aspect of social activity and daily life; people need to know the rights and obligations of ihe law. However, laws are expressed through language. Nowadays English is widely used in the world, many countries regard

English as the first language, such as American, England. Australia etc. Since English is a world language, mosl of these countries’ laws are written in English. So we need to know the iranslalion of legal English.

Some people say legal English equals law plus English. Obviously, this is a mistake. Newmark (2001) claims that “legal English may mean the customary language used by lawyers in these common law jurisdictions where English is the official language**. It includes distinctive words, meanings, phrases and inodes of expressions. Legal English is the most formal written English in all English function styles. As wc all know legal English is more precise than ordinary English, because legal English is closely related to people’s benefits. Law is an important tool for countries to administer themselves. Precision is the most important characteristic of the legal language. In Oxford Advanced I earner’s English-Chinese Dictionary, preciseness or precision refers to the exactness and clarity or the quality of being precise. And in the Dictionary of Modem Legal Usage, precision is just “accuracy”. So in general, precision, preciseness and exactness express the same meanings. Only when the law is precisely prescribed, can people know which behavior is permitted and which behavior is forbidden, who has the rights and who should take on the responsibility? Now let’s analyze some examples:

  • .In case the seller who fails to make delivery ten weeks later than the time or shipment stipulated in the contract, the buyer has the right lo cancel the contract and in spite of cancellation, seller shall nevertheless pay the aforesaid penalty to the buyer without delay.

译文:如卖方延迟交货超过合同10周时,买方有权撤消合同,此时,卖方应不延迟的按上述规定向买方支 付价款。

  • .Thc contractor shall call upon to do, enter into and execute the contract, to be prepared and completed at (he cost of the employer, in the form annexed to these conditions with such modification as may be necessary.

译文:在被邀约前时,承包人应同意签订并履行合同,该合同是是由业主按照本合同条件所附格式拟订, 如有必要,可对其进行修改。该合同拟订和签订费用由业主承担。

Because in the above legal documents, the legal professionals adopt several specific words such as “ten weeks, at the cost of the employer \ no ambiguity can be caused and no dispute will happen.

Significance of the Study Precision is the most important stylistic feature of legal language. Precision of the legal documenls refers to the fact that they completely conform to objectivity exactly. If the legal language is ambiguous, the juridical workers will be at a loss and they don’t know what to do. If the legal language is imprecise, it will leave room to the people who want to take advantage of the defects of the law. For example criminals will take the chance to commit crime, which may do harm to our society and contribute to social injustice. a famous professor, says that u lawyers say more exactly than writers ” ・ They mean no more and no less. Every additional word is one potential source of ambiguity. In fact, any word or sentence that is liable to because ambiguity should be avoided. It is justifiable to say that precision is the soul and life of legal English. Legal English must be precise to the greatest extent.

In the contemporary highly legalized society, laws arc closely connected with people’ s economic activities. Foreigners need to leam Chinese law, if they want to invest in China. Meanwhile, we also need to learn foreign laws. Therefore, it is necessary for us to translate English into Chinese. Legal English translation becomes increasingly important. Knowing the importance of precision in legal English can help one to realize the necessity of accuracy in legal English.

Legal English is a branch of ESP -English for special purpose, which is more difficult to read than common English. However, to master precision, the soul of legal English, especially its translation, is much more difficult, which leads the author of this thesis to studying precision of legal English and its translation.

 

Chapter one Precision of Legal English

There are two most significant stylistic features —precision and formality in legal English. These features of style are manifesled at different levels of legal documenl, say, at lexical, syntactical and textual levels. Here in this chapter, the author will devote every effort to elaborating on precision from the perspectives of legal English lexicon and syntax.

  • Precision in I-egal English Lexicon

The significance of precision in legal English has been discussed in the previous chapter. Legal English which has its own unique language characteristics belongs to a branch of applied linguistics. One of the most important and essential feature is its precision. When lawyers use the law to explain something, the written letters are (he only bases. Precision is regarded as the basic principle in any legal text, so precision should be taken into consideration.

  • The Use of Synonym

In the legal text, there are lots of phrases, such as staff and workers(职工),rules and regulations (规章),damage or injury (损害或损伤),last will and testament (遗嘱),provisions and stipulations (法律条款),terms and conditions (条款),children and issue(子例、)and so on. Obviously every phase is made of two words, which arc synonyms. These expressions seem to be prolix. In fact, they are very necessary in legal English. Firstly, using synonyms can make the legal English more precise. When one is in doubt, it is better to say it twice. Secondly, using synonyms can help us to remember easily. Therefore, the prolixity in legal English can avoid misunderstanding. Polysemy may cause “semantic^ ambiguity. However, the repeating structure in legal English can complement each other, thus enhancing the accuracy of semantics to avoid the “semantic” Ambiguity.

  • Precise Wording of the Expression

Legal text is used to clarify the rights and obligations .Dispute caused by wording should be avoided. Every word in legal text should strive to perfect the expression of legal meaning. Therefore, accurate wording is another important character of legal text which guarantees the accurate expression of the meaning. The following are examples:

  • The death penalty may be imposed only for offences of treason, piracy of setting fire to any of Her Majesty’s war ships or dockyards. Il may not in any case even be passed on a person under 18 years of age, nor on an expectant mother.

死刑仅适用于叛国罪、海盗罪或纵火烧毁女王陛F之任何战舰及其修造厂等三种犯罪,无论在任何情况除均 不得对未满18岁者或孕妇适用死刑。

In the above mentioned legal text, there are three words which restrict the application scope of the death penalty, and two phrases which restrict the use of death penalty “that is under 18 years of age” and “expectant mother”. Since the restriction in the scope of the death penalty, the legal text becomes more precise.

  • Accordance with the provisions of this Treaty, the Council and the Commission shall make regulations, issue directives, take decisions, make recommendations and deliver opinions. It shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable to all member States.

理事会和委员会应该按照本条约的规定制定条例、发布指令、做出决定、提供建议或意见。条例具有i般 适用性,它具有完全的效力并直接适用于所有成员国。

In the provisions, ^entirety, directly and all“ three words are further evidence of the general applicability in common, to express more precisely.

  • The remainders of the testator^ property should be divided equally between all of our nephews and nieces on my wife’s side and my niece.

There arc 22 nephews and nieces on the testator^ wifeys side and one niece on the testator^ side, so the problem is that because of the lack of precision in the legal document, the above will can cause two kinds of comprehension, which lead to ambiguity. The first comprehension is that half of the heritage is distributed to the 22 nephews and nieces; another half is distributed to the only niccc. The second comprehension is that the heritage is equally distributed to the nephews and nieces. Such ambiguity is surely not allowed to happen in the legal documents. Because of the imprecision, the above will be invalid, for the lawyer-officer cannot judge who ihe inheritor of the testator’s property is.

In the above examples, wc can sec the precision is important in legal translation. Only a word can cause a serious consequence.

1.1.3 Rare Use of Adjectives and Adverbs

Legal English stipulates the rights and obligations. The essence of the legal English should be clearly precise and clear. Precision is the soul and life of the legal English. Any word or phrase which is liable to cause ambiguity should be avoided. The adjectives and adverbs are rarely used in legal English. For example:

A contract shall be an agreement whereby the parties establish, change or terminate their civil relationship. Lawfully established contracts should be protected by law.

In witness whereof the under designed plenipotentiaries, duly authorized, have signed this protocol.

If the foreign joint venture causes losses by deception through the intentional use of backward technology and equipment, it shall pay compensation for the losses.

From the above examples, we can see that adjectives such as like, happy, lucky, sad and the adverb, such as “quite, rather, very”, are not used in legal English, because these adjectives and adverbs can easily cause ambiguity when they arc used.

1.2 Precision in Legal English Syntax

Text usually refers to a series of continuous sentences of a paragraph or the language as a whole; however, text in whatever forms must comply with syntax and semantic consistency. There should be a subject in a text. And the sentences should be logical between each other.

  • Many “if’ Adverbial Condition Clause

In a sentence, there are always some words to say earlier than other words. The words which have been said before is the theme of the sentence; therefore, they should be the start of a sentence. However, the word said after the theme should be around the theme. In another word that is serving for the theme. In legal English, the adverbial clause of condition is frequently used, and also is placed in the theme, which not only stresses but also reflects that the legal texts should comply with the fact. This language feature reflects the precision of legal English. For example:

  • . If the debtor assigns its obligations, the new debtor shall assume the collateral debts relating to the principal debts, except those debts exclusively belong to the original debtor.

债务人转移义务的,新债务人应当承担与主债务有关的从债务,但该债务专属于原债务人自身的除外。

  • . If the debtor assigns its obligations, the new debtor may claim the demur belonging to the original debtor in respect of the creditor. The demur of the new debtor is based on the existence if the demur the original debtor

 

enjoys in respect of the creditor. If the original debtor does not enjoy the demur, the new debtor does not enjoy the demur either.

债务人转移义务的,新债务人可以主张原债务人对债权人的抗辩。新债务人的抗辩是基于原债务人所享的对 债权人的抗辩而存在的。如果原债务人没rr对债权人的抗辩,新债务人也就没有对债权人的抗辩。

  • . If the debtor assigns its obligations, it shall go through relevant procedures. 债务人转移义务应依法办理有关手续。
    • Frequent Use of Passive Voice

According to the statistics, there are 125 passive voices in the 21 provisions in American constitution law. In China’s contract law there are 156 sentences written in passive voice, which occupies a proportion of 45%. Why arc so many passive voice used in legal English? holds that: passive voice in sonic of the language in the high frequency shows the fact of the language itself and the objectivity of the legal English. The frequent use of the passive voice in Legal English also embodies the characteristics of its precision. For example:

Insurance shall be covered by the buyer against all risks, including war, strike risks, for 110% of invoice value. 买方以发票金额110%投保一切险,包括战争,罢工险。

AH disputes arising from the execution of or in connection with the contract shall be settled through friendly consultation.

双方应通过友好协商解决在合同执行过程中所产生的或与本合同有关的一切争议.

From the preceding examples, wc know that when legal texts in English arc translated into Chinese, passive voice in English is always translated into active voice in Chinese. This strategy more conforms to Chinese expression habit.

  • Frequent Use of Linking Words

In Cohesion in English published in 1976, Halliday and Hanson mentions five linking devices. They are coordination, abbreviation, substitution, connection and vocabularyr linking. However, in context of law English, vocabulary linking should be favorably used in order lo avoid ambiguity. But in devices of vocabulary linking, such as repetition, antonym and synonym, repetition is the one that is widely used to avoid ambiguity. For example: When the debtor receives the notice of the creditor s rights and the debtor has due creditor rights to the assignor and the creditor s rights of the debtor are due in priority to the assigned creditors or due at the same time, the debtor may claim lo offset each other lo ihe assignee.

债务人在接到债权转让通知时,债务人对让与人享有债权,并且债务人的债权先与转让的债权到期或者同时 到期的,债务人可以向受证人主张抵消。

In this item, the repeated appearance of the bettor makes the debt s responsibility more clear and the expression more exact.

  • The Frequent Use of Complex Sentences

The frequent use of complex sentences makes the concept exact and the expression strict, which can completely show exactness and accuracy of law context.

A delayed acceptance is one which is late to arrive but not late to dispatch, that is, the offered is patches the acceptance within the liine limit for acceptance which can reach the offer or in due time under the normal circumstances, but the acceptance reaches the offer or beyond the time limit because of other reasons, the acceptance shall be effective, except that the offer or informs the offered promptly that it does not accept the acceptance because it exceeds the time limit for acceptance.

208 / 781

 

承诺的延迟是未迟发而迟到的承诺却受要约人在承诺期限内发出承诺,按照通常情形能够及时到达要约人, 但因其他原因承诺到达要约人时超过了承诺的期限。此时,除要约人及时通知受要约人因承诺超过期限不接 受该承诺以外,该承诺有效。

In this example, there are only 82 words, but there are two adverbial clauses. Only using this complicated structure, the contents of the provision can be expressed clearly and precisely.

  • Use of Declarative Sentences

According to the usage of sentence, English sentence can be divided into declarative sentence, imperative sentence, interrogative sentence and exclamatory sentence. Huang Yongpin explains thatu an overall look at legal utterance will allow us to find that declarative sentences, in icrms of the purpose of usage, take up an overwhelming majority of sentences in all classes of legal utterance except in court cross-examinations and police interrogation.^ That is to say that sentences (if complete) in statutes and contracts are all declarative sentences “Legal documents are used to identify the legal relationship and stipulate the people’s rights and obligations.M The use of declarative sentences gives the reader the impression that as they are devoid of ornate language they are simple-styled but forceful. The preponderance of declarative sentences in legal documents is determined by the declarative illocuiionary force, which dominates in Legal documents and which legal documents need.” (Ibid) So in legal English, the declarative sentences are often used to achieve precision and certainty. Here are two examples:

(1 ).The Arbitration Commission has one honorary chairman and several advisers.

  • .Thc Arbitration tribunal shall hold oral hearings when examining a case.

The above two examples all use declarative sentences to stipulate the establishment of the Arbitration Commission and the trial of arbitrary case. The stipulation of (he law is understood clearly and ambiguity is also avoided by the use of declarative sentence.

Chapter two The Language Features of the Contract

After China’s entry into WTO, the study of translation of legal documents, such as the translation of economic laws, regulations and rules, and contract documents, will surely become an important research topic for scholars. In this chapter, the writer will discuss the language features of the contract and the precision of its translation.

What is contract? Liu Li huangsaid that: A contract is a legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties .People sign contract because they need to clarity their legal obligation which change their mutual legal obligation .1( is obvious that in daily life many needed things arc provided not by contractual arrangements but in some other ways. Contract is a promise, or a set of promises, for breach of which the law gives remedy, or the performance of Ihe law in some way is recognized as a duty. To sum up, Contracts are promises that the law will enforce. There arc three features in the contract’s language. The first is professional, the second is formal and the third is precision.

  • The Usage of Modal Verb

Modal verbs such as May, shalL must, may not (shall not) appear in all kinds of text. In a contract more attention should be given to these words. The content of the contract is about rights and obligations, so little care about them may cause dispute.

“May” means people can do and shall means people should do, “must” is tbr mandatory obligations about what people must do and, Fay not (or shall not)^ is used fbr the prohibition of obligations (What not to do). In the legal documents, where “may do“ should be used, we cannot say “can do” or “shall do?\ neither we can say “should do” nor “ought to do”. The phrase “may not do” shall not be used in some of the legal documents in the United States; while the phrases like “cannot do” and “must not do“ mustn’t be used in the legal documents in the United States.

For example:

In solving the dispute, we can say like this: he parties hereto shall, first of all, settle any dispute arising from or in connection with the contract by friendly negotiations. Should such negotiations fail, such dispute may be referred to the People’s Court having jurisdiction on such dispute for settlement in the absence of any arbitration clause in the disputed contract or in default of agreement reached after such dispute occurs.

In this sentence, shall and may have an accurate expressing. We can translate into Chinese sentence like this: 双方过友好协商,解决因合同而发生的或与合同有关的争议。如果协商未果,合同中乂无仲裁条款约定或 争议发生后未就仲裁达成协议的,可将争议提交有管辖权的人民法院解决。

  • Common Words with Uncommon Meanings

One of the factors that help create the wide gap between legal English and the common speech of English is the employment of a number of common words with uncommon meanings in the legal documents.

  • Non-Adoption of Pronouns

The legal professionals tend (o repeat mentioned nouns instead of using pronouns, because using pronouns often causes ambiguity and confusion. It is advisable for us to avoid using pronouns frequently in legal English translation, for repeating the same words can make the translation more precise and authentic. For example: 要约到达受要约人时生效。

An offer becomes effective when it reaches the promise.

It is obvious that the pronouncan mean something more than the Wc may just as well repeat “the ottcrM in order to avoid ambiguity in the inteipretation of this article.

An officer becomes effective when the offer reaches the promise.

Another example:

如果投保人在1()天内未能报告伤害情况,则保险权利丧失。

If he fails to report the injuiy within 10 days, the insured forfeits coverage.

It is obvious that the pronoun “he” can mean someone else. And in this translation, the pronoun “he” may cause ambiguity and misinterpretation. We cannot know the pronoun refers to “whom”. Maybe, it means that “the insured” or “any other person”. Therefore, in order to achieve precision and remove ambiguity, we should not adopt pronoun “he”, but employ “the insured”.

The insured must report the injury within 10 days or forfeits coverage.

Il is a common practice to use various means to avoid repetition in literary translation. However, in order to achieve precision, we must repeat it clearly.

Chapter three The Precision of the Contract Translation

3.1 Adoption of the Exact Words

Precision, the essence of legal translation, cannot be over-emphasized. In legal translation, a mistake, no matter how trivial it is, will lead to severe consequences. Precision means that the intended meaning in legal text should be integrally and exactly transmitted and expressed in target text. In order to achieve the goal of precision, legal drafts

 

spares no effort in explaining everything clearly so that nothing disputable concerning the stipulation of rights and obligations should arise. For example:

当事人应当遵循公平原则确定各方的权利义务。

Example L parties shall adhere to the principle of fairness designating each party’s rights and obligation.

Firstly “party’s” is rarely used in legal English; secondly whom “each party” is referred to. This translation does not comply with the feature of precision. So we should translate it as follows:

The parties to contract shall comply with principle of fairness in defining the rights and obligations parties thereto.

Example 2:

依法成立的合同,对当事人具有法律效力,当事人应当依照约定履行自己的义务,不得擅自变更或解除合 同。

Version 1: A contract concluded according to law shall legally bind on the parties concerned. The parties shall form the obligations stipulated in contract stipulated in the contract. No party unilaterally modifies or rescinds the contract.

This is a wrong translation. Firstly “according to law“ is not legal English. And the parties arc not complying with the precision.

Version 2: If, in accordance with the law, a contract is made and concluded, the contract in question shall legally be binding on the parties thereto. The parties thereto shall, in accordance with the terms, conditions and provisions of the contract perform their respective obligations. Neither party shall unilaterally modify or rescinded the contract.

From the above examples, wc can come to the conclusion that the application of “if” clause can not only make the sentence structure clear but also make the translation more precise and clear.

  • Translation of Redundant Information

Redundant information refers to the use of unnecessary words or phrases in legal English, which makes the language wordy and superfluous. In fact, every additional word or phrase is one more |x)tential source of ambiguity in legal English. Therefore, in order to attain conciseness and precision, we should lay more emphasis on the translation of redundant information. As English and Chinese belong to different language families: English is a language of hypotactic stnicture belonging to the Indo-European language family whereas Chinese is a language of paratactic structure belonging to the Sino-Tibetan language family. In legal C-E translalion, we should omit the redundant words or phrases to achieve Precision.

  • Some Aspects Affecting the Precision of Legal English Translation

According to the function theory, the purpose of translation is to communicate; legal translation also has the same purpose. The process of the translation involves a variety of participants, and all play an important role in the process. Translation is an interaction of the participants in the process of translating.

The translation process involves (he initiator, the commissioner, the translator, the source-text producer, the targettext receiver and the target text user. The puipose of the translation affects the precision of legal translation. The legal text involves many complex sentences which also affect the precision of legal translation.

Conclusion

This thesis discusses the precision of legal English and its translation. The author of this paper holds that translators should pay more attention to precision of English legal text when doing legal text’s translation, especially legal C-E translation. Legal documents translators must bear in mind (hat precision is the essential requirement of the legal 211 / 781

 

iranslalion. In order to achieve precision, lexical and syntax devices are taken into consideration. In addition to the analysis of precision of legal English from the syntactical perspectives, the author also analyses the diction of legal English such as the synonyms, rare use of pronouns and adverbs, the formal terms etc. Careful wording in legal English is to emphasize the importance of precision in legal English translation. This paper also makes research on the sentences in legal English texts. The sentences in legal English texts have the following features: the frequent use of passive voice, the use of complete sentences etc. Such an analysis is expected to lead to a better understanding of the lexical and syntactic characteristics of legal English. When translating legal documents, wc must take the precision into consideration.

To be a qualified translator, one must be proficient and fluent in source language and target language, and be familiar with legal vocabularies of the two countries. Moreover, one should master in translation theories and linguistics.

Bibliography

  • Halliday, 1976. Cohesion in English. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.
[21 Newmark, P. 2001. A Textbook of Translation. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

  • .工程合同中有关“时限”的常见表达

在收到材料的28天内,如果工程师没有表明批准或不批准,上述材料即被认为得到了批准。

f he fails to do so within the time given in the Contract or ihe Programme or if no lime limit is specified, within 28 days of receipt, they shall be deemed lo be approved.

仲裁时间的限制 Time Limit for Arbitration

Where the final day of a time limit falls on a public holiday or other statutory holidays, the day after the holiday shall be deemed to be the final day of the time limit, but this shall not apply to the case of Completion Date. Closing time for the final day of a time limit shall be midnight 24:00.

时限的最后一天是休息日或者其他法定节假日的,以节假日次日为时限的最后一天,但竣工日期除外。时 限的最后一天的截止时间为当日24时。

If the Contractor fails to receive the written confirmation from the Employer’s Representative within the specified time limit, the Contractor shall raise the request for written confirmation within 7 days after the Employer’s Representative or his authorized representative gives the oral instruction; If the Employer’s Representative fails to reply within 2 working days after the Contractor raises the request for confirmation, the oral instruction shall be deemed as confirmed.

如承包人未在规定时间内收到发包人代表的书面确认的,承包人应于发包人代表及其授权人发出口头指令 后7天内提出书面确认要求;发包人代表在承包人提出确认要求后的2个工作H内不予答复的,视为口头 指令已被确认。

If the Engineers and the Employer’s Representative disagree on the requirement on deferring the commencement or the Contractor fails to submit the requirement within the prescribed time limit, the Project Period cannot be extended.

工程师和发包人代表不同意延期要求或承包人未在规定时间内提出延期开工要求,工期不予顺延。

承包人以书面形式将监理工程师的口头指令变为书面指令的时限

The lime limit that ihe contractor changes the oral instruction into the written instruction with the written form

监理工程师向承包人免费提供设计图纸及相关资料的时限

The time limit that the engineer freely provides the design drawing and related information

监理工程师应向承包人提供原始基准点等资料的时限

The time limit that the engineer shall provide the contractor the information about the original points.

在一般情况下组织开始交工验收(竣工检验)

The time limit that start to organize the project checking and receiving (test on completion)

颁发交工(移交)证书的时限 The time limit that issues the taking-over certificate

缺陷责任期的时限 the time limit of the defects liability periods

雇主提出已经做出资金安排的时限

the lime limit of the Employer’s financial arrangement

雇主替换匚程师的时限 the time limit of the replacement of the Engineer

承包商提交履约保证的时限

the time limit of delivering the Performance Security to the Employer

承包商将履约保证在,效期延长至工程竣工和修补完任何缺陷的时限the time limit of extending the validity of the Performance Security uniil the Works have been completed and any defects have been remedied.

雇主应对履约保证提出索赔的时限

the time limit that the Employer shall make a claim under the Performance Security

 

雇主退还履约保证给承包商的时限

the time limit of returning the Performance Security

雇主退还履约保证给承包商的时限

the time limit of returning the Performance Security

承包商将现场拟定各分包商开工日期通知工程师的时限

the time limit that the Contractor five the Engineer the notice of the commencement such work on the Site

承包商将生产设备或其他主要货物运到现场的H期通知工程师的时限the (imc limit (hat the Contractor shall give ihc Engineer the notice that any Plant or a major item of other Goods will be delivered to the Site

月进度报告报告时间时限 the time limit of monthly progress reports

工程师将参加试验的意图通知承包商的时限

the time limit of the notice of the Engineer’s intention to attend the tests

工程师向承包商发出开工日期通知的时限

the time limit of the Engineer’s notice of the Commencement Date

开工「I 期的时限 Commencement of Works

承包商向工程师提交一份详细的进度计划的时限

The Contractor shall submit a detailed lime programme to Ihe Engineer

工程师向承包商发出通知指出在进度计划中不符合合同要求的部分的时限

Engineer gives notice to the Contractor stating the extent to which il does not comply with the Contract

承包商可以要求工程师对已暂停的工程允许继续施工的时限

the Contractor may request the Engineer’s permission to proceed

承包商有权得到尚未运到现场的生产设备或材料的价值付款的时限

the lime limit that the Conlraclor shall be entitled lo payment of the value

受暂停影响的工程部分视为删减项目的时限

the time limit of treating the suspension as an omission

214 / 781

 

承包商将他可以进行每项竣工试验的日期通知工程师的时限

the lime limit of the Conlractors notice which ready to carry out each of the Tests on Completion

竣工试验进行的时限 the date of the Tests on Completion

如果承包商不当地延误了竣工试验,承包商进行下一次竣工试验的时限

the time limit that the Contractor carry-outs the Tests which were unduly delayed by the Contractor

雇主人员可自行进行竣工试验的时限

the time limit that the Employer’s Personnel may proceed with ihe Tests

承包商向工程师发出申请接收证书的通知的时限

the time limit taht the Contractor may apply by notice to the Engineer for aTaking-Ovcr Certificate

工程师向承包商颁发接收证书的时限

issue the Taking-Over Certificate lo the Contractor

工程师向承包商发出拒绝颁发接收证书的时限

reject issuing the Taking-Over Certificate to (he Contractor

雇主应被视为已经在竣工试验原应完成的日期接收了工程或分项工程的时限

the lime limit that the pari which shall be deemed lo have been laken overby the Employer

工程师颁发接收证书后,提前发出竣工试验通知的时限

the time of notice that the Engineer shall require the Tests on Completion tobe carried out

缺陷通知期限不会延长的时限

the time which ihe Defects Notification Period will not be extended

工程师发出进一步试验的时限 ihe time limit of the Engineers notice of Furlher Tests

履约证书颁发的时限 the tome limit of issuing the Performance Certificate

雇主收回相关费用的时限 the time limit that the Employer withdraws the related costs

作出对雇主更有利的价格调整的时限

the adjustment of price which is more favourable to the Employer.

承包商向工程师提交资料表中每项总价的价格建议分解表的时限

the time limit that the Contractor submit a proposed breakdown of each lump sum price in the Schedules

承包商将保函有效期延至预付款还清为止的时限

the time limit that the Contractor extends the validity of the guarantee

期中付款证书的申请时限 Application for Interim Payment Certificates

承包商提交他预计应付的无约束性估算付款额的时限

the time limit that the Contractor shall submit non-binding estimates of the payments which he expects to become due

第一份估算提交的时限 the time limit that the first estimate shall be submitted

工程师向雇主发出期中付款证书通知的时限

the time limit that the Engineer’s notice of the Issue of Interim Payment Certificates

雇主向承包商支付首期预付款的时限

the time limit of the first installment of the advance payment

承包商向工程师提交竣工报表的时限

the time limit that the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a Statement at completion

承包商向工程师提交最终付款证书申请的草案

the lime limit that the Conlraclor shall submit a draft final statement

工程师向雇主发出最终付款证书的时限

the time limit of Issuing the Final Payment Certificate

雇主有权终止合同其中之一的时限

one of the time limits of terminated by Employer 雇主终止合同向承包商发出通知的时限

the Employer’s notice to terminate the Contract

雇主终止合同生效的时限

the time limit that the Employer terminates the Contract

承包商暂停工作的时限 the lime limit of the Contractors Entitlement to Suspend Work

承包商rr权终止合同的其中之一的时限

one of (he time limit of the Tcnnination by Contractor

承包商有权终止合同的其中之i的时限

one of the time limit of the Termination by Contractor

承包商有权终止合同的其中之一的时限

one of the time limit of the Tennination by Contractor

承包商有权终止合同的其中之一的时限

one of the time limit of the Tennination by Contractor

一方向另一方发出关于17.5【知识产权和工业产权】的索赔,对方应被认为已经放弃根据本款规定的任何 受保障的权力的时限

one party made a claim under Sub-CIausc[Intc]lcctual and Industrial Property RightsLand the other has been deemed to have waived any right to indemnity under this Sub-Clause

一方发出不可抗力通知的时限 the time limit of one party’s notice of Force Majeure

自主终止合同生效的时限the time limit of Optional Termination

承包商发出索赔通知的时限 the time limit of the notice of the Contractors Claims

承包商向工程师提交i份充分详细的索赔报告的时限

the time limit that the Contractor shall send to the Engineer a fully detailed claim

工程师在收到索赔报告作出回应的时限

the time limit that the Engineer gives response on the principles of the claim

 

专用条件中指定的机构或官方应根据合同一方或双方的要求,并在与合同双方适当协商后,提名该争端裁 决委员会成员

the appointing entity or official named in the Appendix to Tender shall, upon request of either or both of the Parlies and after due consultation with both Parties appoint this member of the DAB

DAB 作出决定的时限 the time limit (hat the DAB shall give its decision

一方对DAB决定不满意对另一发发出通知的时限

the time limit of one party gives notice to the other Party of its dissatisfaction

DAB 作出的决定生效的时限 the decision shall become final and binding upon both Parties.

仲裁进行的时限 the time limit of the commencement of the Arbitration

在监理工程师的口头指令发出后的3天内

Within 3 days after the oral instruction issued by the engineer

在中标通知书发出后的 42 天内 Within 42 days after the letter of acceptance issued

在发出开工通知书后 14 天内 Within 14 days after ihe commencemenl advice notice issued

在承包人提出交工验收的申请后21天内

Within 21 days after the application of the test on completion issued

交工验收完毕且工程合格后14天内

Within 14 days after the done of test on completion and engineering qualified

一般规定为2年,工程在缺陷责任期之后还将进入保修期,保修期一般为5年

Generally defined 2 years , and it would enler into warranty period a after the defects liability period, the warranty is generally 5 years

  • .合同条款中常见的保险责任约定

AGREEMENTS ON INSURANCE LIABILITIES IN CONTRACT

Before the commencement of the Project, the Contractor should purchase all insurances for the Project hereunder, such as, the insurance for the Project and for lives of the Contractor , s own employees and the personnel of any third party in the Site. All insurance fees have already been included in the Contract Price.

工程开工前,承包人应该为本合同所述工程购买所有保险。例如要为建设工程和施工场内的自有人员及第 三人人员生命财产办理保险,所有保险费已包含在本合同价款中。

The Contractor shall purchase insurance for the materials to be used for the Project and (he equipment to be installed which are delivered into the Site, and pay the insurance fees.

运至施工场地内用于匚程的材料和待安装设备,由承包人办理保险,并支付保险费用。

The Contractor shall purchase insurance against accidents for the employees who engage in doing dangerous jobs, and cover insurance and pay insurance fees for its own personnel on the Site for their life and properties. 承包人必须为从事危险作业的职工办理意外伤害保险,并为施工场地内自有人员的生命财产投保。

The JVC shall purchase appropriate comprehensive insurance to cover various kinds of risks as would be usual for a joint venture enterprise engaged in the same type of industry and in manufacturing products similar to the Products including, without limitation, product liability covering the manufacture and supply of ihe Products and such insurance shall be underwritten by an insurance company registered in the PRC. The types, value and duration of insurance shall be decided by the Board of Directors after discussion with ihe insurance companies and Party B. 合营公司应购买同行业和生产与产品项类似的产品的合营企业通常购买的包含各种险种的综合保险,包含 但不限于就生产和供应产品投保的产品责任险。该等保险应向一家在中国注册的保险公司购买。保险的险 种、价值和期限应由董事会与保险公司和乙方商讨后决定。

The premises, plant, machinery and equipment, raw materials, components and the Products shall be insured by JVC for adequate replacement value against fire, storm, tempest, accident, flood, theft and other risks which may destroy or diminish the value of the Products or which may render the Products unfit for consumption. 合营公司应为场地、厂房、机器设备、原材料、部件和产品投保,一旦发生火灾、暴风雨、风暴、事故、 水灾、盗窃和可能损害或降低产品的价值或使产品不适于消费的其他风险,保险获得的赔付应足以重置该 等财产。

INSURANCE: To be covered by the seller fori 10% of invoice value against All Risks and war risks. 运输保险:由卖方负责按发票金额的110%投保一,切险及战争险。

Insurance shall, to the extent it is available on premium and terms comparable to those abroad and as required by applicable Chinese law, be obtained in China and such policies will be denominated in Renminbi or foreign currency or both, as appropriate.

如果中国具备与国外保险费和条款项类似的保险,且中国适用法律要求进行保险,则可以在中国投保。保 险单根据具体情况应以人民币、外币或两种货币计价。

Party A may self-insure their consignment, and can also commission Party B to handle insurance issues, insurance premiums shall be borne by Party A. the costs of which arc not included in the those the Iwo sides agreed; In ease Party A is not insured. Party B shall not be responsible for the damage from non-B causes.

甲方可以对其托运的货物日行投保,也可委托乙方代为办理保险事宜,保险费由甲方承担,此费用不在双 方约定的费用以内,如甲方未予保险,则非乙方原因产生的货损乙方不予负责。

The Company shall, at ils own cost and expense, at all limes during operation of the factory and olher facilities and during any construction work take out and maintain full and adequate property insurance covering the buildings, contents, and other first party risks of the Company as are customarily insured against in China.

公司应在工厂和其他设施营运期间以及工程施工期间,自费购买并保有在中国按惯例应予保险的,包括公 司建筑物、内部设施及其他第一方风险在内的全面和足够的财产保险。

The Company shall maintain pnxiuct liability insurance, third party liability insurance and other relevant insurance coverage in order (o protect the Company, its employees, agents and other appropriate parties from claims.

公司应保有产品责任险、第三方责任险和其他有关险种,以保护公司、其雇员、代理人及其他有关方不会 成为索赔对象0

No insurance will be effected except upon express instructions given in writing by the Customer and accepted in writing by the Company, and all insurances effected by the Company are subject to the usual exceptions and conditions of the policies of the insurers or underwriters taking the risk. Unless otherwise agreed in writing, the Company shall not be under any obligation to affect a separate insurance on the goods, but may declare it on any open or general policy held by the Company.

除客户以书面形式作出明确指示且木公司以书面形式接受外,木公司概不会对任何货物投保。本公司投购 的保险均须受承担风险的承保人所发出保单的常见例外条款及条件所约束。除另有书面协议外,本公司概 无责任对货物另购保险,但可宣称以本公司任何公开或一般保单受保。

During the term of this Agreement, Party A shall undertake, renew and maintain for its benefit and interest, and at its own cost and expense, the following primary insurance policies:

在本协议的限期内,甲方应为自身利益白费购买、续买和保持下列主要保险:

General Public Liability Policy with Party B being named as a co-insured covering all loss, damage or liability incurred or arising from the operation of the Services including, without limitation, for bodily injuiy, death or property damage, for an amount not less than RMB25,OOO,OOO per accident or occurrence;

一般公众责任险,乙方列为共同被保险人,承保范围为因履行服务而发生的或引起的一切损失、损害或责 任,包括但不限于人身伤害、死亡或财产损坏,保险额为每次事故或时间不少于25,000.000元人民币:

 

Employer’s Liability Policy with Party B being named as a co-named in conformity with local laws and regulations and accepted practice in the PRC;

雇主责任险,乙方列为共同被保险人,此保险应符合中国地方法律法规和普遍接受的惯例:

Property Damage Policy covering its premises against all risks of direct physical loss or damage from any cause, or if such a policy is not available, against the risks of fire and associated risks such as explosion, electrical damage, water damage, riots, strikes, civil commotion, terrorism, windstorms, hurricanes, cyclones, floods, burglary, theft and other similar risks;

财产损害险,保险范围为其场所因任何原因发生直接rr形损失或损害的一切风险,若无此保险单,则为火 灾风险和相关风险,如爆炸、电气损害、水损害、暴乱、罢工、平民动乱、恐怖活动、风暴、咫风、龙卷 风、水灾、盗窃和其他类似风险;

Property Damage Policy with Party B being named as the sole beneficiaiy covering loss or damage to the materials. Products, Bulks Products, Equipment and other property of Party B as a result of natural disaster or negligence or omission by Party A; and Party A shall inform Party B of any change to its insurance policies listed above which would result in a reduced insurance coverage.

财产损害险,乙方列为唯一-受益人,保险范围为因自然灾害或甲方的过失或不作为而导致乙方的原料、产 品、散装产乩、设备和其他财产损失或损害,如果以上所列的保险单发生可能导致保险范围的缩小的变化, 甲方应通知乙方。

Any other insurance policy or policies against such other insurable risks as shall be normal and customary in ihe PRC for operation similar to that of Party A. in each case with Party B named in the policy or a certificate of insurance as loss payee, additional insured, or in such manner as Party B’ s insurance company and Party A’ s insurance company may agree.

为与甲方经营活动相似的、在中国属于正常或惯例的针对其他可以保险的风险的任何其他保险,在每一险 种的保险单或保险证明中,乙方均列为损失赔偿受偿人、附加被保险人、或按乙方的保险公司和甲方的保 险公司约定的其他办法执行。

Throughout the term of this Agreement, Consultant shall at its own expense, obtain and maintain the following insurance policies: (a) Commercial General Liability insurance, with coverage of not less than USS 1,000,000 per occurrence and US$ 2,000,00() in the aggregate for bodily injury and property damage, (b) Motor Vehicle Liability insurance for owned, non-owned and hired vehicles, with limits of not less than USS 1,000,000 combined single limit for bodily injury and property damage, (c) WorkerJ s Compensation insurance in the amount required by statue for all states in which the project or work is to be performed, and (d) Professional Liability insurance with limits of not less (han US$ 1.000,000 per claim. Consukant will endeavor lo notify Client in writing of any material change to its coverage as described herein. Consultant shall furnish certificates of insurance evidencing coverage or other acceptable evidence of self-insurance to Client upon request.

在本协议整个期限内,顾问应自费获得并保持下列各项保险:(a)一•殷商业责任险,每发生一次事故,保险 额不少于1,000,000美元,人身伤害和财产损坏的合计保险额为2,000,000美元;(b)自有、非自用和租用车 辆的机动车辆责任险,人身伤害和财产损失合并的一次事故保险额不少于1.000000美元;⑹工人赔偿保险, 保险额应达到开展项目或工作所在州的法定要求;(d)职业责任保险,每项赔付限额不少于1,000,000美元。

221/ 781

 

如果上述保险范围发生任何实质性变化,顾问将尽力以书面形式通知客户。应客户要求,顾问应向其提供 证明承保范围的证书或其他可以接受的自保证明。

Insurance required under this Agreement shall be:本协议项下要求的保险应是:

  • Commercial General Liability insurance including bodily injury, property damage, personal injury, advertising injury and products/completed operations, with a limit of not less than USS 1,000,000 each occurrence and US$ 2,000,000 annual aggregate.

(a)商业一般责任险,保险范闹包括身体伤害,财产损害,人身伤害,广告侵害和产品/完成业务保险,每次 事故赔偿限额不低于1.000.000美元,每年总计不低于2,000000美元。

  • Worker?s Compensation and Employer , s Liability insurance covering all persons whom the Contractor may employ in carrying out the services hereunder. Worker’ s Compensation insurance will be in accordance with the Worker* s Compensation Law of the jurisdiction where the work is performed. Employer? s Liability shall be provided wilh limits of not less than US$ 500,000 each accident; USS 500.000 each disease; and US$ 500,000 disease policy limit.

(b)员工补偿险和雇主责任险,保险范围包括承包商为提供本协议项下服务可能雇用的所有人员。员工补偿 险将适用工作服行地的员工补偿法。雇主责任险的赔付是:每次事故的补偿限额不低于500,000美元;每次 疾病补偿限额不低于500,000美元;以及500,000美元的疾病保险限额。

  • Professional Liability insurance covering the negligent acts, errors or omissions committed by Consultant pursuant to rendering or failure to render professional services pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in the contract with limits of not less than USS 5,000,000 per claim.

(c)职业责任险,保险范围为顾问根据合同规定条例款和条件提供专业服务发生的过失行为、错误或疏漏, 或是未能根据合同规定的条款和条件提供专业服务,每项赔付限额不低于5.000,000美元。

Prior lo the commencement of services hereunder, the Conlractor shall furnish Party B with Certificates of Insurance (or evidence of sclf-insurancc) for all insurance required herein. Each insurer must be reasonably acceptable to Party B, and possess a minimum Bcst, s rating of ‘ A-VII* (or equivalent rating agency in the country) and licensed lo conduct business in all states/counlries where this Agreement shall apply.

开始提供本协议项下的服务之前,承包人应向乙方提供本协议所要求的一切保险的保险单据(或自行投保 的证据)。各保险公司必须能为乙方合理接受,至少达到贝斯特(或国内同等评级机构)评定的“A-VII” 等级,并持有适用本协议的所有州/国家颁发的业务许可证。

  • .英文合同中“without prejudice to”的用法

without prejudice to和with prejudice 2 常用在合同中,分别表示:在不损害什么的规定/情况下,不使 受损害”和“有损,有偏见”。比如:不得损害对方根据本合同或法律应享有的其他权利shall be wilhoul prejudice to any other remedies that each party may have hereunder or under applicable law。在合同条款中

without prejudice to 表示“在不影响…的情况下”,比如 without prejudice to the existing rights 就表示“在不 影响既有权利的情况下

这里举示更多的例句:

Without prejudice to Party B’s rights to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Article 11.2, the parties may agree that if, during the Lease Teirn, the Premises are in part or in whole :

在不影响乙方根据第11.2款终止本合同的权利的情况下,双方可同意,在租赁期内:

Without prejudice to any other rights or remedies which a party may have under this Agreement, the parties acknowledge and agree that damages may not be an adequate remedy for any breach of this Agreement and the remedies of injunction, specific performance and other non-monetarjr remedies (in addition to damages) as pcnniltcd by PRC law arc appropriate for any threatened or actual breach of any provision of this Agreement and no proof of special damages shall be necessary for the enforcement of the rights under this Clause 18.2.

在不影响任何一方在本协议F可能享有的任何其他权利或补救权的前提下,各方确认并同意,对本协议的 任何违约仅进行损害赔偿可能不足以补救该等违约,因此守约方就任何潜在、或实际地违反本协议任何规 定的行为寻求停止侵害、实际履行及中国法律允许的其他非金钱补救措施(附加于损害赔偿)均为适当的, 且在强制执行本第18.2条项下权利时无需提供任何特别损失证据。

Any Notice may be delivered by hand or senl by fax with confirmation receipt followed by first-class mail posted within 24 hours, or by overnight courier. Without prejudice to the foregoing,any Notice shall be deemed to have been received on the next working day in the place to which it is sent, if sent by fax, or 72 hours from the lime of posting, if senl by overnight courier, or at the lime of delivery, if delivered by hand.

一切通知可经专人送递,或以附有确认收据的传真方式送递随后再于24小时内以头等邮件方式邮寄,或以 隔夜速递的方式送递。在不影响前述规定的前提下,一切以传真送递的通知在收件地的下一个工作日视为 收到,以隔夜速递方式送递的通知在寄出之后72小时视为收到,以专人送递的通知在递交时视为收到。

Each right or remedy of Party A under this Agreement is cumulative and without prejudice to any other right or remedy of Party A whether under this Agreement or any law.

本协议项下甲方的每项权利或补救是累积的,并不影响甲方在根据本协议或法律享有的任何其他权利或补 救。

Wilhoul prejudice to Clause 8.1, the EJV shall be entitled lo lenninate this AGREEMENT if ihe COMPANY fails to remedy a material breach within 15 days of receipt of a formal notice containing the invitation to perform, to be sent by registered mail with notification of receipt or by fax.

在不影响第8.1款规定的的提下,如果公司在收到以挂号邮件随附收件通知方式或以传真方式发出的包含履 约邀请的正式通知后15日内未能纠正重大违约行为,合资公司有权终止本协议。

This AGREEMENT (together with the documents referred to herein) represents the entire agreement between the PARTIES in relation to its subject matter and cancels and supersedes all previous agreements between the PARTIES, whether written or oral, without prejudice to the right of the EJV and/or FERRARI to receive outstanding payments due under any such agreements.

本协议(及其中提及的文件)代表了双方之间就其标的事宜达成的全部协议,并取消和取代双方之间此前 的所有协议(无论是书面或是口头的),但不影响合资公司和/或法拉利收取任何该等协议项下到期未付款项 的权利。

This paragraph is without prejudice to EJV’s right not to proceed with the delivery and/or to terminate immediately this AGREEMENT as set out in Clause 8 and claim compensation for damages.

本款不影响第8条所列合资公司不进行交付及域立即终止本协议的权利以及就遭受的损害要求赔偿的权利。

Within 20 Business Days after the occurrence of a Forte and Xinyuan Termination Event, without prejudice to the accmed rights and liabilities of the Parties, Forte and Xinyuan may, by notice to CSL, terminate the CJV Contract and these Articles and apply to liquidate the CJV and the provisions of Article 23 shall apply.

复地股份、新远房产终止事件发生后20个营业日内,在不影响各方已产生的权利和义务的前提下,复地股 份、新远房产可以经通知CSL终止《合作合同》和本章程,提出清算合作企业,并且第23条的规定应适用。

Without prejudice to the generality of the above. CYL, Yongyc Group, Yongyc Joint Slock and the EJV shall not make any public announcements relating to the shareholdings or shareholders of SJL without the prior written consent of SJL.

在无损于上述一般性规定的前提下,CYL、永业集团、永业股份和合资公司不得在未获得SJL事先书面同 意的情况下作出任何与SJL股权或股东相关的公告。

Upon the occurrence of an Event of Default, without prejudice to the accrued rights and liabilities of the other Parties CfcNon-defaulting Parties”),the provisions of Article 23 shall apply.

在发生违约事件后,在不影响其他方(“守约方”)己产生的权利和责任的前提下,第23条的规定应适用。

The Company shall be terminated according to Wholly Foreign-owned Enterprise Law and the Implemeniation Regulation as well as other relevant law and regulation of PRC. Additionally without prejudice the appropriate context the Company may be terminated upon the unanimous decision of the Board, written approval of the Investor and approval by the original examining and approval authority.

公司可根据《外商投资企业法》及其实施细则以及其他中国有关法律和规定所载明的任何情况终止经营。 此外,在不影响上下文规定的情况下,如革事会一致同意和投资者书面许可并经原审批机关批准,公司也 可终止经营。

Without prejudice to any other remedies available to the Purchaser, if in any respect the provisions of Clause 6.1 are not complied with by the Vendor on the Completion Date the Purchaser may:

在不影响买方可享IT的任何其它补救的原则下,如果卖方于成交日期在任何方面未遵从第6.1条的规定,则 买方可:

proceed to Completion so far as practicable (without prejudice to its rights under this Agreement); or 在切实可行的范围内进行成交(在不影响其在本协议下的权利的原则下);或

As soon as practicable after (he execution of this Agreement, the parties shall procure that a notice of transfer relating to the sale and purchase of the Business is published in accordance with the provisions of the Transfer of Businesses (Protection of Creditors) Ordinance. Any such notice shall be in the form set out in Schedule [ 13 J and shall be given without prejudice to the rights and obligations of the parties, as against each other, under this Agreement.

双方须于本协议签立后在切实可行的范围内尽快促致按《业务转让(债权人保障)条例》刊登有关业务买 卖的转让通知。任何该等通知须采用附表(13)中列明的格式,乩发出任何该等通知不得影响各方根据本 协议相对于另一方的权利及义务。

Without prejudice to the VVananties, the Vendor shall be responsible for, and shall keep the Purchaser fully and effectively indemnified against:

在不影响保证的原则下,卖方须对以下各项负责,并就以下各项使买方完全地及实际地获得弥偿:

arising out of or in any way connected with the Transferring Employees during the period when they were in ihc Vendor^ employ, including without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing:

因调任雇员在其受雇于卖方的时段内引致的或在任何方面与此有关的上述各项,在不影响上文一般性的原 则下,包括:

This guarantee and indemnity is in addition to and without prejudice to and not in substitution for any rights or security which the Purchaser may now or hereafter have or hold for the performance and observance of the obligations, commitments, undertakings, warranlies, indemnities and covenants of the Vendor under or in connection with this Agreement [or the Proj>erty Agreement].

本担保及弥偿是附加于及不损害并且不取代买方现时或此后可能有或持有的任何权利或保证,以履行及遵 守卖方根据或就本协议或(财产协议)而有的义务、承诺、承担、保证、弥偿及契诺。

Any right of rescission conferred upon the Purchaser hereby shall be in addition to and without prejudice to all other rights and remedies available to it (and, without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, shall not extinguish any right to damages to which the Purchaser may be entitled in respect of any breach of this Agreement) and no exercise or failure to exercise such a right of rescission shall constitute a waiver by the Purchaser of any such other right or remedy.

本协议所赋予买方的任何撤销权须附加于及不损害其可获得的所有其它权利及补救(旦在不损害前文的一 般性原则下,不终绝买方就本协议被违反而可能享有的获得损害赔偿的任何权利),而行使或没有行使上述 撤销权并不构成买方放弃任何上述其它权利或补救。

In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing the Vendor has in relation to the Business observed all of its obligations in relation to:

特别地,并在不损害前述规定的概括性原则下,卖方已就业务遵从其就以下事宜须承担的一切义务:

the provisions of any such Occupational Retirement Scheme relating to any employees or former employees of the Vendor including, without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, the actuarial assumptions used in connection with any such scheme; or

关于卖方任何雇员或前雇员的任何上述职业退休计划的条文,在不影响前文的一般性原则下,包括就任何 上述计划使用的精算假设;或

In particular, but without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing,] to execute in our name and on our behalf (with all such amendments thereto as he shall deem necessary or desirable):

特别是,但在不影响上文的一般性原则下,)以本公司的名义并代表本公司签署(连同其视为必要或适宜的 以下文件的一切修订):

Without prejudice to the generality of Clause 5.1, Party A shall collaborate fully with the Company in relation to all material matters concerning the carrying oul of the Existing Business Activities between the date of this Contract and Completion and during that period shall procure that in relation to the Existing Business Activities Party A shall not without ihe prior written consent of the Company:

在不影响第5.1款的一般性规定的前提下,对于在本合同签署日至交易完成期间开展现有业务活动有关的 所有重要事宜,甲方应与合资公司充分合作,并应在该期间内就现有业务活动促使甲方未经合资公司事先 书面同意,不得从事下列任何行为:

In the event of a breach of this Contract, without prejudice to the rights of the non-breaching Party under this Contract, the breaching Party shall be liable to compensate the non-breaching Party for any losses, damages, costs, expenses, liabilities or claims that the non-breaching Party may suffer as a result of such breach.

如果违反本合同,在不影响守约方在本合同项下的权利的情况下,违约方应负责补偿守约方因上述违约而 可能遭受的任何损失、损害、费用、开支、责任或索赔。

it shall be found that any of the Warranties was, when given, or will be. or would be, at Completion (as if they had been given again at Completion) not complied with or otherwise untiue or misleading, the Company shall be entitled (in addition to and without prejudice to all other rights or remedies available to it and its successors in title including the right to claim damages) by notice in writing to Party A to terminate this Contract, but failure to exercise this right shall not constitute a waiver of any other rights of the Company or its successors in title arising out of any breach of Warranties; or

若任何保证在做出时未获遵守、或不真实或具有误导性,或将会在交易完成之时(如同在交易完成之时做出) 未获遵守、或不真•实或具有误导性,合资公司有权(该等权利附加于目不影响其及其权利继承人享有的包括 要求损害赔偿的权利在内的所有其他权利或救济权)书面通知甲方终止本合同,但未行使此项权利不构成合 资公司或其权利继承人对因任何违反保证的行为享有的任何其他权利的放弃;或

If any of the representations and warranties of Yuncheng Aluminum made in Articles 8.01 and 8.02 hereof are at any time found to be untrue or incorrect, the Company shall have the right to rescind this Contract by providing written notice lo Yuncheng Aluminum without liability on ils part and without prejudice to any other rights it may have under the laws of the People’s Republic of China. Alternatively, the Company may elect to reduce the Purchase Price in respect of which any of the representations and warranties of Yuncheng Aluminum arc found to be untrue, misleading or incorrect and/or any damages incurred by the Company as a result of such breach by Yuncheng Aluminum.

8.04如果在任何时间发现运城铝业在本合同第8.01条和第8.02条所作的任何声明和保证是不真实的或不 正确的,则公司将有权在本身无须负责和不损害其在中华人民共和国法律项下的任何其他权利的情况下通 过向运城铝业发出书面通知解除本合同。作为替代方法,公司也可选择降低购买价格,(所发现不真实的、 有误导性的或不正确的运城铝业的任何声明和保证和/或由于运城铝业的上述违约使公司发生的任何损害 赔偿皆与该购买价格相关)。

The right of termination in Clause 17.1 shall not prejudice any Party’s rights under this Contract and under PRC law to claim against the other Party for any losses, damages, liabilities, costs and expenses suffered by it due (o the other Party’s breach of contract, including without limitation, its rights stated in Clause 19.1 hereof.

第17.1条的终止权利,不得损害任何一方根据本合同及中国法律规定,就其因对方违约而受到的任何损失、 损害赔偿、债务、费用和支出而向对方提出索赔的权利,包括但不限于本合同第19.1条所述的权利。

Interest. The Borrower shall with respect to all monies payable under this Deed pay interest from the due date to the date of payment (as well after as before any demand or judgment and notwithstanding the liquidation of the Borrower) at such rates as shall from time to time be charged by the Lender and upon such terms as may from lime to time be agreed with the Lender and such interest shall be compounded in the event of it not being punctually paid with monthly rests or as otherwise determined by the Lender but without prejudice lo ihe right of the Lender to require payment of such interest and all such interest shall form part of the monies hereby secured. 利息。借款人应就本契约项下应付的–切款项支付利息,自到期应付之日起至付款之日止(在任何要求或 判决之前和之后,以及即使借款人被清算),按贷款人不时收取的利率以及按与贷款人不时商定的条款计息。 如果上述利息没有准时支付,则应按月或贷款人确定的其它方法计算复利,但不得损害贷款人要求支付上 述利息的权利,而且所有上述利息应构成本契约予以担保的款项的一部分。

The Borrower agrees that the Lender shall (without prejudice to any general or banker’s lien, right of set-off or any other right to which it may be entitled) have the right, without notice to the Borrower or any other person, at any lime to set off and apply any credit balance on any account (whether subject to notice or not and whether matured or not and in whatever currency) of the Borrower with the Lender and any other indebtedness owing by the Lender to the Borrower, against any monies, obligations and liabilities of the Borrower to the Lender on any other account or in any other respect whether actual or contingent and the Lender is authorised to purchase with the monies standing to the credit of any such account such other currencies as may be necessary for this purpose. [Until payment in full of the Secured Indebtedness the Lender shalL in addition to any other rights and remedies, have a lien on all the property and assets of the Borrower from time to time in the possession of or

 

registered in the name of the Lender or its nominees (including, but not limited to, all slocks, shares and marketable or other securities) whether such property and assets are held for sate custody or otherwise.]

借款人同意贷款人有权在无须通知借款人或任何其它人的情况下,(不影响其可能有权享有的任何i般或银 行的留置权、抵销权或任何其它权利),于任何时候抵销和使用借款人在贷款人的任何账户中的任何贷方余 额(不论是否需要通知及是否到期及以任何货币)或贷款人欠借款人的任何其它债务,以抵销借款人在任 何其它账户或在任何其它方面对贷款人的任何款项、义务和负债(不论实际或或有的),而贷款人获得授权 用任何上述账户中结余的款项,购买就本目的可能需要的其它货币,(在有担保债务被清偿之前,除了任何 其它权利和补救措施以外,贷款人对不时由贷款人或其提名人占有或以贷款人或其提名人的名义登记的一 切财产和资产(包括但不限于一切股票、股份和可销售证券及其它证券)具有留置权,不论上述财产和资 产是以保管或其它方式持有的。)

Subject to Article 10.4 and without prejudice to any antecedent rights, this Contract shall cease to have effect as regards any Party who ceases to hold any Equity Interest, except for those Articles which are expressed to coniinue in force after termination of this Contract.

除第10.4款另有规定外并在不影响任何先前形成的权利的前提下,木合同对不再持有任何股权的任何一方 不再具有任何效力,但已明确规定在本合同终止后继续有效的条款除外。

Without prejudice lo any other rights or remedies of a Party, the Parties acknowledge and agree that damages would not be an adequate remedy for any breach of this Article 26 and the remedies of prohibitory injunctions and other relief are appropriate and may be sought for any threatened or actual breach of any such provision and no proof of special damages shall be necessaiy fbr the enforcement of any Party’s rights under this Article 26. 在不影响一方享有的任何其他权利或补救的情况下,双方承认并同意,损害赔偿并非对违反本第26条行为 的充分补偿,而旦对于任何该等规定的任何潜在或实际违反,寻求禁止令或其他救济措施作为补偿均是适 当的,且于寻求执行本第26条项下任何一方的权利时无需提供任何特别损害证据。

Without prejudice to ihe generality of the foregoing, where any Party provides to the EJV or the other Party documents containing Trade Secrets it shall mark on the document in a prominent place “strictly confidential, contains material nol to be disclosed, copied or transmitted to any third party without permission”. The General Manager shall formulate internal rules and regulalions for the management and protection of Trade Secrets which shall be applied by the staff of the EJV. Relevant provisions on the protection of Confidential Information and Trade Secrets shall be included in each of the EJV’s labour contracts with its employees.

在不影响上述规定的普遍性的前提下,若任何一方向合资公司或另一方提供包含商业秘密的文件,其应在 该文件上明显的位置标明“严格保密、包含未经许可不得向第三方披露、发制或发送的资料”。总经理应制 订适用于合资公司员工的商业秘密管理和保护内部规章制度。合资公司与其员工之间的每份劳动合同中应 包含保密资料和商业秘密保护的有关规定。

Within [20] Business Days after the occurrence of a Party A Termination Event, without prejudice to the accrued rights and liabilities of (he Parties, Party A may, by notice to Party B, terminate this Contract, liquidate the EJV and the provisions of Article 31 shall apply.

甲方终止事件发生后[20]个营业日内,在不影响双方已产生的权利和义务的前提下,甲方可以经通知乙 方终止本合同,清算合资公司,并且笫31条的规定应适用。

228/781

 

Without prejudice to Articles 30, 31 and 32.2, if a Party (the “Breaching Party”)or any of its Associated Companies commits a material breach of a Transaction Document, the other Party (the “Non-Breaching Party”) may give a notice (a ^Default Notice”) notifying the Breaching Party of its breach and requiring it to be remedied within (30] Business Days of the date on which the notice is effective under this Contract.

在不影响第30条、第31条和第32.2款的前提下,若一方(“违约方”)或其任何关联公司严重违反了任一 交易文件,另一方(“非违约方”)可以向违约方发出通知(“违约通知”),告知其违约,并耍求其在该通知 根据本合同的规定而生效之日起[30]个营业日内纠正其违约行为。

In the event of a breach of this Contract, without prejudice to the rights of the Non Breaching Party set out in Articles 30 and 31,〔he Breaching Party shall be liable to compensate the Non Breaching Party for any [direct or indirect] losses, damages, costs, expenses, liabilities or claims that the Non-Breaching Party may suffer as a result of such breach.l

若违反本合同,在不影响非违约方列于第30条和第31条的权利的前提下,违约方应赔偿非违约方因该等 违约行为而可能遭受的任何[直接或间接的]损失、损害、费用、开支、责任或索赔。]

Where a breach of contract occurs in relation to both this Contract and the Articles in relation to the same event, the Non-Breaching Party shall not be entitled to recover twice in relation to the same event giving rise to the breach, but the foregoing is without prejudice to its rights to recover (subject to the foregoing) in relation to any separate breach or repeated or subsequent breaches of the same provision.

若同一事件既违反本合同乂违反章程,非违约方无权就导致违约的同一事件进行两次追偿,但前述规定不 损害其(根据前述规定)就任何其他单个违反或重复或后续违反相同条款进行追偿的权利。

Termination of this Contract or dissolution of the EJV for any cause shall be without prejudice tothe rights and liabilities of the Parties accrued al the time of termination or dissolution.

本合同因任何原因终止或合资公司因任何原因解散,均不应影响终止或解散之时双方已产生的权利和义务。

procure that insurance is taken out and maintained on the Equipment, at a value not less than the full replacement value thereof or the aggregate of the Rental Payments from time to time outstanding under (his Agreement whichever is the greater, comprehensively against all loss or damage from whatsoever cause including, wilhoul prejudice to the generality thereof, any loss, damage or destiuction by fire, theft, accident or special peril and such other risks as the Ixssor may from time to time nominate in writing;

确保按不少于设备的十足重置价值或本协议下不时发生的未付租金的总额(两者以数额较大者为准)购买 设备不论因任何原因而产生的一切损失或损害的综合保险,包括(但在不影响其一般性原则下),因火灾、 失窃、意外事故或特别灾难而造成的任何损失、损害或毁坏以及承租人不时书面提议的其它风险:

If at any time the Equipment or any part thereof or any other risk specified in sub clause 1 l.l is not so insured as aforesaid, or if (he Lessee shall fail to produce any such policy or receipt as aforesaid, the Lessor shall without prejudice to its rights in respect of any such breach be entitled, but not obliged, at the expense of the Ixssee to insure the Equipment or any such other risk and keep them so insured during the period referred to in this Clause, and the Lessee will pay to the Lessor on demand any sums expended by the Lessor for such purpose with interest from the time of the same having been expended until such payment at the rate specified in sub clause 5.5.

如设备或其任何部分或第11.1条规定的任何其它风险于任何时候没有按前款规定购买保险,或者如承租人 未能按前款规定出示任何上述保单或收据,出租人17权(但无义务)在不影响其就上述任何违约而亭布•的 权利的条件下为设备或上述任何其它风险购买保险,并保持其在本条所述期间内均如此投保,费用由承租 人负担。承租人将一经要求即连同利息向出租人支付出租人为上述目的所支出的一切款项,利息自上述款 项支出之日起计至按第5.5条规定偿付时止。

Without prejudice to any other provision of this Agreement the Lessee agrees to indemnify the Lessor against any loss, liability, damage, claim, demand or expense whatsoever suffered or incurred by the lessor and arising out of or in connection with any failure by the Lessee to comply with its obligations under this Clause 11.

在不影响本协议任何其它条款的情况下,承租人同意就出租人因承租人没有履行其在本第II条下的义务或 与上述不履行有关而遭受或引致的任何损失、责任、损害赔偿、中索、要求或开支而对出租人作出弥偿。

Intervention by Lessor If the Lessee fails lo comply with any provision of this Agreement, the Lessor may, without being in any way obliged to do so or responsible for so doing and without prejudice to the right of the Lessor to treat (hat non compliance as a Tennination Event, effect compliance on behalf of the Lessee, whereupon the Lessee shall become liable to pay immediately any sums expended by the lessor together with all costs and expenses (including legal costs) in connection therewith.

出租人的干预 如承租人没有遵守本协议的任何条文,出租人可以(但无任何义务或责任这样做及在不

影响出租人有权将该不遵守行为当作为终止事件的情况下)代表承租人遵守,而承租人有责任立即支付出 租人因此支出的任何款项以及与此有关的一切费用和开支(包括法律费用)。

The Lender may, without prejudice to its other rights hereunder, terminate its obligation to make the Facility available and declare the Loan together with all accnied interest and other moneys payable under this agreement repayable immediately (or in accordance with such declaration) at any time after any of the following events (”Events of DclaultM) shall have occurred (so long as the same is continuing):

贷款人可在发生下列任何事件(“违约事件”)后的任何时候(只要这些事件仍然继续),终止其提供贷款安 排的义务,并宣布有关贷款连同一切应计利息和本协议项下的其它应付款项应立即(或按上述宣布)偿还, 而不影响其在本协议项下的其它权利:

We agree that you shall (without prejudice to any general or banker’s lien, right of set-off or any other right to which you may be entitled) have the right at any time without notice to set off and apply any credit balance on any account of us with you (whether subject to notice or not and whether matured or not and in whatever currency) and any other indebtedness owing by you to us against our liabilities under this Counter-indemnity (whether actually or contingently due), and you are authorised to purchase with the monies standing to the credit of any such account such other cunencies as may be necessary for this purpose.

本公司同意,贵公司/贵行(在不损害任何一-般或银行留置权、抵销权或贵公司/贵行有权享有的任何其 它权利的原则下)有权在任何时间,在无须给予通知的情况下,运用本公司在贵公司/贵行开立的任何账 户的任何贷方余额(不论是否须通知,亦不论是否已到期及以何种货币)及贵公司/贵行欠本公司的任何 其它债务,抵销本公司在本反弥偿契据下的债务(不论其为实际到期须付或者待确定到期须付),并旦贵公 司/贵行获授权以在任何上述账户贷方的款项购买为此目的而必需的其它货币。

In connection with its appointment hereunder as administrator, the Administrator shall, without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing:

在其根据本协议被委任为管理人方面,在不损害前文一般性的原则下,管理人须:

The Custodian shall execute ownership and other certificates and affidavits for all fiscal tax and other purposes from time to time in connection wilh Investments delivered to or by it or to its order under this Agreement and shall pay any taxes which arc required to be paid in connection therewith (all such payments being debited to the account of the Company) and shall make applications and reports to the competent and other authorities under any and other laws, treaties, agreements or conventions (if any) in order to secure any tax or other privileges and benefits to which the Company is or may be entitled in connection with such Investments (including, without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, to exempt from taxation any cxcmptablc transfers and/or deliveries of any such Investments or in connection with the collection of interest and dividends (hereon).

保管人须不时就根据本协,议向其或其所指定的人交付的或由其交付的投资为一切财政税收及其它目的签署 所有权证及其它证明书和誓章,须支付规定就投资支付的任何税款(一切该等付款须记入公司帐下),并须 根据任何及其它法律、条约、协议或公约(如有的话)向主管 及其它当局提交申请和报告,以便确保 公司有权或可能有权享有关乎该等投资的任何税收特惠或其它特权及利益(包括,在不损害前款规定的一 般性的原则下,免除就任何可免税的任何该等投资的转让和(或)交付或与该投资收取的利息及股息有关 的税收)。

If in any respect any of the foregoing provisions of this Clause |3| is not complied with on (he Completion Date by any of the Parties, the remaining Parties (other than the Company) may (acting unanimously) at their option defer Completion [until ] (and so that the provisions of this Clause shall apply to Completion as so deferred). Unless such remaining Parties so defer Completion, this [Agreement] [Deed] shall terminate on the Completion Dale, but wiihout prejudice to any claim which any Party may have against any other Party for breach of contract.

如各方中的任何一方于成交日在任何方面不能符合本第(3)的任何前述条文,则其余各方(公司除外)可 (一致行动)自行选择延迟成交(直至 年 月 日)为止(以使本条条文适用于如此延迟的成交)。

除非其余各方如此延迟成交,否则本(协议)(契据)须于成交日终止,但不影响任何一方就违约而有权针 对任何其它的一方提起的任何中索。

if the other Shareholder does not offer to purchase the Leaver’s Shares in the manner and within the period provided in [Article [ ]], the Leaver may (wiihout prejudice to its rights to sell such Shares to a third party

pursuant to [Article | | |) by notice in writing to the Directors and to the other Shareholder require a general

meeting to be convened for the purpose of winding up Ihe Company. The Shareholders will procure that such a general meeting be convened within thirty days of the Leaver’s notice. The Shareholders will procure that the Directors first make a declaration of solvency (if applicable). Both Shareholders shall attend or be represented at such meeting or at any adjournment thereof and no Shareholder shall be entitled to vote otherwise than against a proposal to adjoum the meeting or in favour of the resolution for the winding up of the Company unless both Shareholders othenvise agree.

如另一股东没有以(第([条)所规定的方式并在〔第()条)所规定期间内提出购买退出方的股份, 退出方可(在不影响其依据(第1)条)向第三方出售其在该等股份的权力的情况下)向堇事及另一-股 东发出书面通知,要求就公司的清盘而召开大会。股东将促使该股东大会在退出方通知后三十口内召开。 股东将促使董事首先作出有偿付能力的声明书(如适用的话)。两个股东均应出席或派代表出席该会议或该 会议的任何延会;除非两个股东另行协议,否则任何股东除反对押后会议的提议或赞成结束公司业务的决 议外,无投票权。

If a Termination Notice is given pursuant to Clause 11.1, the Shareholder not in default (in this Clause hereinafter referred to as the “Beneficiary”) shall (without prejudice to its other rights and remedies) have the right:

如已依据第(11.1)条发出终止通知书,没有失责的股东(在本条提述为“受益人”)(在不影响其所享有的 其它权利及其它补救方法的原则下)有权:

Wilhoul prejudice to its rights to terminate the employment contract of a Seconded Employee in circumstances justifying dismissal, Yuncheng Aluminum shall use all endeavors to procure that the Seconded Employees will at all times during ihc Transition Period be employed by Yuncheng Aluminum pursuant (o their respective employment contracts. Yuncheng Aluminum will furnish the Company with a copy of any notice of termination of the employment contract given to or received from a Seconded Employee promptly after such notice has been given or received, as the case may be.

在不影响其在有合理解雇理由的情况下终止某位派遣员工的雇用合同的权利的前提下,运城铝业应尽一切 合理努力促使派遣员工在过渡期内按照其各自的雇用合同始终受雇于运城铝业。运城铝业应将发给某派遣 员工的或从某派遣员工收到的有关终止雇用合同的通知(视情况而定)及时抄送公司。

If any of the following events occurs, the Company shall, without prejudice to its other rights under this Agreement or at law, be entitled to terminate this Agreement by giving at least ten (10) days’ prior written notice to Yuncheng Aluminum:

如以下任何情况发生,公司应有权向运城铝业发出至少十(10)天事先书面通知终止本协议,而不影响其 在本协议项卜.的权利或法律赋予的其他权利:

Branding. Upon delivery, the Equipment shall not feature any names (including manufacturer^ name), logos, corporate color schemes, branding or any advertising marks, paraphernalia or identifications (collectively the “Branding”). Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions on confidentiality set forth herein. Supplier shall have no right to – and shall not – advertise or otherwise disclose or publicize its lease of the Equipment to BOB. a( any time.

品牌。设备一经交付,便不再带有任何名称(包括生产商的名称)、图标、公司颜色方案、标志或任何广告 标志、附属标志或身份(通称“品牌在不减损本协议中列出的有关保密的一般性规定的前提下,供应 方无权–H不得在任何时候对其向BOB租赁设备一事做广告或披露或公开其向BOB租赁设备一事。

 

The Supplier acknowledges that BOB has entered into this Agreement taking into account the Supplier’s expertise and skill in the design and manufacturing of the specialized broadcasting Equipment including ancillary equipment suitable for the Intended Purpose, and agrees that it (the Supplier) shall not assign, delegate or subcontract its rights or obligations hereunder to any third party without the explicit prior written consent of BOB. To the extent as necessary for performance of this Agreement, the Supplier shall have the right to assign, subcontract or sublicense its rights or obligations, in part or in whole, provided that such assignment, sub-coniract or sub-license shall be without any material prejudice to BOB and is promptly notified to BOB by Supplier. BOB may cancel this Agreement for cause should Supplier attempt to make an unauthorized assignment of this Agreement or any right or obligation arising hereunder.

供应方承认BOB签署本协议是考虑到供应方在设计和制造适合预期目的的专业转播设备及其附属设施方面 的特殊专长和技能,并同意未经BOB事先明确书面同意,其(指供应方)不得向任何第三方转让、委托或 转包其在本协议下的权利和义务。在履行本协议所必需的范围内,供应方应有权转让、转包或再许可其全 部或部分权利或义务,但是,此等转让、转包或再许可应对BOB没有任何实质性损害,并且供应方应及时 通知BOB。如果供应方试图对本协议或由本协议所产生的任何权利或义务进行未经许可的转让,BOB可以 以此为由取消本协议。

the Operator shall have the right to terminate this Agreement by giving twenty (20) Business Days, notice sent by registered mail with relum receipt requested without prejudice to any olher righl or remedy.

营运人提前二十(20)个营业日使用挂号信(要求回执)发送通知后,有权终止本协议,而且营运人的其 它一切权利或救济并不因此而受任何影响。

The arbitral tribunal shall have the authority to make such orders granting interim or provisional relief during the pendency of the arbitration as it deems just and equitable. Any such order shall be without prejudice to ihe final determination of the controversy.

仲裁期间,仲裁庭有权视情况在其认为公平合理的情况下,下令给予临时救济。仲裁庭的此类救济令并不 影响其最终做出结果相反的裁决。

  • .英文合同结构与主要条款

标准英文合同通常可以分为前言(Preamble)>正文(Habendum)、证明部分(Attestation)>附录(Schedule) 四大部分组成。

  • .前言(Preamble)部分

前言部分主要有如下内容:

(1)指明签约双(各)方

例 This JOINT VENTURE AGREEMENT「AGREEMENT”)is made as of June 3, 1998, by and between E*TRADE GROUP, INC., a Delaware corporation (”E*TRADE’),and SOFTBANK CORP., a Japanese corporation (“SOFTBANK”). E*TRADE and SOFTBANK are hereunder also refened to collectively as the ,’PARTIES’1 and individually as a “PARTY.”

  • 2) “鉴于(Whereas)”、“叙述(Recital)” 或“背景(Background)”部分

该部分主要是介绍合同的相关情况,具体有如下内容:

a)合同双(各)方的背景情况介绍,如各方所从事的行业:

例 1 : AMD engages through its Communication Products Division (℃PD11) in the design, development, manufacture and sale of telecommunication products for public communications infrastmcture systems, customer premise equipment and cordless telephony applications.

b)合同目的

例 I : The Parties desire to form a joint venture to provide online securities trading services to residents of Japan on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein.

例 2: The parties intend to share revenues generated by the Health Category, as well as revenues generated by similar activities conducted by McKesson using the AvantGo software on behalf of McKesson s customers, but do not intend to share revenues arising from ihe operations of their respective core businesses.

c)合同的背景情况

例 I : This Agreement is being executed and delivered simultaneously with the execution and delivery of the Agreement and Plan of Merger dated December 13, 1999 (the “Merger Agreement0) among Union Oil, the Company, Sub and Titan.

例 2: Pursuant to a Stockholders Agreement entered into simultaneously with the execution and delivery of this Agreement, Union Oil will have the right to nominate certain persons (“Designees”) to serve on the board of directors of the Company following the Merger. Certain of the Designees may be directors of or employed by Union Oil or companies in which Union Oil has an interest, other than the Company and its subsidiaries.

(3)明确指明合同双(各)方愿意签订本合同

例 1 : NOW THEREFORE, IN CONSIDERATION OF the mutual promises and covenants set forth in this Agreement, the Panics agree as follows:

例 2: NOW THEREFORE, for valuable consideration, the receipt and adequacy of which are hereby acknowledged, the Parties hereby agree as follows:

  1. “正文(Habendum)”部分主要包含以下条款

(I) “定义(Definition)M 条款

该条款是对合同中的某些词语的进行定义,确保各词语在合同中的含义统一,以免发生歧义。这些词语可 分成两大类。第一类是英文合同中的常用词语,如附属机构(Affiliate财务报表(Financial Statements) 等:第二类是本合同中使用的具有特定含义的词语。

(2)“陈述与保证(Representations and Warranties)” 条款

该条款是合同双(各)方对某些基本事实的陈述并保证其陈述的真实性,其构成合同签订与生效的前提。 主要内容有:

a)合法注册、经济状况现状、相关资质(Organization, Standing and Qualification)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明其注册地、注册所依据的法律,声明合法拥有其财产、经营状况良好、 有权签订并履行本合同。

b)注册资本(Capitalization)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明其各自的注册资本金额、股权数量等情况。

c)适当授权(DucAuthorization)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明其有权签订并履行本合同,本合同的签订对其具有约束力。

d)重大债务(Liabilities)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明除了其已经披露的之外,没有其他重大债务。

  1. 财产状况(Status of Proprietary Assets)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明其在本合同签订时的主要财产状况。

  1. 财产权属状况(Tide to Properties and Assets)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明其财产所有权是完整的无瑕疵的。

  1. IE大合同及其义务(Material Contracts and Obligations)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明,在本合同签订时其尚未完全履行的重大合同及其项下的义务。

  1. 诉讼4仲裁(Litigation and Arbitration)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要说明在本合同签订时尚未审结的诉讼与仲裁案件。

  1. 遵守法律与政府审批(Compliance with Laws; Governmental Consents)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明其完全遵守各项适用法律并已得到政府的有关审批。

  1. 履行其他约定义务(Compliance with Other Instniments and Agreements)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方耍声明其完全履行其他各项约定义务。

k)披露义务(Disclosure)

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明其已披露了所有与本合同相关或本合同要求披露的信息。

(3)”先决条件(Condilions precedent”条款

该条款是有关合同双(各)方限行各自义务的前提条件的约定。

(4) “责任限制(Limited Liability or Limitation of Liability)”条款

该条款是合同双(各)方对其在本合同项下的责任上限进行的约定。

(5)“保密(Non-disclosure or No Publicily)”条款

根据该条款,合同双(各)方对本合同内容以及在本合同协商、签订、履行过程中所得知的其他各方的信 息要承担保密义务。

(6) “合同终止(Termination)”条款

该条款是合同双(各)方对本合同在何种情况下可以提前终止进行约定。

(7)”标题”(headings)条款

在该条款中,合同双(各)方约定合同中的各个小标题(一般以黑体字显示)是为了在合同中提及的方便, 不构成对合同内容的解释、修改、补充。

⑻“合同有效期(Term)”条款

该条款是有关合同生效日期、方式以及有效期的条款。

(9) “权利放弃(Waiver)”条款

在该条款中,合同双(各)方声明任何一方如果没有行使其权利,并不意味着其放弃该权利。

(10)“合同变更(Amendmenl or Modificalion)”条款

在该条款中,合同双(各)方可以约定合同不得修改或者合同修改的方式。

  • “转让(Assignment or Successors and Assignment)”条款

在该条款中,合同双(各)方可约定合同不可转让或者合同转让的程序,同时,还可以约定,如果合同转 让,则合同对受让方有完全约束力。

  • “通知(Notice)”条款

该条款是对合同双(各)方在履行合同过程中相互送达信息的方式以及视为送达的条件进行约定。一般来 讲,要写明合同双(双)方的通信地址、传真号、联系电话、联络人以及送达成功的具体条件。

  • ”适用法伴(Governing Law or Applicable Law)”条款 Submission to Jurisdiction

该条款是有关合同解释、争议解决所适用法律的约定。

 

(14)“争议解决(Dispute Resolution)”条款

该条款是有关合同相关或与合同布•关的争议解决方式的约定,可以选择诉讼,也可以选择仲裁。

(15)”条款效力独立(Severability or Survival of terms) ,, 条款

根据该条款的约定,合同的任一条款如果无效,也不影响其他任何条款的效力。

(16) “没有其他业务关系”条款

在该条款中,合同双(各)方声明彼此之间除了合同关系之外没有其他任何法律关系。

(17)”不可抗力(Force Majeure)”条款

该条款是有关不可抗力构成要件及其具体情形,以及在发生不可抗力事件的情况下如果处理的约定。

(18)”所有协议(Entire Agreement)M 条款 Inlcgraiion

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要声明本合同构成双(各)方就合同主题事宜达成的最终的、唯一的协议, 除非明确指明,在此之前的所有约定,无论是口头的,还是书面的,均无效力。

(19)“传真签订生效(Execution by Fax) ”条款

合同双(各)方可以在该条款中约定,双(各)方可通过传真力•式签订合同并使其生效。

(20)”语言(Language)” 条款

该条款是有关合同适用语言的约定。

(21)“合同文本(Counterparts)” 条款

该条款是对合同的份数以及各份合同的效力进行约定。

  • 2) “歧义(Ambiguities)” 条款

在该条款中,合同双(各)方要约定主合同与其附件之间、主合同与其补充协议之间、主合同各语言文本 之间如果发生意思歧义如何处理。

(23)“币种(Currency)”条款

该条款是对合同项下的货币种类进行约定。

  • 证明部分(ATTESTATION)
  • 附录部分(Schedule)
  • .常见的合同划分与种类

合同可有下列不同的标准划分:

oral/parole contract and written contract ( I」头合同与书面合同)

consensual contract and real contract (诺成合同与实践合同) formal contract and informal contract (要式合同与不要式合) unilateral contract and bilateral contract (单务合同与双务合同) principal contract and accessory contract (主合同与从合同) causative contract and non-causative contract (耍因合同与不要因合同) commutative contract and independent contract (可替换合同与独立合同) express contract and implied contract (明示合同与隐含合同) divisible contract and indivisible contract (可分合同与不可分合同) entire contract and severable contract (不可分合同与可分合同)

executed contract and executory contract ( LI履行的合同与待履行的合同)

gratuitous contract and onerous contract (无偿合同与有偿合同) certain contract and hazardous contract (确定合同与射幸合同) simple contract and contract under seal (盖印合同与非盖卬合同) joint and several contract (连带合同) conditional contract (附条件合同) constructive contract (推定合同) investment contract (投资合同) open end contract (无限制合同) quasi contract (准合同) altruistic contract (利他合同)

cost-plus contract (用于政府采购的照本加成合同)

gentlemans agreement: Generally an unsigned and unenforceable agreement made between parties who expect its performance because of good faith.君子协定(即当事人未被签字也不会强制实施的,仅仅寄希望于双方诚意 履行的协议)

1999年中国《合同法》第九章到第二十三章就合同种类做了概括,它们分别是: Sales contracts (买卖合同)

Contracts for Supply of Power» Water» Gas or Heat (供用电、水、气、热力合同)

Gift contracts (赠与合同)

Contracts for loan of money (借款合同)

Leasing contracts (租凭合同)

Financial leasing contracts (融资租凭合同)

Work-for-hire contracts (承揽合同)

Contacts for constniction projects (建筑工程合同)

Carriage contracts (运输合同)

Technology conlracts (技术合同)

Safe-keeping contracts (保管合同)

Warehousing contracts (仓储合同)

Agency appointment contracts (委托代理合同)

Trading trust contracts (委托合同)

Brokerage contracts (行纪合同和居间合同)

劳动人事方面包括:

labor contract (劳动合同)

confidentiality agreement (保密协议)

non-complete agreement (竞争禁止协议)

human agency agreement (人事代理协议)

contract of sale of commodity houses (商品房买卖合同)

tenancy agreement (租凭协议)

contract for assignment, lease and transfer of the right to the use of land

土地使用权出让、出租、转让合同)

mortgage agreement (抵押合同)

loan contract (贷款合同)

property management contract (物业管理合同)

contract for construction engineering and installation of project (建议工程承包、安装合同)

服务方面有:

Technical service agreement 技术服务合同

technical consulting agreement 技术咨询合同

technical development agreement 技术开发合同

technical transfer agreement 技术转让合同

licensing agreement 许 可合同

Agency agreement (代理协议)

Insurance contract (保险合同)

Financing agreement (融资协议)

Venture capital management agreement (风险投资管理协议)

Employment contract for legal consultant (法律顾问协议)

公司方面包括有:

joint venture contract (合资企业合同)

articles of association, corporate bylaw (章程)

partnership agreement (合伙协议)

agreement on assignment of equity interests (股权转让协议)

composition agreement (和解协议)

物流(Logislics)方面包括有:

sales contract (买卖合同)

purchase contract (采购合同)

carriage/transportation contract 运输合同)

import and export contract (进出口合同)

warehousing and safekeeping contraci (仓储保管合同)

contract for compensation trade (补偿贸易合同)

人身(personal right)方面包括有:

legacy-support agreement (遗赠抚养协议) divorce agreement (离婚协议)。

  • .合同起草工作须知

INSTRUCTIONS OF DRAFTING OUT OF CONTRACT

Before You Write the First Word 第一部分:在动笔之前

  • .Ask your client to list the deal points. This can be in the form of a list, outline or narration. Doing this will help the client focus onthe terms of the agreement.

要求你的客户列出合同交易的耍点,也可以说是合同的清单、目录或概述。这一招首先帮助你的客户弄清 合同的重点所在。

  • .Engage your client in “what if* scenarios. A good contract will anticipate many possible factual situations and express the parties’ understanding in case those facts arise. Talking to your client about this will generate many issues you may not olhenvise consider.

让你的客户提供一些假设可能发生的情况。好的合同不仅能够预见到许多可能发生的情况,而旦还能清楚 地描述出发生这些情况后合同双方的立场。和客户聊这些情况将有助于你发现一些你可能没有考虑到的问

  • .Ask your client for a similar contract. Frequently, clients have had similar transactions in (he past or they have access to contracts for similar transactions.

请求你的客户提供类似的合同。通常情况下,客户都保留着过去的交易记录或者是类似合同。

  • .Search your office computer or the Internet for a similar form. Many times you can find a similar form on your computer. It may be one you prepared for another client or one you negotiated with another lawyer. Just remember to find and replace the old client’s name. Starting with an existing form saves lime and avoids the errors of typing. 在办公室的电脑中或是在因特网上搜索类似的合同范本。通常你会在你的电脑上找到你想要的东西,这些 类似的合同范本要么是你给其他客户准备的,要么是你和其他的律师共同协商起草的。使用这些旧合同可 以为你节省时间和避免打印错误,不过,用这些合同范本时别忘了替换掉老客户的名字。
  • .0btain forms in books or CD-ROM. Typical forms of contracts can be found in form books, such as West’s Legal Forms (a nationwide set) and Florida Jur Forms, as well as in treatises and Florida Bar CLE publications. These can be used as the starting point for drafting the contract or as checklists of typical provisions and wording to include in the contract. Many treatises and form books now come with forms on disk or CD-ROM.

从书中或者是光盘上获取合同范本。典型的合同范本在一些范例书中都可能找到:比如,西方法律文书(全 国版)佛罗里达州文书期刊,另外,在有些论文和佛罗里达州律师协会的法律继续教育出版物中也可以找 到一些。起草合同时,你可以把这些范本当做原始资料,利用其中某些典型的条款和措词。更为方便的是, 许多论文和书中的合同范本都有电子文本储存在磁盘或光盘中。

  • .Don’t let your client sign a letter of intent without this wording. Sometimes clients are anxious to sign something to show good faith before the contract is prepared. A properly worded letter of intent is useful at such times. Just be sure that ihe letter of intent clearly slates that it is not a contract, but that it is merely an outline of possible leans for discussion purposes. See Appendix C.

如果没有特别中明,不要让你的客户在意向书上签字。有时候,在合同未准备好之前,客户为了表示诚意, 往往急于签署某些东西,当然,在这种情况下,如果客户急于签署的是有特别申明的意向书,这也是可以 的,但一定要注明:本意向书并非合同,只是双方为了更好地沟通协商,而拟定的对未来条款的概述。类 似意向书的范例见附录C。

Writing that First Word 第二部分:开始起草合同

  • .Start with a simple, generic contract form. The form in Appendix A is such a form. It provides a solid starting point for the stnicture of the contract. Like a house, a contract must have a good, solid foundation.

从简单、典型的合同入手。附录A就是一个简单、典型的合同,它提供了一个合同的基本支架。像房子一 样,一个合同必须有一个牢固的根基。

  • .State the correci legal names of the parties in the first paragraph. As obvious as this is, it is one of the most common problems in contracts. For individuals, include full first and last name, and middle initials if available, and other identifying information, if appropriate, such as Jr., M.D., etc. For corporations, check with the Secretary of State where incorporated.

在合同的第一段要写清楚双方的名称。,这是个简单而又不得不引起重视的问题。如果是个人,要写清姓和 名,中间有大写字母和其他身份信息的,也要注明,例如:等等;如果是公司,为避免弄错,写名称 时可以到公司注册地的相应机构去核对一下。

  • .Identify the parties by nicknames. Giving each party a nickname in the first paragraph will make the conlract easier to read. For example, James W. Martin would be nicknamed “Martin.”

确定合同双方的别称(简称)。为便于阅读,一般要在合同的第一•段为双方弄一个别称,如:将詹姆匕马丁 简写为”马丁”。

  • Be careful when using legal terms for nicknames. Do not use” ContractorHas a nickname unless that party is legally a contractor. Do not use “Agent” unless you intend for that party to be an agent, and if you do, then you belter specify the scope of authority and other agency issues to avoid future disagreements.

使用法定术语作为双方当事人的别称时,要小心。除非一方当事人在法定上就是承包人,否则不要将”承包 人”作为其别称。同样,除非你想让一方当事人成为法定上的代理人,否则不要称其为“代理人”,如果坚持 要用,最好明确一下代理范围并找到其他可以避免将来争执的方案。

  • .Include a blank for the date in the first paragraph. Putting ihe date in ihe first paragraph makes it easy to find after the contract is signed. It also makes it easy to describe the contract in other documents in a precise way, sucli as the MDecember 20, 2000, Contract for Sale of Real Estate.H

在合同的第一段要为书写签约时间留下空格。把签约时间放在第一段,当合同签署后,你就能够很容易地 找到它,而且,这样做还可以给你在其他相关文件中准确地描述这个合同提供帮助,范例如:不动产买卖 合同,订立于2000年12月20日

  • .Include to provide background. Recitals are the “whereas” clauses that precede the body of a contract. They provide a simple way to bring the contractus reader (partyJudge or jury) up to speed on what the contract is about, who the parties are, why they are signing a contract, etc. The first paragraph in the body of the contract can incorporate the recitals by reference and state that they are true and correct. This will avoid a later argument as to whether or not there cilals are a legally binding part of the conlract.

书写引述语。引述语是指那些放在合同主体前血的”鉴于”条款。书写此类条款的目的是为了让读者(通常指 合同双方,法官,陪审团)很快地了解到合同的主要内容是什么,合同双方是谁,以及他们为什么签订合 同,等等。当然,合同主体的第一段也可以加上引述语并陈述其是真实准确的,如果这样做了,合同双方 将来就不会争执:引述语作为合同的i部分是否具有法律效力?

  • .Outline the contract by writing out and underlining paragraph headings in their logical order. The paragraphs should flow in logical, organized fashion. It is not necessary to write them all at once: you can write them as you

 

think of them. Try to group related concepts in the same paragraphs or in adjacent paragraphs. For example, write an employment contract’s initial paragraph headings like this:

.按逻辑顺序列出合同段落的标题词.合同的段落是按一定的逻辑顺序组织起来的,当然,你并不需要i下子 列出所有段落的标题词,想到多少就写多少,不过,这些标题词要力求总结出每个段落或相关段落的内容。 比如:撰写劳动合同时列出的标题词就像下面这些:

Recitals.弓 I 述语

Employment.聘用

Duties.职责

Term.期限

Compensation.赔偿

  • .ConipIctc each paragraph by writing the contract terms that apply to that paragraph. This is simple. You learned this in elementary school 1. Just explain in words what the parties agree to do or not do paragraph by paragraph. 在撰写每一段时要注意内容集中,不要东拉西扯,是的,这很简单,你可能上小学时就学过,但我还是要 提醒你,要集中火力,i段一段地分别说明合同双方同意做什么,不同意做什么。
  • .Keep a pad at hand to remember clauses to add. Il is normal to think of additional clauses, wording and issues while writing a contract. Jotthese down on a pad as you write; they are easily forgotten. Also keep your client’s outline and other forms in front of you as you write, and check off items as you write them.

放一个便笺簿在手边,以便记下需要添加的条款。在书写合同的同时,你可能随时会想到一些需要添加条 款、措词和问题,要尽快记在便笺簿上,因为他们太容易忘了。另外,你最好将客户列出的要点和一些类 似的合同范本也放在眼前,以便在书写过程中随时查对。

  • .Repeat yourself only when repetilion is necessary to improve clarity. Ambiguity is created by saying the same thing more than once; it is almost impossible to say it twice without creating ambiguity. Only if the concept is a difficult one should you write it in more than one way. In addition, if you use an example to clarify a difficult concept or formula, be sure that all possible meanings are considered and that the example is accurate and consistent with the concept as worded.

.除非是为了更清晰地说明问题,否则不要在合同中重狂陈述某个内容。将一个事实来回地说很容易让人模 棱两可。如果你将一个概念重发地解释,那理解起来就更有困难。另外,如果你想通过一个例子来阐明一 个难以理解的概念或规则时,i定要考虑到其所有的含义、这个例子的准确性以及它和概念的相符性。

What to Watch Out for When Writing 第三部分:撰写时的注意事项

  • .TitIe it ^Contract/1Do not leave this one to chance. If your client wants a contract, call it a contract. A judge now sitting on the federal bench once ruled that a document entitled “Proposal” was not a contract even though signed by both parties. The lesson learned is, “Say what you mean.” If you intend the document to be a legally binding contract, use the word ℃oniractH in the title.

.标题上注明“合同“两字°不要为碰运气而忽略这个°如果你的客户需要合同,就要注明是合同。一个仍在 联邦法院里任职的法官就曾经裁定:有双方签字,但标有“建议书”的文件并非合同。这给我们的教训就是, 你怎么想,就应该怎么说.如果你想让你的文件成为具有法律效力的合同,就要在标题中注明“合同”字样。

  • . Write in short sentences. Short sentences arc easier to understand than long ones. .写短句子,因为短句子比长句子让人更容易理解。
  • .Write in active tense, rather than passive. Active tense sentences are shorter and use words more efficiently, and their meaning is more apparent. Example of active: ”Sellers shall sell the Properly to Buyer.MExample of passive: “The Property shall be sold to Buyer by Seller/1

用主动语态而不用被动语态。相对而言,主动语态的句子更简短,措词更精练,表达更明白。还是让我们 来来看一个例子吧,主动语态的句子:卖方将把此物卖给买方;被动语态的句子:此物将被卖方卖给买方。

  • .Don’t use the word “biweekly.” It has two meanings: twice a week and every other week. The same applies to

Mbimonthly.M Instead, write11 every other wcckH or “twice a week.”

不要用“双周”之类的词,因为这有可能产生歧义

是两周还是每隔一周?类似的词还有“双月“,所以最好这样写:“两周“或“每隔一周二

  • .Don?t say things like Mactivc tennites and organisms11. Avoid ambiguity by writing either Hactivc termites and active organisms11or “organisms and active termites.*’ When adding a modifier like “active” before a compound of nouns like “termites and organisms0, be sure to clarify whether you intend the modifier lo apply to both nouns or just the first one. If you intend it to apply to both, use parallel construction and write the modifier in front of each noun. If you intend it to apply to just one noun, place that one noun at the end of the list and the modifier directly in front of it.

不要说”活动者的白蚁和有机体”之类的话,为了避免模棱两可,不好这样写:“活动着的白蚁和活动着的有 机体”或是“白蚁和活动着的有机体”。当i组名词(如”白蚁和有机体”)前石一一个修饰语(如”活动着的”) 时,你一定要弄清楚这个修饰语是修饰两个名词还是仅仅修饰第一个名词。如果是修饰两个词,可以用排 比的手法分别在这两个词之前加上修饰语,如果你只想修饰一个名词,那么你就应该把这个词放在这组词 的最后,然后在它的前面加上修饰语。

  • .Don’t say “Lessor” and “Lessee.” These arc bad nicknames fbr a lease because they are easily reversed or mistyped. Use “Landlord“ and HTenantu The same applies to lien or and lienee, mortgagor and mortgagee, grantor and grantee, licensor and licensee, party A and party B. This is where you can use your creativity to come up with a different nickname for a party, as long as you use il consistently throughout the contract.

不要说“出租人”和“承租人”。这对一个租赁合同来说是些不好的别称,因为他们容易被颠倒或者出现打 印错误。可以用“房东”和“房客”来代替他们。同样,在合同中也不耍说留置权人和留置人,抵押权人 和抵押人,保证人和被保证人,许可人和被许可人,当事人A和当事人B……到底怎么说,这就要看你驾驭 语言的能力了,不过,要把握的一条原则,即在整个合同中,对合同一方只能用一个别称。

  • .Watch out when using “herein.HDoes “wherever used herein*’ mean any where in the contract or anywhere in the paragraph? Clarify this ambiguity if it matters.

使用术语“本文(herein,也可译为”“在这里”)时要当心。为了避免含糊不清,使用“本文”时最好特别 申明一下“本文”是指整个合同,还是指其所在的某一段落。

  • . Write numbers as both words and numerals: len (10). This will reduce the chance for errors.

.写数目时要文字和阿拉伯数字并用,如:拾(10)。这将减少一些不经意的错误。

  • .When you write “including“ consider adding nbut not limited to.nUnless you intend the list (o be all-inclusive, you had better clarify your intent that it is merely an example.

如果你想用“包括”这个词,就要考虑在其后加上“但不限于…..”的分句。除非你能够列出所有被包括的项,否 则最好用”但不限于….”的分句,来说明你只是想举个例子。

  • .Don?t rely on the rules of grammar. The rules of grammar that you learned in school arc not universal. The judge or jury interpreting the meaning of your contract may have learned different rules. Write the contract so that no matter what rules they learned, the conlract is clear and unambiguous. Follow this test for clear writing: Remove all periods and commas, then read it. Choosing the right words and placing them in the right place makes the writing clear without punctuation.

不要依赖于语法规则。那些你在学校里得到的语法规则并不是放之四海而皆准的东西,因为有权力来解释 此合同的法官或陪审团成员学的语法规则可能和你学的不一样,但不管学的是什么规则,撰写合同都要遵 循一个基本原则:简洁、明确。检测你写的东西是否达到这个要求有个好办法,那就是去掉所有的句号和 逗号,然后去读它。在没有标点符号的情况下,选择正确的词语放在正确的位置上,这将使你写出来的东 西更简明,更流畅。

  • .Don’t be creative with words. Contract writing is not creative writing and is not meant to provoke reflective thoughts or controversies about nuances of meaning. Contract writing is clear, direct and precise. Therefore, use common words and common meanings. Write for the common man and the common woman.

不要创造词语。合同文书不是创造性的作品,也就不能因为意思的细微差别而引起思考或争论。合同文书 应该是清晰、直接而准确的。因此,耍使用普通的词语,表达普通的意思,为普通人撰写合同。

  • .Be consistent in using words. If you refer to the subject matter of a sales contract as “goods” use that term throughout the contraci; do not alternately call them “goods” and “items.” Maintaining consistency is more important than avoiding repetition. Don'(worry about putting the reader to sleep; worry about the opposing lawyer a year from now hunting for ambiguities to get your contract into court.

用词一致。在一•份销售合同中,如果你想用“货物”来指整个合同的标的物,就不要时而称它们为“货物”, 时而乂改称它们为“产品二保持用词一致性比避免重复更加重要。不要担心这会让读者打瞌睡:你应该提 防的是对方律师会因为含糊不清的合同而将你告上法庭。

 

  • .Be consistent in grammar and punctuation. The rules of grammar and punctuation you learned may differ from others, but you had better be consistent in your use of them. Be aware of such things as where you put ending quote marks, whether you place commas after years and states, and similar variations in style.

在文法和标点符号上保持一致。你可能学过许多不同类的文法和标点符号规则,但在使用它们时最好保持 一致。要特别注意句末的引号、时间和地点之后的逗号以及文风的相似性。

  • .Consider including choice of law, venue -selection, and attorneys fee clauses. If your contract gets litigated, you might as well give your client some “ammunition” for the fight. Examples of these clauses appear in Appendices A and C.

可以在合同中加入准据法、审判地、律师费等条款。有了这些条款,一旦合同引起诉讼,你就已经为了你 的客户打这场诉讼战准备了一些“弹药”。类似的条款见附录A和B。

Write for (he Judge and Jury 第四部分:要为法官和陪审团考虑

  • . Assume the reader is a knowledgeable layman. If your writing is so clear that a layman could understand it, then it is less likely il will end up in court.

要假设合同的读者是一个受过教育的外行,如果你书写的合同简明得连一个外行都能理解,那么即使到了法 庭上,,你也不用害怕。

  • .Define a word by capitalizing it and putting it in quotes. Capitalizing a word indicates that you intend it to have a special meaning. The following are two sample clauses for defining terms:

Wherever used in this contract, the word “Goods” shall mean the goods that Buyer has agreed to purchase from Seller under this contract. Buyer hereby agrees to purchase from Seller ten (10) frying pans, hereinafter called the “Goods.”

强调一个合同术语可以这样做:加上双引号并将其开头的字母大写。将一个词语的开头字母大写表明你想 让它有一个特别的意思。下面有两个定义术语的例子:

一.本合同中使用的“货物”(”Goods”)是指买方已经同意向卖方购买的货物;

二.本合同中买方同意向卖方购买的拾(10)只平底锅,即下文中的“货物”(”Goods”)。

  • .Define words when first used. Instead of writing a section of definitions at the beginning or end of a contract, consider defining terms and concepts as they first appear in the contract. This will make it easier for the reader to follow.

第一次使用某个术语时就要下定义。定义合同术语不是在合同的开头,也不是在合同的结尾,而是在这个 术语第一次出现的时候,这样做,有利于读者更好地理解合同。

  • .Explain technical terms and concepts. Remember that the parties might understand technical jargon, but the judge and jury who inteipret and apply the contract do not. Therefore, explain the contract^ terms and concepts within the contract itself. Let the contract speak for itself from within its four corners.

勤于解释合同中的术语和概念。要记住合同双方的当事人可能会理解合同中某些专用术语,但法官和陪审 团却可能一无所知。所以撰写合同时要让合同自己为自己释义。

Keep Your Client Informed While You Write 第五部分:书写时要常和你的客户沟通

  • .All contracts should come with a cover letter. This gives you a place to instruct your client on how to use and sign the contract.

所有的合同都应该有一封说明书•用来告诉你的客户如何使用和签署合同。

  • .Tcll your client the ideas that come as you write. Many ideas will occur to you as you write: things that could go wrong with the deal, things that might happen in the future, things that happened in the past, ways to structure things better. Write these in your letter to the client.

告诉客户你在撰写过程中的一些想法。比如:哪些事情可能会随着交易变得很遭,哪些事可能会在将来发 生,哪些事情已经发生了,哪些可以让事情朝好的方向发展的方法…..你最好在给客户的说明书中都将这些 都写上。

  • .Inform your client of the risks. Writing a letter lo the client as you write the contract is the perfect way to inform the client of the risks and rewards of entering into the conlract. Frequently, problems do not become apparent until time is spent trying to word a contract.

告诉客户合同的风险所在。在撰写合同时,你最好向客户说订立合同需要承担的风险和能够得到的利益。 通常情况下,只要你花时间来起草合同,你就会发现真正的风险在哪里。

What To Do After the First Draft Is Written 第六部分:完成初稿后做什么

38.Check spelling, paragraph numbering, and cross references both manually and with your word processor’s spelling and grammar checker. This almost goes without saying today, especially since Microsoft Word now checks your spelling and grammar as you type. (Unfortunately it also changes “per stirpes” to “per stupid** if you fail to watch it closcly.)And now there arc even computer programs that check contract documents for undefined terms. Deal Proof is packaged with Corel WordPerfect for law offices, and DocProof Reader is available for download for MS Word97 and 2000.

核实合同的拼写情况、段落序号以及上下文的注解,你可以自己手动来做,也可以用文字编辑软件中的拼 写和语法检查功能来完成,特别是自从有了微软的word软件后,做这样的工作你似乎不要费多少精力(但 机器右时也不可靠,如果你不看仔细,它就会把”perstirpes”改变为”perstupid”)。现在,这类专业的软件 甚至可以帮你检测到合同中没有释义的术语,如:Corel公司专门为法律办公开发的文字处理软件包中的 DualProof软件,还有可供word97和word2000下载安装的DocProofReader软件。

39.1-et your secretary or paralegal read it. Not only will your staffs frequently find spelling and grammar errors missed by your word processor’s spell checker, but they will find inconsistencies and confusing areas that you missed when drafting.

让你的秘书或者助手阅读你草拟的合同。你的同事不仅能通过文字处理软件来帮你检查到你没在查到的拼 写和语法错误,而且他们还能发现你起草时没有察觉到的矛盾和混淆之处。

  • . Stamp HDraft #1 6/22/2000Hon it. This may be the first of many drafts, so avoid confusion early by numbering and dating all drafts at the top of the first page. It is also a good idea to write “DRAFT“ across the face of each page to preclude the possibility of an impatient client signing a draft rather than waiting for the final version.

在合同上注明“第一•稿于200年6月22日“,笫一•稿完成后,可能还要草拟几个版本,为了避免他们之间相 互混淆,最好在每份草稿首页的顶部注上序号和起草时间。另外,在每一个版本的封面上注明“草稿”字 样,也能够避免你那急躁的客户不等到最后的定稿文本就急于签字。

  • .Let your client read it. Letting the client in on reading the first draft assures that your drafting will stay in tune with the client- swishes.

让你的客户读你草拟的合同。你的客户读第一稿,可以确保你的起草的东西和客户的愿望相符。

  • .Save the drafts as multiple files on your computer. If you save the first draft on your computer as two files, you will have one file identified as the first draft and the other identified as the current version. This can be done by naming the current version Mcontract,rand the first draft as Contract.dl.H Then, subsequent versions can be named Md2H, Mcontract.d3,M etc., where the “d” in the extension indicates draft. (Of course, if you’re not using WordPerfects. 1 for DOS, as 1 do, you can use long file names to show the conlracl name, draft number and draft date, such as ^Contract Smith Jones draft2 dated 6 22 2000.n)

在电脑中将草拟的合同多保存几个复件。如果你将第一稿合同存了两份在电脑中,那么其中的一份可以用 来存档,另一份则可以用来继续修改。用来存档的文件可以命名为“合同草1”。用来修改的文件可以命名为 “合同”。以此类推,以后修改的版本就命名为”合同.草2“,”合同.草3″,等等。带”草”字的扩展名表示此合 同是草拟版本。(当然,你可能不经常用DOS下的WordPerfect 5.1软件,我是经常用的,你也可以用一个 较长的文件名来清楚地表达出草拟合同的名称、编号及起草时间,范例如:”史密斯.琼斯于2000年6月22 日草拟的第二版合同

  • .Compare the current version to prior versions. If you save draft versions, it is very easy to compare one version to another using the word processor’s compare feature or using the Compare Rite computer program. When you compare “contract.d 1” to “contract.d2”, save the comparison as “contract.c2r’ and print it to show the client what changes were made.

将当前的草拟版本和以前的版本进行比较。如果你存了很多合同的草拟版本,那么你就可以很容易地用文 字处理软件或者是ComparcRitc软件来比较分析两个合同版本。当你用软件比较”合同,草1“和”合同.草2”两 个版本时,最好将软件的分析结果打印出来送给客户看,让他知道变化在哪里。

How to Print and Sign the Final Draft

第七部分:怎样打印和签署最后的定稿合同。

  • .Print the contract on 24 pound bond paper instead of 20 pound copier paper. Using a heavy bond paper will make it easy to tell the original contract from copies. It will also last longer.

用24磅的铜板纸而不是用20磅的复印纸来打印合同。用厚一点的纸不仅复印副本很容易,而且,它被保 存的时间也要长一些。

 

  • .Print on pages using the same paper, and if pages are changed, reprint the documeni using the same paper. This will avoid an argument that pages were substituted after the contract was signed.

打印整个合同要用同样的纸,如果打印过程中纸发生了改变,一定要用同样的纸再打印一次。这样做,对 方就不会说合同在签署后被偷换了。

  • .Sign the contract in blue ink, not black ink. This, loo. will make it easier to differentiate the signed original contract from photocopies.

最好用蓝墨水而不是用黑墨水来签署合同,因为蓝墨水可以很容易地让人区别出哪个是合同正本,哪个是 影印副本。

  • nitial every page of the contract. Having each party initial each page of the contract will make it less likely that anyone could claim a page was changed after the contract was signed.

让双方在每页合同上签字,这样做可以避免有人怀疑合同签署后被更改过。

  • dentify the parties and witnesses who sign by providing blank lines below their signature lines for their printed names and addresses. This will make it easier to find the witnesses if the contract is contested. And remember to include two witnesses for commercial leases.

在合同签名栏的下方留下i些空白行,以便合同双方和见证人填写他们的名字和地址。这样,一旦合同引 起纠纷,就能很容易地找到证人。要记住,一般的商业租赁需要两个见证人。

  • e sure that corporate officers include their titles, the corporation name and the word “as.” Failure to do this can result in personal liability of the officer. The proper way to sign in a representative capacity is as follows:

签名者如果是公司官员,一定要写上他们的职务和其所在公司的名称.不这样做就可能导致这个官员个人 承担责任。签约代表签名的正确方法如下:

ABC Corporation, a Florida coiporation ABC 公司,佛罗里州分公司

By:签约代表:

John Jones, as its President公司总裁:史密斯,琼斯

64.关于喜马拉雅条款

喜马拉雅条款(HimalayaClause),乂称“分立契约、赔偿以及抗辩、免责事项及责任限制条款”,(Sub-contracting, Indemnity and Certain Defenses, Exemptions and Limitations Clause),源自 1953 年英国”阿德勒诉狄克逊”一案。 该案中,阿德勒夫人是一•名游客,在搭乘P&0公司的一艘名为喜马拉雅号游轮时,于下船时因舷梯断裂而 摔伤,由于阿德勒夫人持有的船票上载有承运人的疏忽免责条款,故阿德勒夫人转而以侵权行为对船长和 水手提起诉讼。

 

船长和水手认为,作为船公司的雇员,他们有•权享受船票上关于承运人免责的规定。法院判决认为,船票 上的免责条款是船公司和乘客之间签订的,有权援引该条款的只能是该契约的当事人。作为船公司的雇佣 人员无权享受不是由他签订的合同中免责条款的权利,结果是阿德勒夫人胜诉。现在,船公司为了避免此 类事件的发生,通常会在合同中增加i条款,明确规定承运人的免责和限制赔偿金额的权利同样适用于雇 佣人员和代理人,这就是所谓的喜马拉雅条款。《维斯比规则》和《汉堡规则》都承认了喜马拉雅条款的合 法性。

《维斯比规则》第3条第2款对此作了明确规定:“如果这种诉讼是对承运人的雇佣人或代理人(该雇佣人 或代理人不是独立的订约人)所提起,该雇佣人或代理人便有•权适用承运人按照《海牙规则》的各项抗辩 或责任限制的规定。”

例:喜玛拉雅条款Himalaya Clause

本合同规定的有利于打捞方或公司的全部例外、豁免、辩护、免除、责任限制、赔偿、优惠和条件将同样 适用于打捞方或公司各自的分包人、经营人,船东(如果公司是光船承租人)、船长、高级船员和船员;也适 用于各自的母公司、子公司、分公司或与其在同一管理下的所有法人团体,以及团体中的全部董事、高级 职员、工作人员和代理人;也适用于代表双方实行合同的所有工作人员,代理人和分包人。打捞方或公司 应充当上述人员、实体和船舶的代理人或受托人,并代表他们的利益,但目的仅限于为了将利益扩大给上 述人员、实体和船舶。

All exceptions, exemptions, defenses, immunities, limitations of liability, indemnities, privileges and conditions provided by this Agreement for the benefit of the Contractor or the Company shall also apply to their respective sub-contractors, operators, the Vessel’s owners (if the Company is the demise/bareboat charterer), masters, officers and crews and to all bodies corporate parent of, subsidiary to, affiliated with or under the same management as either of them, as well as all directors, officers, servants and agents of the same and to all parties performing services within ihe scope of this Agreement for or on behalf of ihe Contractor or the Company as servants, agents and sub-conlractors of such parties. The Contractor or the Company shall be deemed to be acting as agent or tnislee of and for the benefil of all such persons, entities and vessels set forth above but only for the limited purpose of contracting for the extension of such benefits to such persons, bodies and vessels.

国际保赔协会集团(IG)和波罗的海国际航运公会(BIMCO)修订并审杳了用于提单和其他运输合同中的喜 马拉雅条款(Himalayaclause)。协会审核了相关条款的措辞,并且建议会员修改右关的运输合同,并入该新 条款。

喜马拉雅条款是在合同中赋予非合同方以利益的条款。在运输合同(例如提单)中,该利益是指尽可能免 除运输合同承运人所雇佣的受雇人、代理人和独立合同人时合同的相对方(例如托运人、收货人、提单持 有人)所承担的责任或者使其享有承运人所享有的抗辩权利。

国际保赔协会集团(IG)和波罗的海国际航运公会(BIMCO)修订的

喜马拉雅条款Himalaya Clause (全文)

  • It is hereby expressly agreed that no servant, agent, direct or indirect subcontractor or other party employed by or on behalf of the Carrier, or whose services or equipment have been used in order to perform this contract (such persons so employed, or whose services or equipment have been used, hereinafter termed “Servant”) shall in any circumstances whatsoever be under any liability whatsoever to the shipper, consignee, receiver or other party to this 250/781

 

contract (hereinafter tenned ”Merchant”)fbr any loss, damage or delay of whatsoever kind arising or resuliing directly or indirectly from any act, neglect or default on the Servant’s part while acting in the course of or in connection with the performance of this contract.

在此明确同意,承运人的受雇人、代理人,直接或者间接分合同人,由承运人雇佣或代表承运人利益行事 的其他人,或者其服务或设备被使用以履行本合同的人(这些被雇佣的人,或其服务或设备被使用的人以 下称为“受雇人”)在任何情况下对于其直接或者间接的行为、疏忽或过失所导致的托运人、收货人、提货 人或本合同下的其他相关方(以下称为“货方”)所遭受的任何货物灭失、损坏以及迟延交付都不承担任何 责任;

  • Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions in this clause, every exemption, limitation, condition and liberty contained herein (other than Art III Rule 8 of the Hague/Hague-Visby Rules if incorporated herein) and every right, exemption from liability, defence and immunity of whatsoever nature applicable (o the Carrier or to which the Carrier is entitled hereunder including the right to enforce any jurisdiction or arbitration provision contained herein shall also be available and shall exlend to every such Servant, who shall be entitled to enforce the same against the Merchant.

在不影响前述规定的情况下,合同规定的任何免责、限制、条件和自由(不包括海牙/海牙-维斯比规则第三 条第八款,如果其己并入),以及承运人所享有的任何权利、免责、抗辩和豁免,包括执行合同中任何管辖 权或仲裁条款的权利都被赋予这些“受雇人”以对抗货方;

  • The Merchant undertakes that no claim or allegation whether arising in contract, bailment, tort or otherwise shall be made against any Servant which imposes or attempts to impose upon any of them or any vessel owned or chartered by any of them any liability whatsoever in connection with this contract whether or not arising out of negligence on the part of such Servant. The Servant shall also be entitled to enforce the foregoing covenant against the Merchant; and

货方保证无论是否由于“受雇人”的疏忽,都不能以合同、托管、侵权或者其他理由向或试图向“受雇人” 或他们拥有/租用的船舶,就与运输合同有关的货物运输责任提出索赔或者据称的索赔;“受雇人”也有权以 上述约定进行抗辩。

  • The Merchant undertakes that if any such claim or allegation should nevertheless be made, he will indemnify the Carrier against all consequences (hereof.

货方保证一旦提出索赔或者据称的索赔,货方将补偿承运人由此产生的一切损失;

(d) For the purpose of sub-paragraphs (a)-(d) of this clause the Carrier is or shall be deemed to be acting as agent or trustee on behalf of and for the benefit of the Servant who shall to this extent be or be deemed to be a party to this conlract.

在本条(a)・(d)款中,承运人是或者应被视为是代表“受雇人”或为“受雇人”利益而行事的代理人或受托人, “受雇人”在此情况下是或者应被视为是本运输合同的一方当事人。

 

65.常见的合同通用条款

GENERALTERMS AND CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT

DATED日期

CONTRACT NAME合同名称 by and between合同双方 PARTY A NAME PARTY A中方名称 and与

PARTY B NAME

PARTY B乙方名称

TABLE OF CONTENT

PRELIMINARY STATEMENT 前言

  1. DEFINITIONS 定义
  2. [OPERATIVE CLAUSES]具体操作条款
  3. CONDITIONS PRECEDENT如有必要,根据交易具体情况设定相应先决条件
  4. REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES 陈述和担保[保证]
  5. TERM合同期限
  6. TERMINATION 合同终止
  7. CONFIDENTIALITY 保密义务
  8. BREACH OF CONTRACT 违约
  9. FORCE MAJEURE 不可抗力
  10. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES 争议的解决
  11. APPLICABLE LAW 适用法律
  12. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 其他规定

THIS CONTRACT(4‘Contracf’)is made in [city and province], China on this day of ,200 by and between [Party A name]JParty A entity form] established and existing under the laws of China, wilh its legal address at [addressl (hereinafter referred to as “Party A”), and [Party B name], [Party B entity fbnnj organized and existing under the laws of [Party Bjurisdiction of incoporation] with its legal address at [address] (hereinafter referred to as “Party B”). Party A and Parly B shall hereinafter be referred to individually as a “Party ” and collectively as ihe 八Parties”. 本合同于 年 月 日由以下两方在[地点]签订:

[甲方名称],i家根据中华人民共和国法律组建及存续的[甲方组织形式],法定地址为[甲方法定地址] (以下简称‘‘甲方”):

[乙方名称],i家根据[乙方所在国]法律组建及存续的[乙方组织形式],法定地址为[乙方法定地址] (以下简称“乙方

甲乙双方以下单独称为“一方”,合称为“双方”。

PRELIMINARY STATEMENT 前言

[add background information if appropriate][视交易具体情况决定是否应介绍合同背景]

After friendly consultations conducted in accordance with the principles of equality and mutual benefit, the Parties have agreed to [describe subject matter of the Contract] in accordance with Applicable laws and the provisions of this Contract.

双方本着平等互利的原则,经友好协商,依照「相关法律名称]以及其他有关法律.同意按照本合同的条 款,[描述合同标的]。

Now the Parties Hereby Agree as follows:双方现协议如卜:

  1. Definitions 定义

Unless the terms or context of this contract otherwise provide, all term used in this Contract shall have the meanings set out in Schedule A hereto.

除本合同条款或上下文另有所指,木合同中所有相关用语的定义见附录甲。

  1. [OPERATIVE CLAUSES)[具体操作条款]
    • Representatins and Warranties [陈述和担保条款]
    • Each party represents and warrants to the other Party that on the date hereof:

双方分别向对方陈述并担保,于本合同签订H:

  • it is (an independent legal person ] duly organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the place of its establishment;

根据其成立地的法律,该方[为独立法人、]依法定程序设立、有效存续、且相关手续完备

  • it has full authority to enter into this Contract and to perform its obligations hereunder;

该方有全权订立本合同以及履行本合同项下义务:

  • il has auihorized ils representative to sign this Contract and from and after the Effective Date the provisions of this Contract shall be legally binding upon it;

该方已授予其授权代表签署合同的权力,从生效日开始,本合同的条款对其具有法律约束力

  • its execution of this Contract and its performance of its obligations hereunder

(i)will not violate any provision of its business license, articles of incorporation, articles of association or similar organizational documens;

  • will not violate any Applicable I-aw or any governmental authorization or approval; and
  • will not violate or result in a default under any contract to which it is a party or to which it is subject;

该方签订本合同以及履行本合同项下义务:

  • 不会违反其营业执照、成立协议、章程或类似组织文件的任何规定
  • 不会违反有关法律或任何政府的授权或批准;并且
  • 不会违反其作为当事人一方(或受之约束)的其他任何合同,也不会导致其被认定在该合同项下

未想约:

(c) no lawsuit, arbitration or other legal or governmental proceeding is pending or, to its knowledge, threatened against it that would affect its ability to peiforni its obligations under this CTontract; and

不存在将影响该方履行本合同项下义务的能力的、已经发生旦尚未了结的诉讼、仲裁申诂或其他司法或行 政程序,亦不存在将有的上述诉讼或程序:并且

(f) it has disclosed to the other Party all documents issued by and governmental department that may have a material adverse effect on its ability to full perform its obligations under this Contract, and the documents previously provided by it to the other Party do not contain any misstatements or omissions of material facts.

该方已经向对方提供可能对其全面履行其在本合同项下义务的能力造成雨 :大不利影响的相关政府机构颁发 的所有文件,并且该方此前提供给对方的文件中没有对任何重要事实的不实陈述或者漏述。

2.3 consequences of Inaccuracy in Representations

if any of the above representations and warranties of a Party are not accurate in all material respects on the date hereof, then such Party shall be in breach of this Contract.

如果在本合同签订日,一•方的上述陈述和担保的任何一项与实际情况有实质性不符,则构成该方违约。

[Add undertakings if appropriate][如有必要,根据交易具体情况设定相应保证条款]

Term合同期限

  • Term合同期限

Subject to the provisions of Article .2,thc term of the Contract (“Term”) shall be [—] years, commencing on the Effective Date.

本合同期限(“本合同期限”)为[]年,于[合同生效日]开始,并于[合同到期日](“合同到期日”) 届满。

2 Extension

The Term shall expire automatically on the Expiration Date, unless extended for an additional term of [_] years through a written contract signed by the authorized representatives of the Parties at least [sixty (60)] days prior to the Expiration Date.

合同期限的续展

本合同于到期日自动终止,除非在到期日之前双方授权代表至少提前[六十(60〉]天签署书面协议,续展本 合同期限。

Termination合同终止

I Tennination合同终止

  • This Contract shall tenninate upon the expiration of the Tenn unless extended pursuant to Article (Term). 本合同于合同到期日终止,除非双方按照第[I条(合同期限的续展)的规定续约。
  • This Contract may be tenninated at any time prior to expiration of the Term by the mutual written contract of the Parlies.

本合同其限届满之前,双方可通过书面协议随时终止本合同。

  • At any time prior to the expiration of the Term, a Party (“Notifying Party “) may terminate this Contract through notice to the other Party in writing if:

本合同期限届满之前,如果发生以下情形之一,一方(“通知方”)可随时向对方发出书面通知后终止本合 同:

  • he other Party materially breaches this contract, and such breach is not cured within the Cure Period granted pursuant to Article (Remedies for Breach of Contract); or

对方违反本合同项下某一主耍义务,旦未在通知方根据条(违约救济)规定发出的书面违约通知中规定的 补救期内对违约予以补救;

  • the other Party becomes bankrupt, or is the subject of proceedings for liquidation or dissolution, or ceases to carry on business or becomes unable to pay its debts as they come due; or

对方破产,或者成为解散或清算程序的对象,或者歇业,或者无力偿还到期债务:

  • the conditions or consequences of Force Majeure (as hereinafter defined) which have a material adverse effect on the affected Party’s ability to perform continue fbr a period in excess of six (6) months and the Parlies have been unable to find an equitable solution pursuant to Article (Consequences of Force Majeure) hereof; or

 

不可抗力(如下文所定义)事件或其影响持续超过六(6)个月,旦双方无法按照第〔]条(不可抗力的后果) 的条款达成一项公正的解决方案;

  • a fundamental provision of this Conlract (wilhoul which one or both of the Parties would not have entered into the Contract) is declared or becomes invalid under Applicable Law.

根据有关法律,本合同的某i基本条款(如果没行该条款则一方或双方不会订立本合同)被判定为无效或 成为无效条款;

  • (insert other conditions triggering temination as appropriate]

[根据情况设定其他导致合同终止的条款]

2 Continuing Obligations 双方持续的义务

The provisions of Article (Termination), Article (Breach of contract) (but only with respect to claims arising prior to the tennination hereof or with respect to other continuing obligations), Article (Confidentiality) and Article (Settlement of Disputes) shall survive the termination of this contract.

以下各条的条款在本合同终止后继续有效:第[]条(合同终止),第[I条(违约)(但其效力仅限于本合同 终止前发生的违约事件以及违反其他持续义务的情形),第[]条(保密义务),以及第[]条(争议的解决)。

Confidentiality 保密义务

  • From time to lime prior to and during the term of this Contract either Party (”‘disclosing Party “) has disclosed or may disclose Confidential Information to the other Part);(”Receiving Party “), The receiving Party shall, during the tenn of this Contract and for [_J years thereafter:

本合同订立前以及在本合同期间,一方(“披露方”)曾经或者可能不时向对方(“受方”)披露该方的保 密资料。在本合同期限内以及随后()年间,受方必须:

  • maintain the confidentiality of Confidential Information;对保密资料进行保密;
  • not to use Confidential Infonnation for any purpose other than those specifically set out in this Contract; and 不为除合同明确规定的目的之外的其他目的使用保密资料;

(C) not disclose any such Confidential Information to any person or entity, except lo its employees or employees of its Affiliates, its agents, attorneys, accountants and other advisors who need to know such information to perform their responsibilities and who have signed written confidentiality contracts containing teims at least as stringent as die terms provided in this Article .

除为履行其职责而确有必要知悉保监资料的该方雇员(或其关联机构、该方律师、会计师或其他顾问的雇 员)外,不向其他任何人披露,且上述人员须签署书面保密协议,其中保密义务的严格程序不得低于本条 的规定。

  • The provisions of Article above shall not apply to information that: 上述第[]条的条款对以下信息不适用:
  • can be shown to be known by the receiving Party by written records made prior to disclosure by (he disclosing Party;

受方有在披露方向其披露前存在的书而记录证明其已经掌握;

  • is or becomes public knowledge otherwise than through the receiving Parly’s breach of this Contract; or 并非由于受方违反本合同而已经或者在将来进入公共领域:或者
  • was obtained by the receiving Party from a third party having no obligation of confidentiality wilh respect to such information.

受方从对该信息无保密义务的第三方获得。

  • Each party shall formulate rules and regulations to inform its directors, senior staff, and other employees, and those of (heir Affiliates of (he confidentiality obligation set forth in this Articles .

每一方应制订相应的规章制度,告知该方(以及该方的关联机构)董事、高级职员以及其他雇员本条规定 的保密义务。

  • Upon the expiration or tennination of this Contract, [and in any event upon the disclosing Party ‘s request at any limcl, the receiving Party shall (i) return to the other Party, or at the disclosing Parly’s direction destroy, all materials (including any copies thereof) embodying the other Party’s Confidential Information and (ii) certify in writing to the other Party, within ten days following the other Party’s request, that all of such materials have been rctunicd or destroyed.

本合同终止后(或经披露方随时提出要求),受方应(1)向对方归还(或经对方要求销毁)包含对方保密 资料的所有材料(包括其克印件),并且(2)在对方提出此项要求后十(10)日内向对方书面保证已经归 还或销毁上述材料。

Breach of Contract 违约

  • Remedies for Breach of Contract 违约救济

Except as otherwise provided herein, if a Party (“breaching party”) fails to perform any of its material obligations under this Contact, then the other Parly (“aggrieved party”) may at its option:

除本合同其他条款另有规定外,如果i方(“违约方”)未履行其在本合同项下某项主要义务,则对方(“受 损害方”)除享有有关法律赋予的权利外,还可选择采取以下救济措施:

  • give written notice to the breaching party describing the nature and scope of the breach and demand that the breaching party cure the breach at its cost within a reasonable time specified in the notice (“Cure Period”);and

向违约方发出书面通知,说明违约的性质以及范围,并口要求违约方在通知中规定的合理期限内门费予以 补救;并且

  • if the breaching party fails to cure the breach within ihe Cure period, then in addition to its other rights under Article .1 (c)(i) (Termination) or Applicable Laws, the aggrieved party may claim direct and foreseeable damages arising from the breach.

如果违约方未在该书面通知中规定的补救期内予以补救,则受损害方可就违约引起的可以预见的直接损失 提出索赔。

  • Limitation on Liability 责任限制

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Contract, neither Party shall be liable to ihe other Party for damages for loss of revenues or profits, loss of goodwill or any indirect or consequential damages in connection with the perfonnance or non-performance of this Contract .The aggregate liability of a Party for all claims for any loss, damage or indemnity whatsoever resulting from such Party’s performance or non-pcrfonnancc of this Contract shall in no case exceed United States Dollars (US$ ) or the RMB equivalent thereof.

无论本合同其他条款有何规定,任何一方均不向对方承担因本合同的履行或不履行而造成的收入或利润丧 失、商誉丧失或任何间接或附带性损失的赔偿贵任。在任何情况下,一方因本合同的履行或不履行而造成 的损失、损害或补偿索赔所承担的责任累计总额不得超过Ir美元(US¥【I)或等值的人民币。

Force Majeure不可抗力

  • Definition of Force Majeure 不可抗力的定义

“Force Majeure^ shall mean all eents which are beyond the control of the Parties to this Contract, and which are unforeseen, unavoidable or insurmountable, and which prevent total or partial performance by either of the Parties. Such events shall include earthquakes, typhoons, flood ,fire, war, strikes, riots, acts of governments, changes in law or the application thereof or any other instances which cannot be foreseens, prevented or controlled, including instances which are accepted as Force Majeure in general international commercial practice.

“不可抗力”指超出本合同双方控制范围的、无法预见并且无法避免或无法克服的事件,该事件使得本合 同一方部分或者完全不能履行本合同。这类事件包括但不限地地震、台风、洪水、火灾、战争、罢工、暴 动、政府行为、法律规定或者其适用发生变化,或者其他任何无法预见、避免或者控制的事件,包括在国 际商务初中中通常认定为不可抗力的事件。

  • Consequences of Force Majeure 不”J 抗力的后果
  • if an event of Force Majeure occurs, a Party’s contractual obligations aftected by such an event under this Contract shall be suspended during the period of delay caused by the Force Majeure and shall be automatically extended, without penalty, for a period equal to such suspension.

如果发和不可抗力事件,一方在本合同项下受不可抗力影响的义务在不可抗力造成的延误期间自动中止, 并H其履行期限应自动延长,延长期间为中止的期间,该方无须为此承担违约责任。

 

  • The Party claiming Force Majeure shall promptly inform the other Parties in writing and shall furnish within [fifteen (15)] days thereafter sufficient proof of the occurrence and duration of such Force Majeure. The Party claiming Force Majeure shall also use all reasonable endeavours to terminate the Force Majeure.

提出受不可抗力影响的一方应及时书面通知对方,并且在随后的[十五(15)]日内向对方提供不可抗力发生 以及持续期间的充分证据。提出受不可抗力影响的一方还应尽一切合理的努力排除不可抗力。

  • In the event of Force Majeure, the Parties shall immediately consult with each other in order to find an equitable solution and shall use all reasonable endeavours to minimize the consequences of such Force Majeure. 发生不可抗力的,双方应立即进行磋商,寻求一项公正的解决方案,并且要尽一切合理的努力将不可抗的 的影响降至最小。

Settlement of Disputes 争议的解决

  • Friendly consultations 友好协商

In the event of any dispute, controversy or claim (collectively, “dispute”)arising out of or relating to this Contract, or the breach, termination or invalidity hereof, the Parties shall attempt in the first instance to resolve such dispute through friendly consultations.

如果发生由本合同(或者违反、终止或者无效)引起或者与其相关的争议、纠纷或者索赔(统称“争议”), 双方首先应争取通过友好协商来解决争议。

  • Arbitration 仲裁

If any dispute is not resolved by friendly consultations within [sixty (60)| days after the dale such consultations were first requested by a Party, then any Party may submit the dispute for arbitration in [Singapore] before the (Singapore International Arbitration Centre] in accordance with its rules of arbitration procedure, supplemented by 由c following:

如果某一争议未在一方首次提出协商之日后[六十(60)]日内通过友好协商解决,则任何–方可将该争议提 交南加坡国际仲裁中心堆[新加坡]仲裁,仲裁按照[该中心]仲裁程序规则进行,同时应遵循以下补充规定:

  • There shall be one (1) arbitrator appointed by the arbitration body.

仲裁由该仲裁机构指定的一(1)位仲裁员审理。

  • The arbitration proceedings shall be conducted in the English language. 仲裁程序用[]文进行。
  • The arbitration award shall be final and binding on theParties, and the Parlies agree to be bound thereby and to act accordingly.

仲裁裁决为终局性的,对双方均有约束力,双方同意受该裁决的拘束并且依照裁决执行。

  • All costs of arbitration shall be borned by the Parties as determined by the arbitration tribunal..

所有仲裁费用由双方根据仲裁庭作出的决定承担。

  • Continuing Rights and Obligations 持续的权利和义务

When any dispute occurs and is the subject of friendly consultations or arbitration, the Parties shall continue (o exercise their remaining respective rights and fulfil their remaining respective obligations under this Contract, except in respect of those matters under dispute.

当某一争议已发生并且正在通过友好协商或仲裁解决时,双方可继续行使其各自在本合同项下的其他权利, 同时应继续履行其各自在本合同项下的其他义务,但与争议事项有关的权利和义务除外C

  • Enforcement of Award 裁决的执行

Judgment upon any arbitral award may be entered in any court having jurisdiction over the Party against which the award has been rendered, or application may be made to any such court for judicial acceptance of the award and an order of enforcement, as the case may be. In the event of judicial acceptance and an order of enforcement, each Party expressly waives all rights to object thereto, including any defense of sovereign immunity and any other defense based on ihe fact or allegation that it is an agency or instrumentality of a sovereign state.

仲裁胜诉方可请求对仲裁败诉一方有管辖权的法院作出相应判决,或者向该法院申请对仲裁裁决予以司法 承认并发布强制执行令(以适用者为准)。在法院时仲裁裁决予以司法承认并发布强制执行令的情况下,双 方特此明确放弃其提出抗辩的所有权利,包括以主权谿免作为抗辩事由,以及基于其是一个主权国家的机 构或部门的事实或主张的其他抗辩事由。

  • Injunctive Relief申请禁制令的司法救济权利

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Parlies agree that each Party has the right to seek injunctive or other similar relief in any court of competent jurisdiction in respect of any claims of breach of confidentiality or IPR infringement.

无论本合同前述条款有何规定,双方同意如果一方提出对方违反保密条款或侵犯知识产权的指控,则提出 指控一方可向任何一个有管辖权的法院申请发布制止侵权、违约行为的禁制令或采取其他类似救济措施。

Applicable Law 适用法律

The validity, inlerpretation and implemenlation of this Contract shall be governed by the laws of [the People’s Republic of China][another jurisdiction) (without regard to its rules governing conflict of laws).

本合同的效力、解释以及执行适用[中华人民共和国法律][另一司法区域的法律](但不适用有关法律冲突的 规则)

Miscellangeous Provisions 其他规定

1 Independent Contractor Relationship 合同双方之间的独立关系

2 The parties are only establishing an independent contractor relationship with each other by entering into this Contract. Nothing in this Conlract shall be construed or implied as:

合同双方签订本合同仅仅在他们之间产生独立合同关系。本合同任何条款均不得被解释为:

  • establishing between the Parties hereto any partnership or any other form of relationship entailing joint liability;

合同双方之间形成合伙关系或其他导致共同责任的关系:

  • constituting either of the Parties hereto as the agent of the other Party (except with the other Party’s prior written consent);or

使任何一方成为另一方的代理人(对方事先书面同意的除外);或者

  • authorizing either Party to incur any expenses or any other fonn of obligation on behalf of the other Party (except with the other Party’s prior written consent).

授权一方为另一方招致费用或其他任何形式的义务(对方事先书面同意的除外)。

  • Binding Effect合同拘束力的范围

This Contract is made for the benefit of the Parties hereto and their respective lawful successors and assignees and is legally binding on them.

本合同的受益人为本合同双方以及该方合法的继受者和受让人并对其有法律拘束力。

  • Amendment 修改

This Contract shall not be changed verbally, but only by a written instrument signed by the Parties. 本合同不得以口头方式修改,而须以双方签署书面文件的方式修改。

  • No publicity合同内容保密

The existence of this Contract, as well as its content, shall be held in confidence by both Parties and only disclosed as may be agreed to by both Parties or as may be required to meet securities disclosure or export permit requirements. Neither Party shall make public statements or issue publicity or media releases with regard to this Contract or the relationship between the Parties wiihout the prior written approval of the other Party.

双方应对本合同的存在及其内容保虫,只有在双方均同意的情况下(或者根据有关证券市场规定须披露或 为获得出口许可证须披露的情况下)方可向有关方披露。未经对方事先书面同意,任何一方均不得就本合 同或双方的关系发表公开声明或发布宣传或新闻稿。

  • No Solicitation禁止招揽对方施员

Neither Party shall directly solicit fbr employment the other Party’s personnel who arc engaged in the performance of this Contract, during ihe Term of this Contract and within one (1) year after the Expiration Date, without the prior written consent of the other Party.

在本合同有效期内以及本合同终止一(1)年内,任何一方均不得直接向另一方参与本合同执行的雇员发出 招聘要约,经另一方书面同意的除外。

  • Notices 通知

Any notice or written communication provided for in this Contract by either Parly to the other, including but not limited to any and all offers, writings, or notices to be given hereunder, shall be made in (language] by courier service delivered letter or by facsimile |or electronic mail) and confirmed by courier service delivered letter, promptly transmiltcd or addressed to the appropriate Party. The dale of receipt of a notice or communication hereunder shall be the date of delivery confirmed by the courier service in the case of a courier service delivered letter and the next working day after dispatch in the case of a facsimile [or email]. All notices and communications shall be sent to the appropriate address set forth below, until the same is changed by notice given in writing to the other Party.

本合同规定一方向另一方发出的通知或书面函件(包括但不限于本合同项下所有要约、书面文件或通知) 均应以英文制作,并以传真[或电子邮件]的方式发送给时方,同时通过及时发送或递交给相应一方的专递信 函(并且有回执)予以确认。收到通知或往来函件的日期,如果是以专递信函方式送达,为经专递信函服 务提供者确认的递交EI如果是以传真[或电子邮件]的方式送达,为发出后的第二个工作日。所有通知及往来 函件应发送至以下地址,直到某方书面通知另一方变更地址为止。

  • Waiver不放弃权利

Failure or delay on the part of any of the Parties hereto to exercise a right under this Contract shall not operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise of such a right preclude any other future exercise thereof. 如果一方未行使或延迟行使其在本合同项下的某项权利,不构成该方对此项权利的放弃,如果该方行使过 某项权利或者部分行使某项权利,并不妨碍其在将来再次行使此项权利。

  • Assignability 可转让性

This Contraci may not be assigned in whole or in part by ihe Party without ihe prior written consent of the other Party hereto.

未经对方事先书面同意,任何一方不得部分或全部转让本合同。

  • Severability 可分割性

The invalidity of any provision of (his Contract shall not affect the validity of any other provision of this Contract. 本合同某一条款的无效不影响本合同其他条款的效力。

  • Entire Agreement 全部协议

This Contract and the Schedules and annexes hereto constitute the entire agreement between the Parlies hereto wilh respect to the subject matter of this Contract and supersede all prior discussions, negotiations and agreements between them.

本合同及附录[和附件]构成双方就本合同标的达成的全部协议,并且取代双方之间此前就该标的进行的所有 磋商、谈判以及达成的协议。

  • Schedules and Annexes 附录[以及附件]

 

The Schedules and Annexes hereto are made an integral part of this Contract and are equally binding with the main body of the Contract. In the event of any conflict between the terms and provisions of the main body of the Contract and the Schedules or Annexes, the terms and provisions of the main body of this Contract shall prevail. 本合同的附录[以及附件]为本合同不可分割的部分,并且与本合同正文的条款具有同等效力。如果全合同正 文的条款与附录[以及附件]的条款有冲突,以本合同正文条款为准。

  • Language 文本

This Contract is executed in the Chinese language in ( ) originals and in the English language in ( ) originals. Both language versions shall be equally authentic.

本合同中文正本口份,英文正本[]份。

两种文本具有同等效力0

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, each of parties hereto has caused this Contract to be executed by its duly authorized representative on the date first set forth above.

双方已于本合同苜由所我日期通过其正式授权的代表签订本合同,以资证明。

[Party B name]

Name: [Party B rep name]

Title: [Party B rep position]

Nationality: [Party B rep nationality]

[乙方名称]

签署:

姓名: [乙方代表姓名]

职务: [乙方代表职务]

国籍: [乙方代表国籍]

SCHEDULE A-Definitions 附录甲-定义

  1. Unless the terms or context of this Contract otherwise provide, the following terms shall have the meanings set out below:

除非本合同条款或上下文另有所指,下列用语的含义如下:

u Affiliate’ means any entity which, directly or indirectly, is controlled by , under common control with, or in control of a Party; the term “control“ being used in the sense of power to elect or appoint a majority of directors or lo direct ihe management of a company.

 

“关联机构”指任何直接或间接被一方控制、与该方受共同控制、或者控制该方的公司:“控制”这一用词 的含义指拥有选举或委派董事会多数董事或指示公司管理部门的权力。

^Applicable Laws” mean the laws, regulations, rules, and legislative, executive or judicial notices, orders, decisions or other documents binding on cither Party or the subject matter of this Contract.

“有关法律”指对本合同一方或本合同标的适用的法律、法规、规章,以及立法、行政或司法机关颁布的 通知、命令、决定或其他公示文件。

“ Business Day“ means, in respect of Party A and any action to be taken by Party B in the PRC, any day on which the companies in the PRC arc generally open for business in the PRC, including a Saturday or Sunday which the PRC govenunent temporarily declares to be a working day (”Working Rest Day”), but excluding a statutory holiday, or a Saturday or Sunday other than a Working Rest Day; in respect of any action to be taken by Party B in [Parly B Home Country], any day on which the companies in [Party B Home Country] are generally open for business in [Party B Home Country].

“工作日”就甲方而言,指中华人民共和国境内公司通常对外营业的任何一日,包括中国政府宣布为临时 工作日的星期六或星期日(“调休工作日”),但不包括法定节假日以及调休工作日以外的星期六或星期日; 就乙方而言,指乙方所在国境内公司通常对外营业的任何一日。

“China” and “PRC” mean the People’s Republic of China, [but fbr purposes of this Contract do not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau and (he region of Taiwan1

[“中国”指中华人民共和国,但在本合同中,不包括香港和澳门特别行政区以及中国的台湾地区]

uConfidential Information^ means any business, marketing, technical, scientific or other infoitnaiion disclosed by any Party which, at the time of disclosure, is designated as confidential (or like designation), is disclosed in circumstances of confidence, or would be undertstood by the Parties, exercising reasonable business judgement, to be confidential.

“保密资料”指某方所披露的符合以卜条件之一的商业、营销、技术、科学或其他信息:在披露时标明为 保密(或有类似标记)的、在保密情况下披露的、或双方根据合理的商业判断应理解为保密资料的。

u Effective Date” means the [date of this Contract first shown above][the date on which each of the conditions precedent in Article , have been satisfied or waived in accordance with the terms thereof].

u Expiration Date” means the day on which the initial Tenn or any extended Tenn expires in accordance with the provisions of Articles .1 and .2.

“生效日”指本合同首部所载之日[,或者第条(先决条件)中所设定的先决条件根据该条有关规定成就或 被放弃之日]。

u Intellectual Property Righf’ ormeans any and all rights in any invention, disveovery, improvement, utility, model, copyrightable work, industrial design or mask work, algorithm, data structure, trade secrets or know-how, Confidential Information, or any idea having commercial value. 1PR shall include any trademark, trade dress, trade name, domain name, or other marks that serve to indetify and distinguish goods or services as coming from, or 264 / 781

 

falling under the control of, a single source. IPR shall include all rights of whatsoever nature in computer software and data, all intangible rights or privileges of a nature similar to any of the foregoing in every case in any part of te world and whether or not registered, and all rights in any applications and granted registrations for any of the foregoing rights;

“知识产权”指针对以下任何一项所拥有的权利(在每种情况下其权利范围均包括世界任何地区并且无论 是否经登记):发明、发现、改进、实用新型、外观设计、有著作权的作品、工业设计或掩模、算法、数据 结构、商业秘密或专有技术、保密资料、或具有商业价值的想法。知识产权还包括商标、商号、装洪、域 名,以及表明或突出某i货物或服务来源泉于某一实体(或者提供方受某一实体控制)的其他标记。知识 产权包括所有针对计和机软件及数据的任何性质的权利(以及与上述权利性质类似的所有无形权利或特权), 还包括上述权利的申请权以及获准登记权。

“ Renminbi*’ or “RMB” means the lawful cunency of China.

“人民币”或“RMB”指中华人民共和国的法定货币。

“Term” means the initial or extended Contract term set out in Articles .1 or .2, as appropriate.

“合同有效期”指第[]条(合同期限)中设定的期限。

u United States Dollars^^ or “US$” means the lawful currency of the United States of America.

“美元”或“us$”指美利坚合众国的法定货币。

(Insert other definitions as appropriate]]根据情况加入其他定义]

  1. References to Schedules, Annexes, Articles and Sections are references to schedules, annexes, articles and sections of this Contract.

本合同中提及附录、附件和条款均指本合同的相应附录、附件和条款。

  1. References in this Contract to laws, rules or regulations or to contracts, contracts or other documenls, shall mean the same as amended from time, and references to government ministries, bureaux, departments, commissions, agencies, etc. shall include all successor entities thereto.

本合同中提及法律、法规或规章,或合同、协议或其他文件,也包括其修订后的版本,本合同中提及政府 部、局、部门、委员会、署,也指这些机构的继受机构。

  1. In this Contract, the masculine form includes the feminine form and the singular form includes the plural form, and vice versa.

在本合同中所使用的男性称谓也包括女性,单数也包括更数,反之亦然。

  1. Headings are for convenience of reference only and shall not affect the construction or interpretation of this Contract.

 

在各条款标题仅为方便查阅,对本合同的理解或解释无影响。

66.国际贸易合同中有关INCOTERMS 2010术语的几个问题

INCOTERMS RULES 2010 FOR CONTRACT OF INTERN AI ION AL TRAD

The global economy has given business broader access than ever before to markets all over the world. Goods arc sold in more countries» in large quantities, and in greater variety. But as the volume and complexity of global sales increase, so do possibilities for misunderstandings and costly disputes when sale contracts are not adequately drafted. The Incoterms rules, the ICC niles on the use of domestic and international trade terms, facilitate the conduct of global trade. Reference to an Incoterms 2010 rule in a sale contract clearly defines the parties* respective obligations and reduces the risk of legal complications.

全球经济一体化使得商业通向世界各地市场的途径空前宽广。各种各样的货物被销售到世界各地。然而,随 着全球贸易数额的增加和贸易复杂性的加强,因贸易合同起草不恰当而带来的误解和高代价争端也可能随之 增加。国际贸易术语解释通则,国际商会规则在国内和国际贸易用语的使用促进了全球贸易的进行。在贸 易合同中引用国际贸易术语解释通则2010可明确界定各方义务并降低法律纠纷产生的风险。

Since the creation of the Incoterms rules by ICC in 1936, this globally accepted contractual standard has been regulcirly updated to keep pace wilh the development of intenuitional trade. The Incoterms 2010 rules take accounl of the continued spread of customs-frcc zones, the increased use of electronic communications in business transactions, heightened concern about security in the movement of goods and consolidates in transport practices. Incoterms20l0 updates and consolidates the ‘delivered* rules, reducing the total number of rules from 13 to 11, and offers a simpler and clearer presentation of all the rules. Incoterms 2010 is also the first version of the Incoterms rules to make all references to buyers and sellers gender-neutral. The broad expertise of ICCs Commission on Commercial Law and Practice, whose membership is drawn from all parts of the world and all trade sectors, ensures that the Incoterms 2010 iules respond to business needs everywhere.

自从1936年国际商会制定出国际贸易术语解释通则之后,此项在全球范围内被采用的合同标准就经常性地 更新换代,与国际贸易的发展步调一致。国际贸易术语解释通则2010考虑了免税贸易区的不断增加,电子 沟通在商务中的不断增多,以及被更加重视的货物运输中的安全和变化等问题。国际贸易术语解释通 则2010更新并加强了交货规则,将规则总量从13条减少到了 11条,并且使得所有规则的表述更加简洁明 确。国际贸易术语解释通则2010同时也是第一个使得所有在买卖双方中的适用保持中立的第一个国际贸易 术语解释版本。国际商会的商法和实践委员会成员来自世界各地和多个贸易部门,该委员会广泛的专业技 能确保了国际贸易术语解释通则2010与各地的商贸需求相适应。

The Incoterms rules explain a set of ihree-lelter trade terms reflecting business-to-business practice in contracts for the sale of goods. The Incoterms rules describe mainly the tasks, costs and risks involved in the delivery of goods from sellers to buyers. How to use the Incoterms 2010 rules 1 . Incorporate the Incoterms 2010 rules into your contract of sale If you want the Incoterms 2010 rules to apply to your contract, you should make this clear in the contract, through such words as, “[the chosen Incoterms rule including the named place Jollowed by] Incoterms

 

2010″, 2. Choose the appropriate Incotenns rule The chosen Incoterms rule needs to be appropriate to the goods, to the means of their transport, and above all to whether the parties intend to put additional obligations.

Incoterms规定了一系列在货物销售商业合同实践中使用的三字母系列贸易术语Incoterms规则主要描述了 货物从卖方到买方运输过程中涉及的责任,费用和风险的划分。如何适用Inco〔crms20l0规则1.把 Incotemis2010规则应用到销售合同中如果要使合同适用Incoterms规则2010,应在合同中明确表明,例如: 所选择的Incolerms规则(含指定地点〉适用Incoerms规则20100 2.选择适宜的Incoterms规则所选的 Incoterms规则需要与货物,采取的运输方式相适宜,最重要的是合同双方是否意欲添加额外的义务.

For example such as ihe obligation to organize carriage or insurance, on the seller or on the buyer. The Guidance Note to each Incoterms rule contains information that is particularly helpful when making this choice. Whichever Incoterms rule is chosen, the parties should be aware the interpretation of iheir conlract may well be influenced by customs particular to the port or place being used. 3. Specify your place or port as precisely as possible The chosen Incoterms rule can work only if the parties name a place or port, and will work best if the parties specify the place or port as precisely as possible. A good example of such precision would be:: “ FC A 38 Cours Albert ler, Paris, France Incoterms 2010″ . Under the Incoterms mlc Ex Works(EXW), Free Carricr(FCA), Delivered a( Temiinal(DAT), Delivered at Place(DAP), Delivered Duty Paid(DDP),.

例如将办理运输或保险的义务加于买方或卖方每个贸易术语的指导性解释中的信息对作出如此的决定非 常有帮助。不论选用何种Incoterms规则,双方应该意识到对合同的解释会受到使用的港口或地址惯例影 响。3.尽可能精准地描述你方地址或港口名称只有当事人双方选定特定的一个收货地或港口时,所选术语 才能发挥作用。地点或港口名称越精准,Inconterms规则越有效。以下精准描述就是一个很好的例 T: Incoterms 2010, FCA 规则,法国,巴黎,38 Cours Albert 1 er 在 Incoterms 规则 F: EXW 工厂交货(

指定地点)FCA货交承运人(……指定地点)” DAT终点站交货(……指定目的地)DAP地点交货(……指定 目的地)DDP完税后交货(……指定目的地)

Free Alongside Ship(FAS), and Free on Board(FOB)jhc named place is the place where delivery takes place and where risk passes from the seller to the buyer. Under the Incoterms mle Carriage Paid to (CPT), Carriage and Insurance Paid to(CIP), Cost and Freight(CFR) and Cost insurance and Freight(CIF),the named place differs from the place of delivery. Under these four Incoterms rules, the named place is the place of destination to which carriage is paid. Indications as to place or destination can helpfully be further specified by stating a precise point in that place or destination in order to avoid doubi or argument. 4. Remember that Incoterms rules do not give you a complete contract of sale Incoterms niles do say which party to the sale contract has the obligation to make can iage or insurance aiTangements, when the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, and which costs each party is responsible for.

FAS船边交货(……指定装运港)FOB船上交货(……指定装运港)此处所指地点为交货地点,同时风险也从 卖方转移至买方Incoicnns规则下CPT运费付至(……指定目的地)CIP运费、保险费付至(…指定目的地) CFR成本加运费(……指定目的港)CIF成本、保险费加运费(指定目的港)所指地点随交货地不同而不同。 在这些Incotenns规则下,所指地点为运费付至地。为了避免疑问和争议,指定地点或目的地可以进一步阐 述为一个精确的地点。4..谨记Incoterms规则并没有给当事人提供份完整的销售合同Incoterm规则确有阐 述销伴合同中当事人的特定义务,当卖方将货物运至买方时,办理运输和保险义务的承担。

Incoterms Riles, however, say nothing about the price to be paid or the method of its payment. Neither do they deal with the transfer of ownership of the goods, or the consequences of a breach of contract. These matters are normally dealt with through express terms in the contract of sale or in (he law governing that contract. The parties

267 / 781

 

should be aware that mandatory local law may override any aspect of the sale contract, including the chosen Incoterms rules.

然而,Incoterms并没有任何关于付款价格或付款方式的规定,或是货物所有权的转移,违约的后果等。这 些问题通常是通过销售合同的明示条款和适用的法律条文来解决。当事人需要注意的是,当地强制适用的 法律有可能优先于销售合同的内容,包括所选择的Incoterms规则。

Main features of the Incoterm2010 nilcs Incotcmis2010 的主要特征

  1. Two new Incoterms rules DAT and DAP – have replaced the Incotcnns 2000 rules DAEDES.DEQ and DDU The number of Incoterms rules has been reduced from 13 to 11. This has been achieved by substituting two rules that may be used irrespective of the agreed mode of transport DAT, Delivered at Terminal, and DAP, Delivered at Place — for the incotcrms 2000 rules DAEDES.DEQ and DDU.

1.两个新的贸易术语,即DAT和DAP代替了原来Incoterms20(X) DAF,DES,DEQ和DDU术语%贸易术 语的数量从原来的13个减少到11个。Inco〔crms20I0用两个可以不顾及已议定的运输模式的新术语一一 DAT,目的地交货和DAP,指定地交货——代替了 Incotemis200()中的DAF,DES,DEQ和DDU术语。

Under both new rules, delivery occurs at a named destination: in DAT, at the buyer’s disposal unloaded from the arriving vehicle (as under the former DEQ rule); in DAP, likewise at the buyer’s disposal, but ready fbr unloading (as under the former DAF, DES and DDU rules). The new rules make (he Incoterms 2000 rules DES and DEQ superfluous. The named terminal in DAT may well be in a port, and DAT can therefore safely be used in cases where the Incoterms 2000 rule DEQ once was. Likewise, the arriving “vehicle” under DAP may well be a ship and the named place of destination may well be a port: consequently, DAP can safely be used in eases where the Incoterms 2000 rule DES once was. These new rules, like their predecessors, are “delivered”, with the seller bearing all the costs (other than those related to import clearance, where applicable) and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named place of destination.

2010 rules DAT和DAP术语都规定需在指定地点交货:在DAT情况下,从运瑜工具上卸下货物交由买方处 置(这和先前的DEQ术语一样);在DAP情况下同样交由买方处置,但需做好卸货的准备(这和先前的 DAF,DES和DDU术语一样)。新贸易术语的使用,Incoterms2000中的DES和DEQ成为多余。使DAT的 目的地可以是港口,因此DAT可以用于在Incotenns2000下DEQ适用的情况。同样的,DAP中运达货物 的交通工具可以是轮船,而目的地也可以是港口,因此DAP可以用于在Incotenns2000下DES适用的情况。 这两个新的术语,和先前的几个术语一样,是由卖方承担所有费用(除了与进口清算有关的费用)和货物 到达目的地前的风险。

  1. Classification of the 11 Incotcrms2010 中 11 种贸易术语的分类

The 11 Incoterms 2010 nilcs arc presented in two distinct classes: RULES FOR ANY MODE OR MODES OF TRANSPOTR EXW EX WORKS FCA FREE CARRIER CPT CARRIAGE PAID TO CIP CARRIAGE AND INSURANCE PAID TO DAT DELIVERED AT TERMINAL DAP DELIVERED AT PLACE DDP DELIVERED DUTY PAID RULES FOR SEA AND INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT FAS FREE ALONGSIDE SHIP FOB FREE ON BOARD CFR COST AND FREIGHT CIF COST INSURANCE AND FREIGHT

Incotcrms2010 11种贸易术语目前被分为两类:适用于任何运输方式的术语:EXW工厂交货FCA货交承 运人CPT运费付至C1P运费及保险费付至DAT目的地交货DAP所在地交货DDP完税后交货适用于海上 和内陆水上运输的术语:FAS船边交货FOB船上交货CFR成本加运费CIF成本、保险费加运费

The first class includes the seven Incoterms 2010 rules that can be used iiTespective of the mode of transport selected and irrespective of whether one or more than one mode of transport is employed. EXW, FCA, CPT, CIP, DAT, DAP and DDP belong to this class. They can be used even when there is no maritime transport at all. It is important lo remember, however, that these rules can be used in cases where a ship is used for part of the carriage. In the second class of Incoterms 2010 rules, the point of delivery and the place to which (he goods arc carried to the buyer arc both ports, hcncc the label “sea and inland waterway” rules. FAS, FOB, CFR and CIF belong to this class. Under the last three Incoterms rules, all mention of the ship’s rail as the point of delivery has been omitted in preference fbr the goods being delivered when they are “on board” the vessel. This more closely reflects modern commercial reality and avoids the rather dated image of the risk swinging to and fro across an imaginary perpendicular line.

第一种分类中的七种贸易术语不用考虑所选用运输方式的种类。EXW,FCA,CPT,C1P,DAT,DAP和DDP都属 于第一种分类。它们甚至可以运用于没有海上运输的情况卜。谨记只要运输中一个部分运用过船只便可以 适用此类术语。在第二类术语中,交货点和把货物送达买方的地点都是港口,所以只适用于“海上或内陆 水上运输”。FAS、FOB,CFR和CIF都属于这一类。最后的三个术语,删除了以越过船舷为交货标准而代之以 将货物装运上船。这更准确的反应了现代商业现实,避了以往风险围绕船舷这条虚拟垂线来回摇摆。

  1. Rules for domestic and international trade Incotenns rules have traditionally been used in internalional sale contracts where goods pass across national boarders. In various areas of the world, however, trade blocs, like the European Union, have made border formalities between different countries less significant. Consequently, the subtitle of the Incoterms 2010 rules formally recognize that they are available for application lo both internalional and domestic sale contracts. As a result, the Incoterms 2010 rules clearly state in a number of places that the obligation to comply with export/import formalities exists only where applicable. Two developments have persuaded ICC that a movement in this direction is timely. Firstly, traders commonly use Incoterms rules for purely domestic sale contract. The second reason is the greater willingness in the Unites States to use Incoterm rules in domestic trade rather than ihe fonner Uniform Commercial Code shipment and delivery terms.

3.国内贸易和国际贸易的规定传统的Incoterms规则只在国际销售合同中运用,此种交易货物运输都需跨越 国界。在世界许多地区,商业集团如欧盟使得不同国家间的过关手续不再重要。所以,Incoterms2010正式 认可所有的贸易规则既可以适用于国内交易也可以适用于国际交易。所以,Inco〔cnns201()在一些地方明确 规定,只有在适当的时候,才有义务遵从进口或者出II的手•续。两个新发展使得ICC相信向这个方向的改 革是适宜的。首先,商人们普遍在国内贸易合同使用Incoterms2010规则。其次,比起先前提到的统一的商 业规则中的运输和交付术语,在国内贸易中更今美国人愿意使用lncotcrms2010中的术语。

  1. Guidance Notes Before each Incoterms 2010 rule you will find a Guidance Note. The Guidance Notes explain the fundamentals of each Incoterms rule, such as when it should be used, when risk passes, and how costs are allocated between seller and buyer. The Guidance Notes are not part of the actual Incoterms 2010 rules, but are intended to help the user accurately and efficiently steer towards the appropriate Incoterms rule for a particular transaction.

4.引言 在Incoterms2010的每条规则前面,都有一条引言。引言解释每条贸易规则的基本内容,比如说 什么时候被运用到,什么时候风险转移,还有费用在卖方和买方间是怎样分配的等等。引言并不是 Incoterms2010的内容,但是它们能帮助使用者更准确更有效率的针对特定的贸易运用合适的贸易条款。

  1. Electronic communication Previous versions of Incoterms rules have specified those documents that could be replaced by EDI messages. Articles Al/Bl of the Incoterms 2010 rules, however, now give electronic means of communication the same effect as paper communication, as long as the parties so agree or where customary. U’his formulation facilitates the evolution of new electronic procedures throughout the lifetime of the Incoterms 2010 rules.

5..电子通信 上一版本的Incolerms规则已经确定了可以被电子数据交换信息替代的文件。然而Incoterms 规则2010中的AI/B1赋予电子通信方式和纸质通讯相同的效果,只要缔约双方同意或存在国际惯例。这一 规定有利于促进Incoterms规则2010中新的电子程序的演进。

  1. Insurance cover The Incoterms 2010 rules are the first version of the Incoterms rules since the version of the Institute Cargo Clauses and take account of alterations made to those clauses. The Incolenns 2010 rules place infonnation duties relating to insurance in articles A3/B3, which deal with contracts of carriage and insurance. These provisions have been moved from the more generic found in article A10/B10 of the Incoterms 2000 rules. The language in articles A2/B3 relating to insurance has also been altered with a view to clarifying the parlies’ obligations in this regard.

6.•保险范闱Incoterms规则2010是协会货物条款修订以来的最新版国际贸易术语规则,并就对那些条款的 变更做了考虑。[neoterms规则2010把关系到保险的信息义务规定在A3/B3,这涉及到运输和保险合同。这 些条款已经从更为普通的国际贸易术语2000中A10/B10的文章中删除。为了明确缔约双方的义务,条 款A2/B3中涉及保险的行文也做了变化。

  1. Security-related Clearances and information required fbr such clearances There is heightened concern nowadays about security in the movement of goods, requiring verification that the goods do not pose a threat to life or property for reasons other than their inherent nature. Therefore, the Incoterms 2010 rules have allocated obligations between ihe buyer and seller to obtain or lo render assistance in obtaining security-related clearances, such as chain-of-custody infornuuion, in articles A2/B2 and A10/B10 of various Incoterms rules.

7.与安全有关的清关需要的信息现在人们高度关注货物运输中的安全问题,需要确认货物不会对生命和财 产有威胁,除了其自身固有的属性。因此,Incolerms规则2010已经在买家和卖家间分配了义务,在与安 全有关的清关获得或者提供帮助,例如在彩种多样的国际贸易术语中A2/B2和A10/B10的监管链相关信息

  1. Terminal handling charges Under Incoterms rules CPT, CIR CFR, CIE DAT, DAR and DDP, the seller must make arrangements fbr the carriage of the goods to the agreed destination. While the freight is paid by the seller, it is actually paid for by the buyer as freight costs are normally included by the seller in the total selling price. The carriage costs will sometimes include the costs of handling and moving the goods within port or container terminal facilities and the carrier or tenninal operator may well charge these costs to the buyer who receives the goods. In these circumstances, the buyer will want to avoid paying for the same service twice::once to the seller as part of the total selling price and once independently to the carrier or the terminal operator. The Incoterms 2010 rules seek to avoid this happening by clearly alkxrating such costs in articles A6/B6 of the relevant Incoterms rules.
  2. 终点站操作费在国际贸易术语CPT, CIP. CIF, DAT, DAP和DDP项下,卖家必须做好安排使货物到 达指定目的地。虽然运费是由卖方支付的,但因为运费一般被卖方包含在销售价格中所以实际上运费是由 买方支付的。货运费有时包括港口或集装箱码头内的理货和运输费用承运人和终点站运营方也可能向收到 货物的买家收取这笔费用。在这种情况下,买家会想要避免对同一服务重:复付费:一次付给卖家作为销售 价格中的一部分,一次单独地付给承运人或者终点站运营方。Incoterms规则2010在相关国际贸易术解释 规则的A6/B6条款明确的分配此项费用,力求避免重复付费。
  3. String sales In the sale of commodities, as opposed to the sale of manufactured goods, cargo is frequently sold several times during transit “down a string” when this happens, a seller in the middle of the string don’t have to ship the goods because these have already been shipped by the first seller in the string. The seller in the middle of the string therefore performs its obligations towards its buyer not by shipping the goods, but by “procuring* goods that have been shipped. For clarification purposes, Incoterms 2010 rules include the obligation to “procure goods shipped55as an alternative to the obligation to ship goods in the relevant Incoterms rules.

9.连环合同与工业制成品的销售不同,在农矿产品的销售中,货物经常在沿销售链运转过程中被频繁俏告 多次。这种情况下,在运输中的卖家不用再运输货物,因为货物已被第一个卖家装船运输了。中途的卖方 通过接收货物而非运输货物向买方履行义务。为明确起见,Incolerms规则2010在相关规定中把提取已经 运输的商品的义务作为运输商品义务的替换。

RULES FOR ANY MODE OR MODES OF TRANSPORT VARIANTS OF INCOTERMS RULES

运输方式的规则国际贸易术语解释通则的变体

Sometimes the parties want to alter an Incoterms rules. The Incoterms 2010 rules do not prohibit such alteration, but there are dangers in so doing. In order to avoid any unwelcome surprises, the parties would need to make the intended effect of such alterations extremely clear in their contract. Thus, for example, if the allocation of costs in the Incoterms 2010 mles is altered in the contract, the parties should also clearly state whether they intend to vaiy the point at which (he risk passes from seller to buyer.

贸易各方有时因各自需要意图修改某一国际贸易术语规则的适用。《国际贸易术语解释通则2010》并不禁 止这种修改,但是这样做会带来一定的危险。因此双方都应当在合同中明确表明修改意欲达到的效果以避 免不愉快的分歧。譬如,假设合同改变了 Incoterms规则中费用的分配,那么合同各方亦应当明确声明是否 改变风险(从卖方到买方)转移的临界点。

Status of this introduction本导言的功能地位

This introduction gives general information on the use and interpretation of the Incoterms 2010 rules, but docs not form part of those rules.

本导言只是对《国际贸易术语解释通则2010》的用途和解释的概括提示,并不是这些的组成部分。

Explanation of terms used in the Incoterms 2010 rules

对《国际贸易术语解释通则2010》中术语的解释

As in the incotcrms rules, the seller’s and buyer’s obligations arc presented in mirror fashion, reflecting under column A the seller s obligations and under column B the buyer’s obligations. These obligations can be carried out personally by the seller or the buyer or sometimes, subject to terms in the contract or the applicable law, through intermediaries such as carriers, freight forwarders or other persons nominated by the seller or (he buyer for a specific purpose. The text of the Incoterms 2010 rules is meant to be self-explanatory. However, in order to assist users the following text sets out guidance as to the sense in which selected terms are used throughout the document.

正如《国际贸易术语解释通则2010》中所述,买方和卖方的共同义务是以对应方式呈现的,也就是说,既 能反映出A栏中的买方义务,又能反映出B栏中的卖方义务。这些义务可以由买方或者卖方亲自履行,有 时抑或受制于合同或者适用法律中的个别条款的规定,由诸如承运人、转运代理人等中介组织,或者其他由 买方或者卖方为了特定目的而委任的人来履行。《国际贸易术语解释通则2010》正文中条文解析明了。但 出于引导辅助(使用者)理解的考虑,编者还是占用了以下篇幅对从《规则》中选取的几个术语进行阐释。

CaiTier: For the purposes of the Incoterms 2010 rules, ihe carrier is the parly wilh whom carriage is contracied. 承运人:出于《国际贸易术语解释通则2010》的目的,承运人是指与托运人订立合同,并承担运输义务的 一方。

Customs Formalities: These are requirements to be met in order to comply with any applicable customs regulations and may include documentary, security, information or physical inspection obligations. Delivery: This concept has multiple meanings in trade law and practice, but in the Incoterms 2010 rules, it is used to indicate where the risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes from the seller to the buyer.

报关单:是指为了遵守海关条例而需要满足的一些要求,包括了单据、安全、信息或者实体检验之义务。交 货:在商法和商事活动中,这个概念有多种涵义。但是,在《国际贸易术语解释通则2010》中,交货用来 表明在货物由卖方向买方转移的过程中毁损风险在何处转移。

Delivery document: This phrase is now used as the heading to article A8. It means a document used to prove that delivery has occurred. For many of the Incoterms 2010 rules, the delivery document is a transport document or corresponding electronic record. However, with EXW, FCA, FAS and FOB, the delivery document may simply be a receipt. A delivery document may also have other functions, for example as part of the mechanism for payment. 交货单:此术语现在已成为A8条款的标题。交货单,是用于证明已完成交货的凭证。对于《国际贸易术语 解释通则2010》中的许多规则,交货单是一种运输单据或相关电子记录。但是对于EXW, FCA, FAS和FOB, 交货单只是一种收据。当然,交货单还有其他功能,比如支付程序的一个环节。

Electronic record or procedure: A set of information constituted of one or more electronic messages and, where applicable, being functionally equivalent with (he corresponding paper document

.电子记录或者程序:由一个或多个可适用的电子讯号组成的一组信息库,其功能上等同于相应的纸质文档。

Packaging: this word is used for different purposes: l.The packaging of the goods to comply with any requirements under the contract of sale. 2. The packaging of the goods so that they are fit for transportation. 3. The stowage of the packaged goods within a container or other means of transport. In the Incoterms 2010 rules, packaging means both the first and second of the above. The Incoterms 2010 rules do not deal with the parties’ obligations for stowage within a container and therefore, where relevant, ihe parties should deal with this in the sale contract.

包装:此词因语境不同有不同含义:1.符合销售合同要求的货物包装;2.符合运输要求的货物包装;3.集 装箱或其他运输工具中已包装货物的理仓在《国际贸易术语解释通则2010》中,“包装”一词有以上中的1和 2项的含义。Incoterms2010中并不涉及集装箱内货物的理仓义务,当事人应在销件合同中予以确定。

 

67die及涉外建筑工程分包合同的法律适用

Applicable Law under FIDIC and Governing Subcontract for Foreign

Construction Engineering Project

案例:中国某海外工程公司承包了波兰的某大型建筑项目,承包商与分包商均为中国的建筑商,它们之间 签订了该工程的分包合同,该工程在波兰如期开始施工,但该项目仅进行了一年多时间,因各种原因波兰方 面就提出解除合同,并索取巨额的赔偿。由于该纠纷涉及到承包商与分包商之间的违约问题,在诉讼中承 包商与分包商的一方认为应适用不动产所在地波兰法律,另一方认为由于双方均为中国建筑商,理应适用 中国法律,这就产生了涉外建筑工程分包合同的多国法律冲突与适用问题。

Case: A construction engineering company of China (the “Contractor”), has contracted a large-scale construction project in Poland and subcontracted the project to a Subcontractor, which is also a Chinese builder, by entering into a subcontract thereof. Construction of the project commenced as scheduled and proceeded for only over one year before the Poland party proposed termination of the subconlract for various reasons and claimed for a large sum of compensation. The claim involves a dispute over breach of contract between (he Contractor and the Subcontractor. In the litigation process, one party thereto claimed that the laws of Poland shall govern by reason that the real estate of the project is located in Poland; while the other parly thereto claimed that the laws of China shall govern by reason that both parties to the subcontract are Chinese builders. This gives rise to a matter on conflict of laws of various countries and the governing laws in respect of a subcontract of foreign construction engineering project.

L涉外建设工程分包合同的法律主体

Legal Entities of Subcontract of Foreign Construction Engineering Project

在国际工程承包领域,山于项11工程大,总承包商往往会将工程的某些部分或总工程量的一•定比例分派给 一些符合资质条件的分包商完成。而在分包过程中若出现分包合同不能正常履行而导致分包商违约或因分 包商的责任导致总承包商的额外损失的情况下,就会产生业主、总承包商与分包商三者之间的法律关系。

In the practice of contract for international engineering projects, general contractors of large-scale projects generally assign certain part(s) of the projects (or make assignment of the total project quantity by certain proportion) lo subcontractors with corresponding qualificalions. In case of breach of contract by ihe subcontractors due to failure of proper performance of corresponding subcontracts or in case of any extra losses sustained by the general contractors for reasons attributed to the subcontracts, legal relations among the project owners, general contractors and subcontractors come into existence.

HDIC是国际咨询工程师联合会的简称,其制定的许多规范性文件广泛应用于国际工程承包项目。《FIDIC 土木工程施工合同》的合同条件中规定分包可以由业主和承包商在签订合同时指定好,或由工程师指令承 包商雇用分包商承担部分工作。对于指定分包商(Nominalcd Subcontracior), FIDIC合同条件规定若产生若 承包商反对雇用指定分包商,而业主却坚持使用分包商的情况下,承包商对于分包商出现的问题不需要向 业主承担近任。但这与我国关于业主、总承包商与分包商的规定是相冲突的,我国《建设工程施工合同(示 范文本)》38.3条有对分包的原则性规定:“工程分包不能解除承包人任何责任与义务。承包人应在分包场 地派驻相应管理人员,保证本合同的履行。分包单位的任何违约行为或疏忽导致工程损害或给发包人造成 其他损失,承包人承担连带责任。”由此可以看出,我国相关规定要求承包商对因分包商造成的损失也应承 担相应连带责任。这样一来,我国涉外建设工程承包合同的法律关系更加更杂化,一个国际建设工程承包 关系会涉及多个承包商与分包商,它们往往位于不同的国家,在适用法律问题上就会牵涉到管辖权的冲突。

The acronym “FIDIC“ stands fbr the International Federation of Consulting Engineers. Many of its regulatory documents apply extensively to international engineering contract projects. Under FIDIC Conditions of Contract for Works of Civil Engineering Construction, the owner and the contractor under a contract for works of civil engineering construction may stipulate matters on subcontract upon entering into the contract, or the contractor may, under the engineer’s instructions, employ a subcontractor to undertake part of the contract project. As to the nominated subcontractor, under FIDIC Conditions of Contract, if the contractor refused to employ a nominated subcontractor and the owner insisted on employing a subcontractor, the contractor shall not be held liable to the owner for any matter caused by the subcontractor. Such provisions arc in conflict with provisions of China on the relations among the owners, general contractors and subcontractors. According to provisions of subcontracting principle under Article 38.3 of the Sample of PRCs Construction Engineering Contract, “project subcontracting shall not release a contractor from any liability or obligation under a construction engineering contract; (he contractor shall dispatch relevant management personnel to station on the site of subcontracting to ensure perfonnance of the contract; the contractor shall be jointly and severally liable for any damages to the project or other losses to the contract-offering party caused by any breach or negligence of subcontractors5‘, the contractor shall be jointly and severally liable for losses caused by the subcontractor. Such conflict of laws makes legal relations under foreign construction engineering contracts more complicated. An international construction engineering contract may involve many contractors and subcontractors from different countries, giving rise to conflict of governing laws.

IL我国涉外建设工程分包合同关系的法律适用

Laws Governing Relations under a Foreign Construction Engineering Contract in China 我国《建设工程施工合同(示范文本)》37.1款在承发包双方解决争端问题上做了如此规定:“发包人承包 人在履行合同时发生争议,可以和解或者要求有关主管部门调解。当事人不愿和解、调解或者和解、调解 不成的,双方可以在专用条款内约定一种方式解决争议:第一种解决方式:双方达成仲裁协议,向约定的 仲裁委员会申请仲裁;第二种解决方式:向有管辖权的人民法院起诉由此可以看出,仲裁或诉讼为我国 建设工程施工合同发生纠纷时可选择的争端解决方式。

With respect of settlement of dispute between a contract-offering party and the contractor Article 37.1 of the Sample of PRC’s Construction Engineering Contract stipulates as follows: any dispute arising from performance of the contract by either the contract-offering party or the contractor may be settled through amicable consultation or through mediation presided by relevant competent authorities. In case of either parties’ unwillingness to or Qiilure to reach a settlement through amicable consultation or mediation, both parties may select one of (he following dispute settlement methods pursuant to special provisions: one method is to submit an arbitration agreement concluded by and between both parties to an arbitration commission as agreed for arbitration; the other method is to initiate litigation proceedings with a people’s court of competent jurisdiction. It can be seen that arbitration and litigation are two optional methods available for settlement of disputes over construction engineering contracts in China.

由于涉外建筑工程的业主、承包商与分包商分布在不同国家,在发生纠纷时,究竟适用哪一国的法律是在 实务中出现的较多的问题。我国现有法律并未对涉外建筑工程承包与分包合同纠纷案件管辖权作出明确规 定,在法律适用上主要依照《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》与《中华人民共和国涉外民事关系法律适用法》 相关规定,而在FIDIC发布的标准合同版本中,并没有限制或明确约定有关适用特别法律的条款。国内外 法律中的部分相关条款如下:

Duc to the fact that the owner, contractor(s) and subcontractor(s) under a foreign construction engineering project may come from different countries, the fairly commonly seen problem in practice is, in case of any dispute arising from the project, by the laws of which country shall the dispute be governed. Prevailing laws of China contain no expressive provisions on foreign constmction engineering contracts or jurisdictions on cases of disputes over subcontract. In China, disputes on governing laws are mainly settled pursuant to relevant provisions of the Civil Procedure Law of PRC and the Law of the Application of Law for Foreign-related Civil Relations. In the FIDIC conditions of contract, the FIDIC forms are not restricted, nor intended, for use under a particular governing law. Specific domestic and foreign legal provisions on such disputes are as follows:

  • 《民事诉讼法》第23条规定,“因合同纠纷发生的诉讼,由被告住所地或者合同履行地法院管辖。”:

As provided ibr in Article 23 of the Civil Procedure Law of PRC, “A lawsuit brought on a contract dispute shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court of the place where the defendant has his domicile or where the contract is performed*;

  • 《民事诉讼法》第34条规定,”合同或者其他财产权益纠纷的当事人可以书面协议选择被告住所地、 合同履行地、合同签订地、原告住所地、标的物所在地等与争议有实际联系的地点的人民法院管辖,但不 得违反本法对级别管辖和专属管辖的规定。

As provided fbr in Article 34 of the Civil Procedure Law of PRC, “A party lo the contract or other property dispute may choose by written agreement to be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court in the location of the defendant^ domicile, where the contract is performed or signed, in the location of the plaintifTs domicile, in the location of the subject matter or in olher locations which have actual connections with ihe dispute, provided that the provisions on hierarchical jurisdiction and exclusive jurisdiction are not violated ‘.

  • 《民事诉讼法》第33条对于不动产纠纷作出专属管辖规定,”因不动产纠纷提起的诉讼,由不动产所

在地人民法院管辖。”:

Under Article 33 of the Civil Procedure Law of PRC. exclusive jurisdiction in relation to real estate is provided for as follows: a lawsuit brought on a dispute over real estate shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court of the place where the estate is located.

 

natural resources in the People’s Republic of China shall fall under the jurisdiction of the people’s courts of the People’s Republic of China.

  • 《中华人民共和国涉外民事关系法律适用法》第41条规定:”当事人可以协议选择合同适用的法律。

当事人没有选择的,适用履行义务最能体现该合同特征的一方当事人居所地法律或者其他与该合同有最密 切联系的法律

As provided for in Article 41 of the Law of the Application of Law for Foreign-related Civil Relations, ^parties to a contract may choose the laws governing the contract; if they fail to do so, laws of the domicile of one party whose obligation performance demonstrates characteristics of the contract (o the highest extent or other laws in closest relationship to the contract shall govern”.

  • 《中华人民共和国涉外民事法律关系法律适用法》第36条规定:“不动产物权,适用不动产所在地法

律。”

As provided for in Article 36 of the Law of the Application of Law for Foreign-related Civil Relations, 4%rcal property rights shall be governed by laws of the place where the real property is located”.

  • 《瑞士国际私法》规定:“有关不动产或其使用的合同,由不动产所在地法律支配,但也允许当事人

选择。”

Under Switzerland^ Federal Code on Private International Law, ^contracts in relation to real properties or use thereof shall be governed by laws of the place where the corresponding real properties are located or other laws as chosen by parties to the contracts”.

  • 《匈牙利国际私法》第24条规定:“对合同适用双方当事人在订立合同时或之后选择的法律,如果没

有选择,则根据本章第25条至29条规定确定对一些特别类型合同的准据法”,其中第26条规定,”有关不 动产合同,适用不动产所在地法。”As provided for in Article 24 of Hungary Private International Law, uthe governing laws of a contract may be chosen by both parties thereto upon or after conclusion of the contract; if both parties fail to do so, ihe governing laws shall be detennined in accordance wilh provisions of Article 25 to 29 of this Chapter which arc applicable to some special types of contracts^.

  • 《美国第二次冲突法重述》第186条规定:”合同中的问题,依当事人根据笫187条规则所选择的法

律,或在当事人未作选择时,依照第188条规则所选择的法律

As stipulated in Section 186 of the Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws, ^Issues in contract arc determined by the law chosen by the parties in accordance with the rule of Section 187 and othenvise by the law selected in accordance with the rule of Section 188”.

(1)第187条规定:”1.如果特定问题是当事人通过其合同对该问题的明示规定可以解决的,则依当事人 选择用以支配其合同权利义务的州的法律 “Under Section 187 thereof, “⑴the law of the state chosen by the parties to govern their contractual rights and duties will be applied if the particular issue is one which the parties could have resolved by an explicit provision in their agreement directed to that issue”.

 

(2)第188条规定:“当事人未作有效选择时的准据法:

Under Section 188 thereof, kfcLaw governing in absence of eftective choice by the parties: a)当事人与合同的某个问题有关的权利义务,依在该问题上,按照第六条规定的原则,适用与该交易及 当事人有重要联系的那个州的本地法。

The rights and duties of the parties with respect to an issue in contract are determined by the local law of the state which, with respect to that issue, has the most significant relationship to the transaction and the parties under the principles stated in the Section 6.

b)当事人未对法律做有效选择时(见第187条),适用第六条的原则以确定准据法时应考虑的联系包括:

In the absence of an effective choice of law by the parties (see s 187), the contacts to be taken into account in applying the principles of s 6 to determine the law applicable to an issue include:

  • 合同缔结地/ihe place of contracling:
  • 合同谈判地/the place of negotiation of the contract;
  • 合同履行地/the place of performance,;
  • 合同标的物所在地 ihe location of the subject matter of the contracts 以及/and

(V) 当事人的住所、居所、国籍、公司成立地以及营业地/(he domicile, residence, nalionalily, place of

incorporation and place of business of the parties«

对这些联系将按照其对该特定问题的亚要程度加以衡量。”

These contacts arc to be evaluated according to their relative importance with respect to the particular issue.

由以上规定可以看出,在涉外建筑工程承包合同的诉讼上,虽然对于不动产物权纠纷提起的诉讼适用不动 产所在地法律,然而越来越多的规定不再固守这样绝对化的专属管辖,在涉外不动产纠纷中,除了不动产 物权上的争议,其他与不动产合同有关的法律适用越来越倾向于尊里意思白治原则,当事人之间可以协议 选择合同适用的法律,若未选择,适用最密切联系地的法律。对于涉外建筑工程,中国承包商与外国业主 之间对于该不动产物权上的冲突,适用不动产所在地的专属管辖。而时于中国分包商与承包人之间,更多 的是涉及合同上的纠纷,那么对于管辖权应该尊重双方协议选择的地点,若无协议选择,则适用最密切联 系地。例如,中国方面与波兰方面对于波兰境内的建筑工程的建设纠纷中,若案件中涉及中方的承包商与 分包商之间纠纷,按照如上分析,是可以适用中国法律的。

As could be seen from the above provisions, although litigation proceedings with respect to disputes over real property rights under foreign construction engineering contracts shall be governed by the laws of the place where the real property is located, more and more legal provisions no longer persistently adopt absolute exclusive jurisdiction: application of laws governing real property contracts, excluding disputes over real property rights, is increasingly inclined to respect the principle of “party autonomy^ under which parties to a contract may choose the governing laws or, in the absence of choice of governing laws, the laws of the place in closest connection to the conlract shall govern. Any dispute over real property rights under a foreign construction project between a Chinese builder and a foreign owner shall be governed exclusively by laws of the place where the real property is located; however, disputes between Chinese subcontractors and Chinese contractors, most of which are contractual disputes, shall be governed by the laws chosen by both contractual parties or, in the absence of choice of governing laws, by 277 / 781

the laws of the place in closest connection to the contract. For instance, in the case of a dispute between a Chinese contractor and a subcontractor with respect of a construction project located within the territory of Poland undertaken by a Poland party and a Chinese Party, the laws of China shall be the governing laws pursuant to the foregoing analysis.

  • .对涉外建筑工程分包合同法律适用的建议

Suggestions on Application of Laws Governing Subcontracts for Foreign Construction Engineering Projects

笔者认为,在涉外建筑工程分包合同的法律适用问题上,应当采用当今国际上的主流观点,即以当事人意 思自治为主,最密切联系地为辅的原则。允许当事人选择适用法,也是缔约自由这一合同原则的基本体现。 虽然对F工程承包、分包合同的法律适用在《中华人民共和国涉外民事关系法律适用法》及其司法解释上 暂无具体的说明。但在《中华人民共和国涉外民事法律适用法》实施之前的《中国国际私法示范法》第101 条体现了协定管辖优先的原则,“当事人没有选择法律的,适用合同的最密切联系地法。通常情况下,下列 合同的最密切联系地依如下规定确定:(13)工程承包合同,适用工程所在地法。”此条规定从法律上打定 了在涉外建筑工程承包、分包合同法律适用上,将当事人的协定管辖放在优先的位置。

According to the author, the globally prevailing views on application of laws governing foreign construction engineering subcontract shall be adopted, under which the principle of party autonomy shall predominate over the principle of application of laws of the place in closest connection to the subcontract. Allowing contractual parties to choose governing laws is another basic reflection of ihe principle of freedom of contract. Although the Law of the Application of Law for Foreign-related Civil Relations and its prevailing judicial interpretations contain no specific provisions on application of laws governing contracts and subcontracts of constniction projects, the principle of application of laws chosen by contractual parties through agreement is demonstrated in provisions of/Xrticlc 101 of Model Law of Private International Law of the People’s Republic of China, which was promulgated prior to the Law of ihe Application of Law for Foreign-related Civil Relations, as follows: in the absence of choice of govcniing laws by contractual parties, (he laws of (he place in closest connection to the contract shall be applicable. In general circumstances, the laws of the place in closest connection to the following contracts shall be determined as follows: (13) contracts for conslruction engineering projects shall be governed by the laws of the place where the corresponding projects are located. Such legal provisions acknowledge the dominant position of contractual parties’ choice of laws governing contracts and subcontracts for foreign construction engineering projects.

若双方没有协定管辖,那么应该适用最密切联系地法律,在判断法律适用上考虑与合同本身存在最密切联 系的因素,这些因素通常包括合同缔结地,合同履行地,当事人的注册地,主要经营地或者住所、居所地, 仲裁条款和当事人选择的法院管辖权条款规定地,财产所在地等。而涉外建筑工程承包、分包合同的最密 切联系地则可以根据具体情况视为工程所在地,或是法人主营业地等。若在海外工程中,承包商与分包商 有一方或双方是中国建筑商,那么最密切联系是可以适用建筑商的主营业地中国法律的。

If parties to a contract fail to choose any governing law, the laws of the place in closest connection to the contract shall be applicable. In determination of the governing laws, factors in closest connection to the contract itself shall be taken into account. These factors generally include the place of contracting, the place of performance of (he contract the place of incorporation, principal place of business, domicile or residence of each contractual party, place of promulgation of arbitration regulations and rules chosen by contractual parties on jurisdiction of courts, as well as the place where properties are located etc. The place in closest connection to any contract or subcontract for a foreign construction engineering project may be deemed according to actual circumstances to be the place of the 278 / 781

 

project or ihe principal place of business of contractual parties etc. If either or both the contractor or/and the subcontractor under a subcontract for a foreign construction project is/are Chinese builder(s), the place in closest connection to the subcontract may be the principal place of business of the Chinese builder(s); that is, the laws of China may be the governing laws.

值得注意的是,当事人订立的仲裁协议能够排斥诉讼中的专属管辖。根据我国最高人民法院《关于适用〈中 华人民共和国民事诉讼法〉若干问题的意见》第305条规定:“依照民事诉讼法第三十四条和第二百四十六 条规定,属于法院专属管辖的案件,当事人不得用书面协议选择其他国家法院管辖。但协议选择仲裁裁决 的除外J因此,若涉外建筑工程承包合同的当事人想获得工程所在地之外的国家的法律保护,目前可行的 作法是在合同中约定仲裁法院,以保护自身的合法权益。

Whal is noteworthy is thal an arbitration agreement concluded by contractual parties may exclude from ihe exclusive jurisdiction of courts for litigation. As stipulated in Article 305 of Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Some Issues Concerning the Application of the Civil Procedure I^iw of the People’s Republic of China, “according to provisions of Articles 34 and 246 of the Civil Procedure Law, the parties concerned shall not select a foreign court for jurisdiction by a written agreement; unless they stipulate to settle the dispute through arbitration’*, for parties to a contract of foreign construction engineering project who intend to have their legal rights and interests protected by laws of any country other than the country where the projccl is located, the current feasible way is to specify an arbitration tribunal in the contract.

  • . FIDIC合同下仲裁条款的适用问题

《菲辿克(FIDIC)建设工程施匚合同(示范文本)》第26.6条规定,“经DAB对之做出的决定(如果有) 未能成为最终的和有约束力的任何争端,除非已获得友好解决,应通过国际仲裁对其作出最终解决,除非 双方另有协议:(a)争端应根据国际商会仲裁规则最终解决;(b)争端应由按上述规则任命的3位仲裁人 员负责解决:以及(c)仲裁应以第1.4款规定的交流语言进行”。换句话说,这个条款规定,除非当事人有 特别协议,那所有因该合同引起的争议应当适用ICC Rules。条文虽然明确规定了仲裁适用条款,但在我国 这种仲裁条款是否有效力呢?前述笔者提到,在中国,除了仲裁机构自己,法院也能时仲裁协议是否生效 进行裁定或判决,而且当两结果相冲突时,往往以法院判决结果为主。因此笔者将谈论该条仲裁协议在中 国法院面前的效力。笔者认为该条文存在两点不足之处会导致该条款在中国的效力有模棱两可的结果。

Under Clause 26.6 of FIDIC Construction Project Contract Template, ^Unless settled amicably, any dispute in respect of which the DAB’s decision (if any) has not become final and binding shall be finally settled by international arbitration. Unless otherwise agreed by both parties: (a) the dispute shall be finally settled under the Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce; (b) the dispute shall be settled by three arbitrators appointed in accordance with these Rules; and (c) the arbitration shall be conducted in the language for communications defined in Sub-Clause |law and language]. In other words, this Clause stipulates that, unless otherwise specifically agreed by both parties, all disputes arising from this Contract shall be governed by ICC Rules. Although governing arbitration rules are expressly specified thereunder, it leaves still open the question whether arbitration clause thereunder is valid in China. As previously mentioned by the author, besides arbitration institutions, courts of competent jurisdiction are also competent to rule or judge whether an arbitration agreement is valid; furthermore, in case of inconsistency of rulings between an arbitration institution and a court, the court’s ruling prevails in most cases.

在中国,除了仲裁机构自己,法院也能对仲裁协议是否生效进行裁定或判决,而且当两结果相冲突时,往 往以法院判决结果为主。

The author is of the view that (wo deficiency of this Clause may lead to an ambiguous answer lo the question on validity of the arbitration clause in China.

首先,条文虽然规定了合同适用ICC rules,但是,其却没有规定仲裁协议效力的准据法。关于认定仲裁协 议效力的准据法,在以往的司法实践中,中国法院一般是根据国际私法的一般原理予以确定。在中国法院 的司法实践中,主要采取以下方法来确定认定仲裁协议的准据法:(1)当事人对仲裁协议效力的准据法有 明确约定。这种情况下中国法院即适用当事人选择的准据法认定所涉及的仲裁条款是否有效力。(2)在没 有约定认定仲裁协议效力的准据法的情况下,如果约定了仲裁地点,法院即适用当事人约定的仲裁地的法 律认定所涉仲裁协议效力。(3)仲裁条款既没有约定认定仲裁协议效力的准据法,有没有约定仲裁地点的 情况下,法院会适用法院地法一一中国法来认定协议效力。这种在实践中被总结出来的方法被最高人民法 院于2006年8月23日公布的法释[2006]7号《关于适用<</SPAN>中华人民共和国仲裁法〉若干问题的解释》 第16条给予确定,从此上述司法实践被赋予了法律约束力。

Firstly, although ICC rules are stipulated as the applicable arbitration rules thereunder, no law governing the validity of arbitration agreement is specified. Wilh respect to ascertainment of the law governing validity of arbitration agreement, China’s courts, according to their judicial precedents, tend to make ascertainment in line with general principles of the private international law, mainly in the following methods: (1) where a law governing validity of arbitration agreement is expressly stipulated by contractual parties, China’s courts would ascertain validity of the arbitration clause concerned pursuant to such stipulated governing law. (2) If the place of arbitration is stipulated under a contract wilhoul any stipulation on ihe law governing validity of arbitration agreement, the courts would apply the law of the place of arbitration in ascertaining validity of the arbitration agreement concerned. (3 ) Where neither any law governing validity of arbitration agreement nor any place of arbitration is stipulated under the arbitration clause of a contract, the court would apply laws of the location of the court (i.e. laws of China) in ascertaining validity of the contract. Such methods summed up from practice were affirmed by the Supreme People’s Court through Article 16 of Interpretation of the Supreme People’s Court on Issues concerning Application of the Law of Arbitration of People’s Republic of China [2006] No.7 announced on 23 August, 2006, giving legal binding force to the aforesaid judicial practices.

然而从该建筑合同范本20.6仲裁条款来看,只约定了解决合同争议的证据法,而没有约定认定仲裁协议效 力的准据法,也没有规定具体的仲裁地点,因此,在这种情况下,只有当建筑合同被一方当事人提交至中 国法院要求确认该仲裁条款的效力之时,中国法院才会依据中国法律来确认该仲裁条款是否有效。

However, as could be seen from Clause 20.6 Arbitration of the Constriction Contract Template, only the governing law on dispute resolution rather than on ascertainment of validness of arbitration agreement is stipulated and no place of arbitration is specified. In this case, only when the construction contract is submitted to a China’s court by either contractual party for ascertainment of validity of arbitration clause thereof the China’s court would make such ascertainment in accordance wilh the laws of China.

那么接下来的问题就是,如20.6条款样的只约定了仲裁规则而没有规定仲裁机构的仲裁协议在中国法律下 是否有效呢?

The next question is, as stipulated in Clause 20.6 thereof whether an arbitration agreement specifying only arbitration rules without any provision on the place of arbitration is valid under ihe laws of China?

根据中国仲裁法第16条第2款和第18条的规定,当事人在仲裁协议中没有明确约定仲裁机构,乂没布■就 仲裁机构达成补充协议,就应当认定仲裁协议无效。这是中国对仲裁机构的特殊强调,也是中国仲裁立法 不同于其他国家仲裁立法的重要方面。此种原则以及立法精神一直引导着中国法院判案。在最高人民法院 于2004年7月5日做出的[200引民叫他字第23号《关于德国旭普林国际有限责任公司与无锡沃可通用工程 橡胶布•限公司中请确认仲裁协议效力一案的请示的复函》中对于案件所涉及仲裁条款(规定:“仲裁:适用 国际商会仲裁规则,在上海仲裁”)的效力明确:“根据我国仲裁法的有关规定,有效的仲裁条款应当同时 具备仲裁的意思表示、仲裁的事项和明确的仲裁机构三个方面的内容。本案所涉仲裁条款从字面上看,虽 然有明确的仲裁的意思表示、仲裁规则和仲裁地点,但并没有明确指出仲裁机构,因此,应当认定该仲裁 条款无效…同样,在最高法院2006年4月26 IEI《关于仲裁条款效力请示的复函》([2006]民四他字笫 6号)中指出,《中华人民共和国仲裁法》第18条明确规定,仲裁协议对仲裁事项或者仲裁委员会没有约定 或者约定不明确的,当事人可以补充协议;达不成补充协议的,仲裁协议无效。由于本案双方当事人在仲 裁条款中未约定明确的仲裁机构,且不能达成补充协议,因此仲裁条款无效……”

In accordance wilh provisions of Paragraph 2 of Article 16 and Article 18 of the Arbitration Law of China, if parties to an arbitration agreement neither specify any arbitration institution nor reach any supplcrncntary, agreement on arbitration institution, the arbitration agreement shall be deemed as null and void. Great importance is attached to stipulation on arbitration institution. This is the uniqueness of China’s legislation on arbitration which has always been the principle dominating judicial practices of China’s courts. In the Letter of Reply of the Supreme People’s Court to the Request for Instructions on the Case concerning the Application of Ziiblin International GmbH and Wuxi Woke General Engineering Rubber Co.. Ltd. for Dctcnnining the Validity of the Arbitration Agreement [2()03]MSTZ No.23 dated 5 July, 2004, the validity of arbitration clause (i.e. Arbitration: arbitration shall be conducted in Shanghai in accordance with the ICC rules) involved in the case was ascertained as follows: “According to rhe relevant provisions of the Arbitration Law of China, an effective arbitration clause shall have such three contents as an intention to arbitration, matters for arbitration, and a definite arbitration institution. Seen from the letters of the arbi(ration clauses involved in this Case, there are clear intenlion to arbitration, arbitration rules, and place of arbitration, but the arbitration institution is not clearly designated. Therefore, the arbitration clause shall be detennined as invalid”. Likewise, in the Letter of Reply of the Supreme People’s Court to the Request for Instructions on Validity of the Arbitration Clause [2006] MSTZ No.6 dated 26 April, 2006, il’s pointed out that “As stipulated in Article 18 of the Arbitration Law of the People’s Republic of China, if an arbitration agreement contains no or unclear provisions concerning the mailers for arbitration or ihe cirbitration commission, the parties may reach a supplemental agreement. If no such supplementary agreement can be reached, the arbitration agreement shall be null and void. Both parties in this case specify no arbitration institution in the arbitration clause and fail to reach any supplementary agreement thereon, ihe arbitration clause in question is therefore null and void ”

对于如此严苛的仲裁要求,在实践中,并不有利于国际贸易、商业的发展,因此,中国司法界根据实际需 耍做了一些补充完善。在法释[2006]7号最高人民法院关于适用《中华人民共和国仲裁法》若干问题的解释 第4条规定到:仲裁协议仅约定纠纷适用的仲裁规则的,视为未约定仲裁机构,但当事人达成补充协议或 者按照约定的仲裁规则能够确定仲裁机构的除外。从条文字面可以看出,相对仲裁法而言,最高院的司法 解释扩展了认定仲裁协议有效的标准,即如果当事人只规定适用某仲裁规则而没有约定仲裁机构,如果法 院可以通过该规则推导确定一个唯一的仲裁机构,那么该仲裁协议也是有效的。根据这条司法解释,如果 当事人在合同中仅约定适用《中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会仲裁规则》(CIETAC Rules),该协议可被法院 认定为有效。因为在2005版第四条第(三)向中明确规定:“凡当事人约定按照本规则进行仲裁但未约定 仲裁机构的,均视为同意将争议提交仲裁委员会仲裁」此条例被2012版仲裁规则沿袭。最高人民法院在

《仅约定适用<</SPAN>国际商会仲裁规则,没有约定仲裁机构,该仲裁条款无效》(2007)民四终字第15 号中明确指出:“2005年《中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会仲裁规则》就可以被认为是2006年司法解释条款 中’按照约定的仲裁规则能够确定仲裁机构’的情形,而《国际商会仲裁规则》不属于这种情形。

In practice, such stringent legal requirements on arbitration would hinder development of international trade and business. Accordingly, China’s judicial circles made some supplementary adjustments to the Arbitration Law based on actual circumstances. Under Article 4 of Interpretation of the Supreme People’s Court concerning Some Issues on Application of the Arbitration Law of the People’s Republic of China (Intciprctation No.7 [2006]), “where an agreement for arbitration stipulates only arbitration rules applicable to any dispute, it shall be deemed that no arbitration institution is stipulated, unless the parties concerned reach a supplementary agreement thereon or an arbitration institution could be detennined pursuant to the arbitration rules as agreed by them’; it could be seen that, as compared to provisions of the Arbitration Law, such interpretation by the supreme court has extended the criteria for ascertainment of validity of arbitration agreement. That is, where parties to a contract stipulate only applicable arbitration Riles without agreement on any arbitration inslilulion. the court may determine an exclusive arbitration institution based on the stipulated arbitration rules and such contract may be ascertained as valid by the court. According to this judicial interpretation, a contract merely stipulating CIETAC Rules as the applicable rules in its arbitration clause may be deemed as valid by the court. It,s expressly provided in paragraph 3 of Article 4 of CIETAC Rules (2005 Revision) that “where the parties agree to refer their disputes to arbitration under these Rules without providing the name of an arbitration institution, they shall be deemed to have agreed to refer the dispute to arbitration by the CIETAC”. Such provision is followed by CIETAC Rules (2012 Revision). The supreme court, in its Judgment (2007) MSZZ No. 15 that “the arbitration clause is null and void because they specify no arbitration institution but merely ICC niles as the governing arbitration rules”, expressly pointed out that CIETAC Rules (2005 Revision) may be deemed as within (he range of the Judicial Interpretation 2006 that “an arbitration institution may be determined pursuant to arbitration nilcs as stipulated under a contracf\ while ICC rules may not.

根据上述法律规定以及司法解释,建筑合同范本中的20.6仲裁条款并不能被中国法院认定为有效力。因为, 法院不能从ICC仲裁规则中推导出唯一的仲裁机构。这一点,也在上述最高人民法院的相关复函中得到 确定。然而,笔者认为,【CC2012新规则的颁布与生效,将会改变这一局面。

In accordance with the aforesaid legal provisions and judicial interpretations, Clause 20.6 Arbitration of the Construction Conlract Template would not be ascertained as valid by the China’s courts. The reason is that no exclusive arbitration institution could be determined under the ICC niles by China-s courts, which is affirmed by the Supreme People’s Court through the aforesaid relevant letters of reply; however, the author is of the opinion that the upcoming promulgation and effectiveness of new rules ICC2012 will change the current situation.

1CC2012新规则新增加条款第6条第2项规定“凡当事人约定按照本规则进行仲裁,均视为同意将争议提 交给国际商会仲裁委员会。“(by agreeing to arbitration under the Rules, the parties have accepted that the arbitration shall be administered by the Court.)其次,新规则第1条第2款也明确到The Court是唯一经授权 对仲裁规则项下仲裁活动实施管理的机构,包括对按照仲裁规则所做出的裁决进行核阅、批准。<thc court is the only body authorized to administer arbitrations under the Rules including the scrutiny and approval of awards rendered in accordance with the Rules,)新增加这两条规则,其与CIETAC第四条的规定极为相似, 根据这两条规则,我们可以推断出当事人双方在合同中约定所有争议由ICC规则管辖,就等于双方约定了 争议由ICC管辖。根据该新规则以及上述提到最高院[2007]民四终字笫15号的判决的精神,笔者认为可以

 

从建筑合同范本第20.6项条款推导出,双方已默示的约定将争议提交给国际商会仲裁委。然目前,中国境 内暂没有相关法院对这个问题进行确认,们需要等待相关司法解释或者最高院的判例给予回免。

We will see a new provision “Paragraph 2 of Clause 6” added to the new ICC Rules 2012, providing that “by agreeing to arbitration under the Rules, the parties have accepted that the arbitration shall be administered by the Arbitration Commission of the International Chamber of Commerce”, Additionally, it’s also prescribed under Paragraph 2 of Article 1 of the new nilcs ICC20121hat “the court is the only body authorized to administer arbitrations under the Rules including the scnitiny and approval of awards rendered in accordance with the Rules”. According lo these two newly added provisions which are quite similar to that under Clause 4 of CIETAC, we can infer that, by stipulating that all disputes shall be governed by ICC? rules, both parties have actually agreed that the arbitration shall be administered by ICC. The author is of the opinion that, under the guidance of these new rules ICC2012 and the aforesaid Judgment [2007] MSZZ No. 15 made by the Supreme People’s Court, it can be deferred from Clause 20.6 of the Construction Contract Template that both parties thereto have impliedly agreed to submitted disputes thereunder to the Arbitration Commission of ICC. Considering that none of China’s courts has ever made affirmation on (his issue, wc need to wait for the reply in (he fonn of relevant judicial interpretations or decisions of the Supreme Court.

  • .认定仲裁条款效力的准据法

Applicable Law lo Determine Validity of Arbitration Clause

最高法院2006年4月26日《关于仲裁条款效力请示的发函》([2006]民四他字第6号)中指出本案仲裁条 款为涉外仲裁条款,首先应明确确认仲裁条款效力的准据法。根据今年司法实践以及本院第二次全国涉外 商事海事审判工作会议纪要所确定的原则,当事人在合同中明确约定了仲裁条款效力的准据法的,应当适 用当事人明确约定的法律;未约定仲裁条款效力的准据法但约定了仲裁地的,应当适用仲裁地国家或者地 区的法律。

The letter of Reply of the Supreme Peoples Court to the Request for Instructions on Validity of the Arbitration Clause 120061 MSTZ No.6 dated 26 April, 2006 reads that the arbitration clauses of this case involve foreign elements, thus the first point to make sure is the applicable law to determine the validity of arbitration clause. Based on years, judicial experience as well as the principles ascertained in the meeting summary of 2nd National Conference of Judicial Work on Commercial and maritime Cases held by this Court, where parties expressly agree in the agreement on the applicable law to determine the validity of arbitration clause, such agreed law shall be applied; where no applicable law to determine the validity of arbitration clause has been agreed on but the place of arbitration has been agreed on, the law of the country or region where the place of arbitration is located in shall be applied.

《纽约公约》(New York Convention 1958 )第 5 条第 1 款第 1 项规定(Article V (1) (A)): 一、裁决唯有于受裁决援用之i造向申请承认及执行地之主管机关提具证据证明有下列情形之一时,始得 依该造之请求,拒予承认及执行:

Article V (1) (A) of New York Convention 1958 reads that:

Recognition and enforcement of the award may be refused at the request of the party against whom it is invoked, only if that party furnished the proof to the competent authority where the recognition and enforcement is sought on one of the following grounds:

(甲)第二条所称协定之当事人依对其适用之法律有某种无行为能力情形者,或该项协定依当事人作为协 定准据之法律系属无效,或未指明以何法律为准时,依裁决地所在国法律系属无效者;

(a) The parties to the agreement referred to in article II were, under the law applicable lo them, under some incapacity, or the said agreement is not valid under (he law to which the parties have subjected it or, under the law of the country where the award was made when failing any indication of applicable laws.

68.英文合同必备条款的表达方式

NECESSARY TERMS OF ENGLISH CONTRACT

  • .前言 Preamble

一份标准英文合同通常可以分为前言(Preamble)、正文(Operativepart)>附录(Schedule)及证明部分即 结束词(Attestation)四大部分组成。

前言(Preamble)由 “Parties”及 “Recitals” 两部分组成。

**Partiesn为必备条款,在很多时候称为“commencement即合同的开场白,主要介绍合同各方的名称或 姓名、注册地及地址、邮编及在合同中的简称。当然,并不是所有的合同都要详细介绍以上诸要素,在许 多简单合同中,只是提一下各方的名称。

I.以下为“Parties”的常用表达方式:

  1. This Agreement is entered into by and between and.

本协议由以下双方 和一签署。

  1. This Agreement is entered into by and between(hereinafter referred to as) and(hereinafter refened to as H“),whereby il is agreed as follows:

本协议由以下双方一(以下简称一)和(以下简称一)签署,达成如下协议:

注:在很多合同中,这部分加入签约事由,如:

This Agreement is entered into through friendly negotiations between Co.

(hereinafter referred to as the “Party A”) and Co. (hereinafter referred to as the “Party B”) based on equality and mulual benefit to develop business on the terms and conditions set forth below:

本协议由 (以下称为甲方)和一(以下称为乙方)为发展业务在平等互利的基础上签订,其条款如

下:

This Agreement is entered into between(hereinafter referred to as “Company”),and, (hereinafter refened to as “Employee”)pursuant to paragraph VIII(2) of (he Employee Handbook, whereby it is agreed as follows:

本“协议”由 (以下简称“公司”)与 (以下简称“雇员”)根据“雇员手册”第VIII(2)款签署, “协议”内容如下:

II.以下为标准的“Parties”条款:

  1. This Agreement is made and entered into this th day of in the year of by and between,

a company duly organized and existing under and by virtue of the laws of, wilh its principal place of business at(hereinafter referred to as ” “), and, a company duly organized and existing under

and by virtue of the laws of, with its principal place of business at(hereinafter referred to as ” whereby it is agreed as follows:

本合约由 ,在 法律之下并凭该等法律正式组织并存在的公司,其主要营业地点在(下称

),与.在 法律之下并凭该等法律正式组织并存在的公司,其主要营业地点(下称

代理人),于 日签订和缔结,协议如下:

III. “Recitals”由数个以”Whereas”字样开头的句子所组合而成(这些句子俗称为“Whereas Clauses”),表 示当事人乃是在基于对这些事实(例如订约的目的、背景来由等)的共同认识,订立此合约。

  1. This Agreement is made and entered into this day of in the year of by and between,

a company duly organized and existing under and by virtue of the laws of, with its principal place of business at(hereinafter referred to as “and, a company duly organized and existing under and by virtue of the laws of, with its principal place of business at(hereinafter referred

to as “”)

WITNESSED

WHEREAS, NOW THEREFORE, the parties hereto agree as follows:

本合约由,在 法律之下并凭该等法律正式组织并存在的公司,其主要营业地点在(下称

)(或下称供应商),与,在 法律之下并凭该等法律正式组织并存在的公司,其主要营业

地点一

鉴于

因此,双方当事人达成以下协议:

注:WITNESSED 可以用 WITHNESSTH、WITHNESSTH THAT 等来代替 °

IV.在很多美国常用合同中,在很多情况下直接用RECITALS引导数个陈述语句或“WhereasClauses”。下 面为一个资产购买协议实例:

This ASSET PURCHASE AGREEMENT (ihe “Agreemenl”)is made and entered into as of May 19, 1997 by and among AAA, a Delaware corporation (“AAA”),BBB, a Delaware coloration and wholly-owned subsidiary of AAA (“Buyer”), CCC (/’Summit’*), and DDD, an Oregon corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary of Summit (”SeHer)

RECITALS

  1. The Boards of Directors of each of Summit, Seller, AAA and Buyer believe it is in the best interests of each company and their respective security holders that Buyer acquire certain listed assets and assume certain listed liabilities of Seller (the “Acquisition11).

 

  1. On the dale hereof, Buyer has executed a $2,000,000 irrevocable purchase order to purchase 400 time-based licenses for Summit’s Visual IIDL interfaces for Visual Test bench (“VTB”)software on AAA’s standard form of purchase order, which is payable within five (5) business days after the date hereof.

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the covenants, promises and representations set forth herein, and fbr other good and valuable consideration, the parties agree as follows:

2.定义 Definition

在正文(Habendum)部分,通常第一章为定义(Definitions)部分。

定义条款即对合同中涉及的术语及名词作出限定、解释的条款。它可以散见于合同各个部分,但对于一些 大型的、重要的合同,通常将其置于第一•章。

I.常见的定义语句常用mean, refer to, be construed as, include等来表达。如:

  1. MTerritoryMmeans the United States of America .”销售地区”是指美利坚合众国。
  2. ^Commencement date“ shall mean the date of signing this agreement by the last signing party hereto.

“协议生效日”是指本“协议”最后签字的一方签署本“协议”的日期。

  1. The “agreement” herein referred to shall mean this agreement of agency by entrustment. “协议”在这里是指本委托代理协议。
  2. “Code” shall refer to the cunent and applicable Internal Revenue Code.

“法”是指当前可用的国内税收法。

  1. Reference to any statutory provision shall be construed as a reference (o the same as it may have been, or may from time be, amended, modified or re-enacted.

引用法律规定理解为引用其本身外,还包括其修订、修正或重新实施案。

  1. uExpensesHinclude costs, charges and expenses of every description.

“费用”包括各种形式的金钱支出。

IL还有一类特殊的定义语句,即对于I’单、复数」及「阴、阳性」名词的范围定义。通常都是用include来 表达:

L “Stock Certificate1* includes Mstock certificateM and “stock certificatesH.

合同中的“股票”,包括单数与复数。

  1. MHeHincludes uheM and “she”.

合同中的“他”,包括“他”与“她二

  1. Words using the singular or plural number also include the plural or singular number.

采用单数或复数的单词也包括复数或单数。

IH.定义语句中,有时需限定范围。而通常用得最多的是:“for the purpose of ”及“in relation to”某概念的 定义条款,如果适用范围仅限于合同的“特定部份”,可以用“for the purpose of”来为定义条款起头。而如 果定义条款是针对合同的“特定概念”,就用“in relation 2”来界定。如下例:

  • . For the purpose of this Agreement, ^Products11means all types of the machineries manufactured by Manufacturer as are specified in Attachment A hereto.

本协议所称的“产品”,指制造人所制造如附件A表列之各式机器。

  • .”Address” means

(a)就白然人而言 in relation to an individual, his usual residential or business address; and

(b) in relation to a corporation, its registered or principal office in the Republic of China.

“地址”就自然人而言,指通常之居所或工作场所:就公司而言,指位于中华人民共和国之注册所在地或 主营业所。

IV.在定义条款中,在定义语句前有时会加上一些陈述语句来引导,如:

  1. For the purpose of this Agreement, each of the following terms shall have the following meaning respectively: 就本合同的目的而言,下列各用语,分别具有下述意义:
  2. In this Agreement, the following words or expressions shall have the meanings given lo them respectively below: 本协议内所用词句的意义,明确阐述如下:
  3. In this agreement unless the context otherwise requires, the following words and expressions shall have (he meanings assigned to them hereunder:

除非本“协议”有明确规定,下列词语应当具有如下规定之意义:

  1. The following are the definitions of various terms used in this Agreement:

本“协议”使用之术语定义如下:

3.有效期 Period of validity

有效期(Term)条款通常规定合同的有效期限,何时生效及到何时结束,合同结束后必要时如何延展等等。

  • .以下为“Term”的常用表达方式:

The term of this contract is for a year pc^od,合同的有效期为 年。

如: The term of this contract is for a one (1) year period.

  • . The contract is for a month period, commencing.

合同的有效期为 月,开始于 o (期限)

  1. The contract is for a 12 month period, commencing September 17, 2002 thru September 16, 2003.
  2. Phe contract is for a 6 month period, commencing 4-1-03 and ending 9-30-2003.
  • This agreement remains valid for year(s), i.e. commencing on,and terminating on,

*

本协议在 年之内有效,即从 年 月 日起生效,年 月 日起到期。

  • The contract term is hereby extended for the period.

合同的有效期为。

如:The contract term is hereby extended for the period in accordance with Section E. Paragraph 10, Term of

Contract and Contract Extension.

IL Term条款除了规定合同的期限外,通常另外合同期限的延展“Extension”。

  1. The contract period is for year with option to re-new for year.

合同有效期为 年,同时可以选择延长 年。

  1. The contract is for a month period, commencing. The contract may be renewed for up to

year option periods.

合同的有效期为 月,开始于,同时可以选择延长 年。

  1. This agreement shall commence on the commencement date and shall endure for a continuous period of years. Thereafter it will be automatically renewed for successive periods of years on the same terms and

conditions unless one of the parties had given days notice of termination.

本协议应自生效日生效并在 年内有效。此后,除非一方当事人提前 天书面通知对方当事人终止

本协议,本协议有效期自动延长 年,协议条款不变。

  1. Term条款并没有十分固定的表达方式,以卜即是一些合同中Term的实例:
  2. This Agreement shall be valid and remain in force for a period of three (3) years commencing from (he date appearing first above written upon the signing of both Party A and Party B and shall be extended for another period of three (3) years on the same terms and conditions unless either of the parties hereto gives the other party at least thirty (30) days prior written notice to terminate this Agreement prior to the expiration of the original term.

本合约须从上面首次写明的甲方和乙方签订本约的日期起生效并保持效力三年,并将按同样条件延长三年, 否则与约任何一-方至少须在原定时间期满前三十天给予另一方提前终止本合约的书面通知◎

  1. At any time and from time to time during the period commencing on the date hereof and terminating on.

20 , party A may in writing advise party B.

自本协议签订之日起到 年 月协议终止这段期间内,甲方可随时以书面形式通知乙方。

 

  1. The temi of this Agreement shall be three years from the effective date, unless terminated in accordance with Article VI- (3) and Article IX.

本合同的期限除非根据第8条第3款及第9条的规定终止外,有效期为3年。

  1. The contract is valid from until.

The contract period is automatically extended for any leave of absence allowed for in law.

合同的有效期为从 到 O

  1. The tenn of this Agreement shall commence on the day of and end on the day of

Upon expiration of ihe above initial term, this Agreement shall automatically be renew and extended for a like period of time unless terminated in writing by either party days prior to the date for such renewal.

本协议期限为一年—月一日至一年—月—日。除非续订日前 天一方以书面方式提出终止,否则

上述首期届满后,协议应自动续订,延长时间与前期相同。

4.不可抗力 Force Majeure

Force Majeure条款是一种免责条款,即免除由于不可抗力事件而违约的一方的违约责任。一般应规定的内 容包括:不可抗力事件的定义(Definition of Force Majeure )以及不可抗力事件的后果(Consequences of Force Majeure)。在Force Majeure条款中,两者属于因果关系,难以截然分开。

  • .对于Force Majeure的定义,《合同法》定义如F:

本法所称不可抗力,是指不能预见、不能避免并不能克服的客观情况。

For puiposes of this Law, force majeure means any objective circumstance, which is unforeseeable, unavoidable and insurmountable.

  • .以下是Force Majeure条款的举例:
  1. Neither party shall be responsible for delays or failures in performance resulting from acts or facts reasonably beyond the control of that party.

任何一方不应对因其无法控制之行为或事实造成协议延迟履行或不履行承担任何责任。

  1. Either Party shall not be liable for any delay caused by any unpredictable factor or any factor which is unavoidable or insurmountable by reasonable means at the time of conclusion of this Agreement, or any loss caused by failure in fulfillment of obligations as stipulated herein.

协议任一方无须对因任何在本协议签订时无法预见或以合理手段也无法避免或克服之原因造成的迟延或不 履行本协议之义务所造成的损失承担责任。

注:以上采用的是类似《合同法》概括的定义方法。而合同为不可抗力定义时更多地采用列举的方法。

  1. Neither party of this Agreement, directly or indirectly owing lo any causes or circumstances beyond its control including Acts of God, Governmental orders or restriction, war, warlike conditions, revolutions, strike, lockout, fire and flood.

本合同任何一方当事人对直接或间接地由于其无法控制的原因或情况包括白然灾害、政府命令或限制、战 争、战争状态、革命、罢工、工厂被关闭、火灾、水灾等而未能履行或延迟履行合同或合同一部分的行为, 不负任何责任。

注:Acts of God通常也译为“不可抗力”,但主要是指自然灾害;而Force Majcurc则包括自然及人为两方面。

  1. Neither party will be liable for nondelivery, misdelivery or late delivery (other than the payment of money due hereunder) caused by circumstances beyond its reasonable control, including, among others, war, civil strife or commotion, riots, strikes, fires, floods, acts of God, inability to obtain materials, failure of carriers or compliance with any law, regulation or governmental order.

任何当事人将不会为任何因为不可控制的情况产生的未交付货物、交付错误或延迟交货(除了支付应付款)。 不可控制的情况包括战争、国内斗争或暴乱、骚乱、罢工、火灾、洪灾、自然灾害、无力获得材料、承运 人的失误、遵守法律、法规或政府令。

  1. Should either of the parties to the contract by prevented from executing the contract by force majcurc, such as earthquake, typhoon, flood, fire and war and other unforeseen events, and their happening and consequences are unprevenlable and unavoidable, the prevented party shall notify the olher party by cable wiihout any delay, and within 15 days thereafter provide (he detailed infonnation of the events and a valid document for evidence issued by the relevant public notary organization

for explaining the reason of its inability to execute or delay the execution of all or part of the contract. Both parties shall, through consolations, decide whether to temiinate the contract or to exempt the part of obligations for implementation of the contract or whether to delay the execution of the contract according to the effects of the events on the performance of the contract.

由于他宸、台风、水灾、火灾、战争以及其它不能预见并旦对其发生和后果不能防止或避免的不可抗力事 件出现,致使直接影响合同的履行或者不能按约定的条件履行时,遇有上述不可抗力的一方,应立即电报 通知对方,并应在十五大内,提供不可抗力详情及合同不能履行、或者部分不履行、或者需要延期履行的 理由的有效证明文件。此项证明文件应由事故发生地有权证明的机构出具。按其对履行合同影响的程度, 由双方协商决定是否解除合同,或者部分履行合同,或者延期履行合同。

  1. Force majcurc shall hereof consist of the following events:

下述事件构成不可抗力:

Where such cases as war, earthquake, serious windstorms, snow, or tire or other events which no party can foresee and prevent from happening occur;

发生战争、地震、严雨的风灾、雪灾、火灾或其他各方无法预见、无法抗拒的事故。

The related laws and regulations in collection with ihe execution of duties by any party to this Agreement undergo changes, under which this Agreement will be illegal or the transfer cannot be fulfilled.

自本协议签订之日起与本协议任何i方履行本协议相关的法律、法规发生变更致使本协议非法或转让行为 无法完成。

In event of the occurrence of the above-mentioned events, if any party (hereinafter referred to as the 4‘Efleeted Party “) has been delayed or deterred from performing the duties of this Agreement in the course of its execution, the Affected Party shall be free from any liabilities for breach of the agreement and for compensation.

在发生本协议不可抗力事件之后,任何一方(以下简称受影响方)在履行本协议义务时受到拖延或不能履 行时,受影响方不承担任何违约责任及赔偿责任。

In event of the force majeure, the affected party shall, within days from the date of the occurrence, notify the

other party of the impact of such events on the execution of the duties in this Agreement, by telex, telegraph or in any other lawful written form, and simultaneously submit the relevant official credentials concerning the force majeure herein.

在发生不可抗力事件时,受影响方应自不可抗力事件发生之日起 大内以电传或电报或其他任何合理书

面方式,通知另一方有关不可抗力的发生和不可抗力对其履行本协议的义务的影响,同时应呈交不可抗力 的有关官方证明。

Should the effect of the force majeure cases last more than days, both parlies shall consult each other about

ihe alterations of this Agreement; in case they fail lo reach an agreement, Chapter 8 shall thereupon apply.

在不可抗力事件延续 天后,双方必须磋商本协议的变更,双方未能协商一致的,适用本协议第八堂的

规定。

  1. Force Majeure 不可抗力
  • No party to this Contract shall be liable to the other party for any failure of or delay in performance of its obligations hereof nor be deemed to be in breach of this Contract, if such failure or delay has arisen from °force majeure.H

如果任何一方因不可抗力而款能履行或推迟履行其义务,则不对另一方负责,也不应视作违反合同。

HForce Majeure1* means circumstances and conditions beyond the control of either parties, that would render it impossible for either the Owner or the Contractor to fulfill their obligations under this Contract, or delay such fulfillment. Any of the following matters are considered Hforce majeure/’

“不可抗力”指业主或承包商无法控制的情况,使当事人未能按本合同履行其义务,或者不得不延迟履行 其义务。下列情况均被视作“不可抗力”:

  1. war, hostilities, act of foreign enemy, invasion, warlike opera-tions (whether war to be declared or not) or civil war;
  2. mutiny, civil commotion assuming the proportions of or amounting to a popular rising, military rising, insurrection, rebellion, revolution, military or usurped power, or any act of any person acting on behalf of or in connection with any organization with activities directed towards the overthrow by force of the Government de jure or de facto, or to the influencing of it by terrorism or violence;
  3. earthquake, flood, fire or other natural physical disaster;
  4. denial of the use of all ports, airports, shipping services or other means of public transport;
  5. strike or lock out or other indusirial concerted action by workers, affecting the fulfillment of Contractors and subcontractors* obligations;
  6. and other unforeseen circumstances beyond the control of the parlies so affected rendering the fulfillment of their obligations impossible.

a.战争、敌对事件、外敌行动、入侵、类似战争的军事行动(不管是事宣战)、内战;

b.士兵哗变、民众暴乱、军事叛乱、起义、造反、革命、篡权、或者任何个人代表某个组织或与某个组织 有联系、旨在以暴力推翻合法或现存政府、或以恐怖主义或暴力对政府施加影响的行为:

c.地震、洪水、火灾或其他自然灾害;

d.所有港口、机场、船运或其他公共交通工具的使用均遭拒绝:

e.工人罢工、工厂停工、或其他的劳工联合行动,影响了承包商和分包商履行其义务;

f.当事人无法控制、从而使其不能履行义务的其他任何意外情况。

  • If either party to this Contract is prevented or delayed from or in performing any of his obligations under this Contract by force majeure, then he may notify the other party of the circumstances constituting the force majeure and of the obligation performance of which is thereby delayed or prevented and the party giving the notice shall thereupon be excused from the performance or punctual performance, as the case may be. of such obligation for so long as the circumstances of prevention or delay may continue.

如果本合同任何一方因不可抗力不能或延迟履行本合同规定的任何义务,他可将不可抗力和由此造成的延 迟或妨碍情况通知另一方。发出通知的一方允许根据具体情况及妨碍或延迟持续的时间免于履行或推迟履 行合同。

  • If by virtue of the preceding sub-clause dither party shall be excused from the performance or punctual perfonnance of any obligation for a continuous period of months, then either party may at any time

thereafter terminate this Contract by giving a written notice to the other party.

根据本第款第3分条规定,如果任何一方免于履行或推迟履行其义务的时间持续了一个月,那么任何一 方都可随时向另一方发出书面通知,终止本合同。

  • 改 Modification

合同修订(Modificalion)条款为合同常用条款.主要规定了合同修订的方式与途径。例如:书面合同,只能以 书面方式进行修订,口头修订内容无效。

  1. Modification条款通常较为简单,以下为一些常用比较简约的表达方式:
  2. The contract can be amended only after the amendment is agreed upon by both parties. 只有经双方一致同意,合同方可变更。
  3. This Agreement may be amended only by a written instrument signed by duly authorized representatives of both parties.

本合同只有经双方当事人授权的代表正式签署的书面文件,方可修改。

 

  1. This Agreement may not be amended or modified except by written instrument signed

by each of the Parties hereto.

除非经本协议当事人签署的书面通知,否则本协议书不得作出任何修改和变更。

  1. Any alterations or amendments of this Agreement shall be subject to agreement through consultation between both parties in writing.

本协议的任何变更或修改,应由本协议双方协商一致,并以书面方式进行。

  1. This Agreement shall not be modified or amended except by a written instmment, signed by the parties hereto. 除非双方当事人共同签署书面文件,否则本“协议”不得修改或修订。
  2. Any modification, amendment or waiver of any of the provisions of this Agreement must otherwise be made in writing and duly signed by the parties hereto.

对本“协议”任何规定的任何变更、修改或免责必须另以书面形式作出,并经各方正式签字。

  1. During the period of validity of the agreement, either party shall be entitled to make proposal of amendment to the agreement and the agreement amended shall go into effect with ihe signature of ihe two parlies.

在协议的有效期内,任何一方都有权提出对协议进行修改,修改后的协议经过双方签署后才能够生效。

IL在实际运用中,由于内容环境不同,表达可能有所不同,以下为一些实例:

  1. If the loan contract affiliated to this Contract has lo be abridged, amended, or revised, both parlies shall negotiate to amend and revise this Contract in line with the provisions of the loan contract.

本股权质押项下的贷款合同如有修改、补充而影响本质押合同时,双方应协商修改、补充本质押合同,使 其与股权质押项下贷款合同规定相一•致。

  1. If this Contract shall be abridged, revised, or amended on account of force majeure, the responsibilities assumed by the Party A under this Contract shall not be exempted or reduced, and the rights and interests of the Party B under this Contract shall not been affected or infringed.

如因不可抗力原因致本合同须作一•定删节、修改、补充时,应不免除或减少甲方在本合同中所承担的责任, 不影响或侵犯乙方在本合同项下的权益。

  1. The aniendnient of the contract or other appendices shall come into force only after the written agreement signed by Party A and Party B and approved by the original examination and approval authority.

对本合同及其附件的修改必须经甲、乙双方签署书面协议,并报原审批机构批准,方可生效。

  1. This Agreement may be amended in writing signed by both Parties. Unless otherwise expressly agreed to in such amendment, all terms and conditions of this Agreement shall apply to any such addition and all rights granted to Licensee under this Agreement shall terminate as to any such deletion.

293 / 781

 

本协议可由「双方」书面签署予以修改。除在此种修改中另行明确同意外,本协议所有的条款和条件须适 用于任何此类修改中所做的添加,而所有根据本协议而给予「被许可人」的权利对于任何此类修改中的删 除事项而言将终止。

6.补偿 Indemnification

损害赔偿(indemnification)条款,是减少合同风险的一个重耍条款。该条款主耍约定在第三者对合同提出 权利主张时,另一缔约方应当对此承担责任。通常情况下,另一缔约方必须支付全部的防御性诉讼费用, 以及全部的支付给第三者的和解费用或者第三者胜诉后造成的所有损失。

实际上,本条款是将第三人造成的风险从合同的一方当事人转移给另一方当事人。

其次,本条款也可以约定合同的另一缔约方有其他不当的作为时,应当进行损害赔偿。

  1. Indemnification 条款常用 uindemnify and hold hamiless from ” 来表达:
  2. Party A agrees to indemnify and hold Party B harmless from any claim or demand, including reasonable attorneys* fees, made by any third party due to or arising out of

甲方同意对乙方因 造成的损失作出赔偿及保证乙方不招致任何第三方索偿或索求,包括合理的律师费

用。

应用实例:

Party A agrees to indemnify and hold Party B harmless from any claim or demand, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, made by any third party due to or arising out of Party A’s use of the Site, the violation of this Agreement by Party A. or the infringement by Party A, or other user of the Site using Party A*s login name and password, of any intellectual property or other right of any person or entity.

甲方同意对乙方因甲方使用网站、或甲方违反本协议、或因甲方或其它使用甲方之登记名称及密码而使用 网站的使用者,侵犯任何知识产权或任何其它人士或单位的其它权利所造成的损失作出赔偿及保证乙方不 招致任何索偿或索求,包括合理的律师费用。

  1. Party A shall indemnify and hold party B and each of party B officers, directors, stockholders, employees and agents harmless against, and in respect of, any damage, loss, liability, cost or expense, including attorneys, fees, resulting or arising from or incurred in connection with this Agreement and the transactions contemplated hereby, except such as may result from willful malfeasance if party B or such officer, director, stockholder, employee of agent, as the case may be.

甲方应当赔偿乙方及其每个职员、董事、股东、雇员及其代理人因此协议引起或与此协议以后的交易相关 事项而产生的损害、损失、责任、开支或费用,包括律师费用,但因乙方或其职员、策事、股东、雇员或 代理人有意的过失而引起的损失除外。

  1. Each party will defend, indemnify and hold the other harmless from and against all actions, proceedings, claims, demands, suits, losses, damages and expenses, including reasonable attorneys fees and costs reasonably incurred in defending any proceedings in which the damages sustained arose from a failure of the other party to meet its obligations under this agreement. In no event will either party be liable to the other in connection with this agreement for special, incidental, indirect or consequential or punitive damages regardless of whether either or both parties knew of the possibility of such damages.

一方当事人将使另一•方当事人免于承担诉讼、索赔、请求、损害赔偿金及费用,包括为以下诉讼辩护而发 生的合理的律师费:因另一方当事人未根据本协议履行其义务而导致损害赔偿的诉讼。

不管一方当事人或双方当事人是否知道特殊损害赔偿、附带损害赔偿、间接损害赔偿、后果性损害赔偿、 惩罚性损害赔偿发生的可能性,一方当事人均不会为另一方当事人承担上述损害赔偿。

  1. Contractor agrees to protect, defend, indemnify and hold harmless company; its parent, subsidiaries and affiliated companies, and its and their employees, subcontractors and its and their insurers from and against any claim, demand, cause of action, loss, expense award, obligation to indemnify anotherjudgment or liability on account of illness, injury or death to the employees of contractor and contractor’s subcontractors and/or damage to or loss or destruction of (he property of contractor arising directly or indirectly out of the performance of this contract regardless of omissions or negligence, in whole or in any part, of company.

承包商同意保护、辩护、赔偿和保证公司、其上级公司、下屈公司和关联公司、及其雇员、次承包商和其 保险公司不承担在棋行本合同过程中,不论公司是否存在部分或全部的不作为或疏忽的货任,直接或间接 所导致的承包商和次承包商的雇员生病、受伤或死亡以及承包商的财产所遭受的毁损灭失相关的任何诉求、 要求、诉因、损失、费用、对他方的赔偿义务、判决或赔偿责任。

  1. Indemnification条款还有多种表达方式,但并不固定。
  2. Notwithstanding any of indemnities and liabilities specifically referred to above, neither company or contractor shall be liable to the other with respect to any consequential loss including, but noi limited lo, loss of anticipated profit, loss of anticipated revenue, loss of anticipated production, loss of product, or loss of use of money, arising or alleged to arise out of either company’s or contractor\ fliilure to property carry out its obligations hereunder or due to omissions or negligence, in whole or any part, of the part at fault, its subcontractors or vendors or the un-seaworthiness of vessel, or strict liability, and regardless of whether pre-existing the execution of the agreement. 除上列特别述及的赔偿和责任外,公司或承包商相互间不承担任何间接损失,包括但不限于预计的利润损 失、预计的收益损失、预计的生产损失、产品损失、无法使用金钱的损失,由于或认为系因公司或承包商 未能正确地履行本合同的义务或由于该违约系由于其次承包商或供应商(买方)或船舶不适航或严格责任和 不论是否存在依以前协议履行原因,所导致的部分或全部的不作为或疏忽所造成的损失。
  3. All remedies specified herein or otherwise available shall be cumulative and in addition to any and every other remedy provided hereunder or now or hereafter available at law or in equity. No waiver or failure to act with respect to any breach or default hereunder, whether or not the other party has notice thereof, shall be deemed to be a waiver with respect to any subsequent breach or default, whether of similar or different nature.

依据法律或衡平法,本“协议”所述的赔偿或其它可得的赔偿应当是累积的,并在本“协议”中规定的赔 偿之外,或在现在或此后可得的赔偿之外。无论对方当事人通知与否,任何与违反协议或不履行协议有关 的弃权不得视为与任何后来的违反协议或不履行协议有关的弃权,无论是否性质相同或不同。

III.在大型合同中,Indemnification条款往往非常复杂,以下即为。

Indemnification 补偿

 

  • Each party shall indemnify and hold harmless the other party, its shareholders, directors, officers, employees, agents, designees and assignees, or any of them, from and against all losses, damages, liabilities, expenses, costs, claims, suits, demands, actions, causes of actions, proceedings, judgments, assessments, deficiencies and charges (collcciivcly, “Damages”) caused by. relating to or arising from the performance by such party in accordance with this Contract of its obligations hereunder, and Buyer shall also indemnify Seller, without limiting the foregoing, for any such item caused by, relating to or arising from (a) the programming services which are authorized for viewing sing the System, including any assertion that any such programming service involves copyright infringement, (b) any disputes between Buyer and any of its program distributors or other distributors or affiliates, (c) any disputes or claims involving the subscribers for Buyer’s programming services, or (d) any assertion that Buyer has been involved in, that Buyer’s conduct of subscription involves, or that Buyer’s use of the System involves, any unfair competition or violations of laws, rules or regulations.

(a )每方应就其按本合同规定履行其本合同项下义务所导致的、与其有关的或由其引发的一切损失、损害、 责任、支出、费用、索赔、诉讼、要求、诉讼行为、诉因、程序、判决、估定税额、欠额以及收费(合称“损 害”)补偿另一方、另一方的股东、董事、管理人员、雇员、代理、被指定人、受让人或其中任何一人,使 之不受损害,并且在不对上文所述予以限制的条件下,买方还应就下述各项所导致的、与其有关的或由其 引发的上述任何事项补偿卖方:

⑶授权对viewing sing系统提供的服务;(b)买方与项目分包商、分支机构之间的纠纷;⑹ 任何用户针对 买方的该项目服务的纠纷或索赔:(d)针对买方所涉该系统的不正当竞争或违法指控。

  • In the event of a third-party claim, with respect to which a party’s entitled to indemnification hereunder, a party (the ^Indemnified PartyM) shall notify the other party (the “Indemnifying Party1*) in writing s soon as practicable, but in no event later than days after receipt of such claims. The Indemnified Party’s failure to provide such

noticed shall not preclude it from seeking indemnification hereunder unless such failure has materially prejudiced the Indemnifying Party’s ability to defend such claim. The Indemnifying Party shall promptly defend such claim with counsel of its own choosing) and the Indemnified Party shall cooperate with the Indemnifying Party in the defense of such claim, including the setllemenl of the matter on the basis stipulated by the indemnifying Party (wilh the Indemnifying Party being responsible for all costs and expenses of such setdement).

(b)如果第三方提出一方按本合同规定有权获得补偿的索赔请求,一方(“受补偿方”)应在实际可能的情况 下尽早通知另一方(“补偿方”),但无论如何不得迟于在收到该等请求后的第 日。受补偿方未给予

该通知并不排除其按本合同规定寻求补偿,除非未给予该通知补偿方抗辩该索赔请求的能力受到实质影响。 补偿方(与其自行选择的律师一起)应及时对该索赔诂求进行抗辩,而受补偿方应在对该索赔请求进行抗辩时 与补偿方合作,包括按照补偿方规定的原则就该事项达成和解(补偿方承担该和解的一•切费用与支出)。

If the Indemnifying Party within a reasonable time after notice of a claim fails lo defend the Indemnified parly, the Indemnified Party shall be entitled to undertake the defense, compromise or settlement of such claim at the expense of the Indemnifying arty. Upon the assumption of the defense of such claim, the Indemnifying arty may settle, compromise or defend as it sees fit. Notwiihstanding anything to ihe contrary set forth in this Section, seller will defend any suit, claim, action or proceeding brought against buyers to the extent that such suit, claim, action or proceeding is based on a claim that goods manufactured and sold by Seller to Buyer infringe patent, copyright, mask work, trademark, trade secret or any other intellectual property rights of any third party and Seller shall pay all damages and costs awarded by final judgment (from which no appeal may be taken) against Buyer, as well as its actual expenses and costs, on condition that Seller

如果补偿方收到索赔通知后为受补偿方辩护,则受补偿方应rr权对该索赔进行抗辩、妥协或和解,费用由 补偿方承也。在承担对该等索赔请求的辩护后,补偿方可进行和解•、妥协或抗辩,由其酌处。无论本条有 何相反的规定,如果发生对买方的诉讼、索赔、诉讼行为或程序是基于以下主张,即卖方制造并销售给买 方的物品侵犯了任何第三方的 国专利、版权、掩模、商标、商业秘密或其他任何知识产权,则卖方

将就该诉讼、索赔、诉讼行为或程序为买方辩护,并将支付局判决(不能再上诉的)判定由买方承担的损害赔 偿与费用,以及买方实际的支出与费用,上述规定的条件是:

(i) is promptly informed and furnished a copy of ach communication, notice or other action relating to the alleged infringement, (ii) is given sole control of the defense (including the right to select counsel), and the sole right to compromise and settle such suit or proceeding; provided however, that Seller’s liability hereunder, if any. shall be strictly and solely limited to the amount of royalties which would be payable in respect of revenues derived by Seller from Buyer from sales of ihe infringing goods. Seller shall not be obligated to defend or be liable for costs and damages if the infringement arises out if a combination with, an addition to, or modification of the goods after delivery by Seller, or from use of the goods, or any part thereof, in the practice of a process.

(1)卖方被及时告知侵权指控的发生,并得到与该侵权指控有关的每一通讯、通知或其他诉讼文书的副本, (2)得到该辩护的独家控制权(包括选择律师的权利),以及就诉讼或程序进行妥协或者和解的独家权利;但是, 卖方在本合同项下的责任(如果有的话),应严格地并且仅仅限于卖方因买方销售侵权物品而应从买方获得的 特许权使用费收入金额。如果侵权是由卖方交货后有人将物品混合、添加或改造而引起,或者由实施某一 方法时使用物品(或其何部分)而引起,则卖方无义务进行辩护,亦无承担费用或损害赔偿的责任。

If any goods manufactured and supplied by Seller to Buyer are held to infringe any valid patent and Buyer is enjoined from using the same, or if seller believes such infringement is likely, Seller will exert all reasonable efforts at its option and expense (i) to procure for Buyer the right to use such goods free of any liability for such infringement, or (ii) replace or modify such goods with a noninfringing substitute otherwise complying substantially with all ihe requirements of this contract, or (iii) upon return of the goods, refund the purchase price and the transportation costs of such goods (less reasonable allowance for their use and benefit derived therefrom for the period of time from delivery to Buyer, such allowance being based on a straight-line depreciation period of years from the date of shipment by Seller).

如果卖方制造并向买方提供的任何物品被判定侵犯有效的 国专利,出卖方被禁止使用该专利,或者

如果卖方相信很可能发生侵权,卖方将尽一切合理的努力,自费从以下措施中作出选择:(1)为买方取得使 用该等物品而不产生侵权责任的权利,或(2)以在其他方面实质符合本合同所有规定的非侵权替代品来代替 或改造该等物品,或(3)在该等物品被返还后,退还该等物品的购买价以及运费(扣除向买方交货至退还期间 使用该等物品并从中获得利益的折扣金额,该折扣金额按从卖方装运之日起 年直线式折III来计算)。

If the infringement is alleged prior to completion of delivery of the goods. Seller has the right to decline to make further shipments wiihout being in breach of conlract. If Seller has not been enjoined from selling such goods to Buyer, Seller may (at Seller’s sole election), at Buyer’s request, supply such goods to Buyer, in which event Buyer shall be deemed to extend to Seller the same patent indemnity hereinabove stated. The same patent indemnity shall be deemed to be extended to Seller by buyer if any suit or proceeding is brought against Seller based on a claim that the goods manufactured by Seller in compliance with Buyer’s specifications infringe any valid patent. Buyer shall promptly notify Seller of any infringement by a third party of intellectual property rights licensed lo Buyer under this contract. In the event that a third party infringes such intellectual property rights, the Parties shall cooperate with one another (o take appropriate action lo cause such infringement to cease. The foregoing states the sole and exclusive liability of the parties hereto for infringement of patents, copyrights, mask works, trade secrets trademarks, and other proprietaiy rights, whether direct or contributory; and is in lieu of all warranties, express, implied or statutory, in regard hereto, including, without limitation, the warranty against infringement specified in the uniform commercial code.

如果交货完成前发生权指控,卖方有权拒绝进一步装运,而不构成违约。如果卖方还没有被禁止向买方销 售该等物品,应买方请求,卖方可以(仅由卖方酌定)向买方供应该等物品,在此情况下,买方应被视为向卖 方做出与本合同上文所述相同的专利补偿保证。如果有•人指称卖方按照买方规格制造的物品侵犯了有•效的 国专利,并以此为根据向卖方提起诉讼或程序,则买方应被视为已向卖方做出同样的专利补偿保证。

买方应将第三方侵犯本合同项下许可给买方的知识产权及时通知卖方。如果第三方侵犯该等知识产权,双 方应互相合作,采取适当的行动制止该侵权行为。

上文规定了本合同双方就专利、版权、掩模、商业秘密、商标以及其他专有权利的侵权(无论是直接的还是 协从的)所承担的唯一责任,并且取代就其所做出的所有保证(明示的、暗示的或法定的),包括(但不限于) 中规定的不侵权保证。

  • .公司的合约本质

STEVEN N. S. CHEUNGUniversity of Hong Kong

Almost half a century has elapsed since R. H. Coasc wrote “The Nature of the finn.K The impact of this paper is now increasing. At about twenty years of age and before receiving a bachelor’s degree from the I^)ndon School of Economics, Coase conceived the thesis of that work, during a traveling scholarship to the United States in 1931-32. Considering the work started out as the equivalent of an undergraduate term paper one stands in awe of the insights that prompted it.

译自从R.H.科斯写作《公司的本质》后,差不多半个世纪过去了。这篇论文的影响正日益上升。1931〜32 年之时,差不多2()岁的科斯尚未获得伦敦大学学士学位,由于获得了游学奖学金,他此时正在美国游学。 正是在此期间,科斯构思了这一鸿文主要论点。考虑到这篇文章相当于一个在校大学生的学期论文,我们 不得不为其洞察力感到敬畏,并深受鼓舞。

The paper, however, was written several years earlier (see note 3 infra). The Social Sciences Citation Index provides the following information. Breaking down the period of 1966-80 into three five-year periods, the total citations of Coase’s “firm” paper for each sub-period are: 1966-70, 17 citations: 1971-75, 47 citations; and 1976-80, 105 citations. In personal correspondence Coase wrote me his recollections as follows:Aboul the firm, I spent the year 1931-1932 in the United States where I studied the problem of vertical and lateral integration in American industry. From pondering on these problems came my views on the nature of the firm. The basic idea in the article on the Nature of the Firm was certainly worked out by October J 932 as a letter which I then wrote (and which has been preserved) shows. Also I completed a draft of the article by the spring of 1934 while still in Dundee. As to why I waited until 1937 to publish, the reasons are various. I did not feel under any great pressure lo publish il. I did in fact publish some other pieces before the firm article but the ideas in these papers were in fact developed after those on the firm. Remember that I was a young lecturer having to learn a lot in order to teach courses on

 

subjects on which I knew very litile and this took up a good deal of time. And I was interested in many other aspects of economics. I have never been one to rush into print-indeed I find it difficult to express exactly what I have in mind and have never thought that the world would suffer much if it didn*t have the opportunity to read my views. I did in fact make some changes in the period between 1934 and 1937 but there was no change in my main position. But I did not feel any need to publish before I had expressed my thoughts as well as I could. Some of the projects on which I worked in the 1930s have still not been completed although I hope one day to do so.

论文写于早前几年,见下文注3。(The Social Sciences Citation Index!(社会科学印证索引)提供如下信息: 将1966~1980年分为三个5年期,科斯的《公司》论文被引用的次数为:1966~70, 17次:1971~75, 47次; 1976-80, 105 在科斯给我的私人信件中,他对此回忆如下:关于《公司》,1931~32年,我在美国游学,

研究美国的工业系统中的纵向一体化和横向一体化课题。思考此课题时,公司的本质进入我的视野。此文 的基础思想肯定是在1932年10月构想出,这可由我当时写的、且已发表的一封信证明。此外,1934年春, 我仍在Dunds时完成了此文的初稿。为何我迟至1937年才发表,原因很多。我没有任何需要发表此文的 压力。此前,我确实发表了一些其他的论文。但是,这些论文的观点却是在《公司》观点之后产生的。清 注意,当时我是一个年青的讲师,必须多多学习,以便能就各种主题进行讲解…这些主题我知道的都不多, 这花费我大量的时间。同时,我对经济学的其他很多方面都感兴趣。我不是仓促发表文章的人一事实上, 我发现很难将我脑子里的思想表达清楚;我也不认为如我不发表这篇文章,这个世界会因此而有所损失。 1934—1937年间,我确实对此文作了一些修改,但我的主要看法却没有改变。但是,在我能够尽可能的表达 清楚我的所想前,我不认为有发表的必要。30年代我进行过的一些研究计划还没完成,我希望有朝一日能 够完成它。

About dates, as I completed the first year of University work while still at high school(not unusual at that time), I completed my University work and passed the degree examinations in 1931 (after 2 years at LSE). 1 was awarded a travelling scholarship by the University of London in 1931 and spent the next year in the United States. At that time, 3 years residence was required for the award of a degree but the regulations were loosely interpreted so as to allow my year in the United States to be counted as a year of residence a( LSE. This explains why I was awarded my degree in 1932 although I had passed the examination in 1931. When I worked out my views on the nature of the firm, I was 20 or 21. A letter written in October 1932 (and Ihe independent recollections of Duncan Black) indicates I had them by October 1932 and presumably I developed them carlicr-bctwccn October 1931 and the summer of 1932. My date of birth is December 29th, 1910.The issues surrounding what has been called “the firm,* and the scope of economic behavior encompassed by Coase’s thesis are far from resolved. At present, different versions abound of what Coase meant, along with varied criticisms.4 I do not propose to evaluate this growing body of literature or to argue that my interpretation is necessarily an accurate presentation of Coase*s position. Rather, once inspired by Coase’s early work to do research on contracts, I wish to return and expound on that work in light of my own findings.Anyone who investigates the economics of contractual arrangements will recognize that Coase’s Hfinn° paper relates to the choice of contracts.5 Yet Coase, aware of the significance and relevance of the measurement problem, suggested in 1969 that I look into the various measurements adopted in the limber industry. I lowever, the difficulty of obtaining data blocked that attempt.

关于日期,就像我结束了大学第一•年的研究时还在读高中(那时,此事极不平常)一样,(在伦敦经济政治学 系(LSE)学习2年后)我完成了我的大学研究课题并在1931年通过了学位考试。我获得了一个由伦敦大学于 1931颁发的游学奖学金,并在1932年在美国游学一年。那时候,获得学位需要有3年的学习时间,当时, 这条规则被比较松散的解释,因此,在美国的一年被算作在LSE的学习时间。这解释了为什么我在1932年 获得学位,却在1931年通过考试。当作出我在公司的本质上的观点时,我20岁或21岁。1932年10月份 的一封信(Duncan Black的独立回忆也是如此)表明,我在1932年10月已有此观点。据此,可以推断出,我

 

在早于1931年或在1931年10月至1932年夏间逐步阐明了此思想。我的出生日为1910年12月29日。科 斯的这篇文章围绕所谓“公司”进行论述,而科斯所述“公司”的经济行为的范围远未得到解决。目前, 不同版本的科斯理论阐述作品充斥学界,并伴随着各种各样的批评4。我并不打算对这些不断增加的、富有 想象力的作品作评价,也并不想强调我的阐述就精确的反映了科斯的原意。然而,作为曾从科斯早期作品 得到灵感并开始合约研究的人,我愿意回到这篇作品的最初,并按照我的发现对其进行阐释。任何研究合 约安排这一经济理论的人都会承认,科斯的《公司》一文涉及到了合约的选择5。然而,科斯意识到了度量 问题的重要性和其现实意义,并在1969年建议我观察木材工业中所采用的各种度量方法。然而,资料获得 的困难阻碍了那次尝试。

Another interesting paper on the piece-rate contract, again based on a diffcrcnl orientation from mine, is found in Edward P. Lazear & Sherwin Rosen, Rank-Order Tournaments as Optimum I^ibor Contracts. 89 J. Pol. Econ. 841 (1981). What 1 propose to do here, therefore, is to tiy to interpret Coase’ s arguments in light of my findings about contracts in general and about (he piece-rate contract in particular. I shall then argue (hat wc do not exactly know what the firm is–nor is it vital to know. The word “firm” is simply a shorthand description of a way to organize activities under contractual arrangements that differ from those of ordinaiy product markets. 1 . The Firm as a Form of Contractual ArrangementCoase*s central thesis is that differences in the costs of operating institutions(transaction costs) lead to the emergence of a firm to supersede a market. On the one hand, market transactions involve products or commodities; on the other, Mfirm transactionsM involve factors of production. The growth of a firm may then be viewed as the replacement of a product market by a factor market, resulting in a saving in transaction costs. This thesis is not easy to understand because Coase does not define Hthe firm’1; non as we shall see, is there a clear distinction between a product market and a factor market.Private ownership of productive inputs is assumed. Each input owner therefore has the option of (1) producing and marketing goods himself, (2) selling his input outright, or (3) entering into a contractual arrangement surrendering the use of his input to an agent in exchange for an income. 关于计件工资合约,另一篇有意思的文章,也是基于一个与我不同的角度进行分析的,这篇文章是Edward P. Lazear & Sherwin Rosen, Rank-Order Tournaments as Optimum Labor Contracts. 89 J. Pol. Econ. 841 (1981).因此, 此文就是根据我在一般意义下的合约与特定情况下的计件工资合约上的发现,试图对科斯的论点进行解释。 然后,我将会论述,我们不能确切的知道公司是什么,口知不知道公司是什么并不重要。生产经营活动的 组织方式有两利I: i种为由i股的产品市场引导资源配置、最终实现生产的组织:另一种为通过合约的安 排进行生产的组织。“公司” 一词,只是后一种生产组织的简略表达。I.公司是一种合约安排形式科斯的中 心理论是,运作机构的费用(交易费用)(与市场交易的)差异,导致公司的出现,并代替了市场交易。一方面, 市场交易涉及产品或日用品:另一•方面“公司交易”涉及生产要素,。因此,公司的产生可以看作是耍索市 场对产品市场的替代,这个替代节省了交易费用。这个理论不太容易理解,因为科斯没有定义“公司”,同 时我们也将会发现,产品市场和要素市场也没有一个清晰的分界。假定生产耍索私有。那么,每种生产要 素的所有者都可以(1)、自行生产并销售产品,(2)、出售自己的生产要素,或者⑶接受一个合约安排,放弃 他拥有的要素的使用权、并让一个代理人行使之,以换得一份收入。

The firm emerges with the third option: the entrepreneur or the agent who holds a limited set of use rights by contract directs production activities without immediate reference to the price of each activity, and the commodities so produced are then sold in the market. Herein lies the puzzle. If private property rights are absent and hence the above options are not available, it is relatively easy to understand why the activities of a worker or an input are directed by an agent instead of by market prices. But why should a private property owner voluntarily suiTender his rights and be told what to do by a visible hand?This choice, according to Coase, is made to reduce transaction costs. Some have suggested that such an argument is tautological. But it is not, because other reasons are also advanced 300 / 781

 

for the emergence of the firm, including division of labor risk, and the coordination of production activities. Coase considered these factors and rejected them all. To him, transaction costs constitute the prime consideration. His argument is subject to refutation because the list of other plausible factors makes it possible to conceive that total transaction costs might rise as the firm cmcrgcs.Even if transaction costs constitute the only relevant factor, or if all other factors are forcibly interpreted as belonging in the domain of transaction costs, Coase*s argument is still not tautological if one can identify different types of transaction costs and how they will vary under different circumstances. Generality in the extreme renders an argument tautological, whereas a total lack of general applicability renders an argument ad hoc. Testable implications are to be found somewhere in between, and how the costs are to be specified is a matter of choice, depending on the problem at hand.An emphasis on transaction costs does not negate the potential gain from specialization through the division of labor or from more efficient coordination of productive efforts. Consider, for example, the classic “pin factory” in which each of the multiple input owners specializes by working on only one part. If all costs of transaction were zero, a customer buying a pin would make a separate payment to each of the many contributing to its production. Comparative advantage guides each lo specialize in his own skill, and if it appears desirable to hire a coordinator of activities, the buyer of the pin will simply make an additional payment to him. In such a case, a large number of product prices would direct the production of the single pin.In such a world, it would be redundant to speak of a product market and a factor market The two would be inseparable: the buyer would be paying simultaneously for the product and for the contribution of the input owner. To separate a product from a factor market requires that an agent pay input owners while receiving from customers payment for the products he hands out. Whereas the standard approach assumes the number of products as given. Coasc’s view is that this number is determinate only if transaction costs arc explicitly incorporated into the analysis.The problem can be stated more fundamentally.

公司因第三个选择而出现:通过合约获得有限使用权的企业家或代理人,直接指挥生产活动,而不用按市 价直接支付每一个活动的报酬;而这样生产出来的产品随即在市场上售出。这里有一个不解之谜。如果私 有产权不存在(因而上述选择不存在),这样的情况是很容易理解的:工人的活动或生产要素不是通过市场价 格的方式进行安排,而是被一个代理人管理。但是,为什么私有产权所有者也愿意放弃自己的权利,让一 个看得见的手来指挥他或安排他的财产的使用呢?根据科斯的观点,这种选择是为了减少交易费用。有人 指出,这样的论点是同义反攵(套套逻辑)。其实不是,因为其他原因同样促使公司的出现,这些原因包括劳 力分工,风险,生产活动的协调等。科斯对这些因素进行了分析,随后排除了。对他来说,交易费用是其 考虑的首要因素。他的观点遭受非议,是因为上述的其他似是而非的因素可能会使人认为,总交易费用可 能随着公司的形成而上升。即使交易费用是唯一的相关因素,或者所有其他因素都归入交易费用的范畴. 在能够分辨出不同种类的交易费用和知道它们在不同情况下的变化的前提下,科斯的观点仍然不是套套逻 辑。极端的普适性会使一个理论成为套套逻辑(亳无解释力可言),然而普适性的缺乏会使一个理论成为专门 理论(从而也没有解释力)。(普适性)在这两者之间(的理论),可以导出可验证的推论。旦对于不同的问题, 交易费用如何分类是一个选择问题。分工导致的专业化或高效生产合作有潜在收益,对交易费用的强调不 会否定这种收益。注意这样的情形,在经典的“扣针工厂”例子中(28°注:指《国富论》开篇所述之扣针 生产这个例子),每个拥有多种要素的人,通过只负责部分工作的方式形成专业化的生产。如果所有的交易 费用是零,顾客购买扣针时,将会分别支付给每一个参与生产扣针的人。竞争优势引导每个人去专注于自 己能力的提高:如果出现雇佣一个生产协调者有利可图的情形,购买扣针的人将会简单的支付额外的一笔 钱给协调者。在这种情况下,大量的“产品”价格将会“指挥”单个扣针的生产。(28。注:不言自明的是, 上述假设中,不一定是购买扣针的人支付额外费用给协调者,而可能是其他参与生产的人支付,雇用协调 者来协调生产)在这样的世界里,将产品市场和要素市场分开来是多余的。这两者将是不可分割的:购买者 支付产品价格的同时,也在向因生产产品而投入了耍索的要索所有者支付要素的价格。要将产品和要素市 场分开来,需要一个代理来为要素付款的同时,接收购买产品的顾客的付款。权威的处理方法假设产品的

 

数量是给定的;然而科斯却认为,这个数量只17在交易费用明确地合并在一起进行分析时,才是确定的。 这个问题可以从更基本的层面进行规定。

Any productive input is a private properly if, within well-defined limits, its owner has (1) the right to exclude others so that he alone may decide on its use, (2) the right to extract exclusive income from its use. and (3) the right to transfer the property (including labor) to or to exchange with anyone he sees fit. The right to exchange implies the right to conlract. and property rights may be transacted through a wide variety of contractual arrangements. When these rights are exchanged it is, of course, for the purpose of yielding higher income to the owner, and the choice of contracts will be constrained by the costs of transaction.Our main concern here is not the transaction itself bul the contractual arrangements through which the right to use the input is delegated to another party and commodities produced by this use are sold to consumers. No outright transfer is made, and when the input owner retains some other rights, the contract becomes a structured document.7 A delimited set of use rights is surrendered in exchange for an income, under a form of contract that binds the input owner to follow directions instead of determining his own course by continual reference to the market prices of a variety of activities he may perform.7 See Steven N. S. Cheung. The Structure of a Contract and the Theory of a Non Exclusive Resource, 13 J. Law & Econ. 49 (1970).The surrender of use rights is a matter of degree, and the delimitation of the rights delegated is the subject of contracting, often supplemented by an implicit understanding, by custom, and by common law. Il goes without saying that a clerk will not be asked to do work nonnally reserved for a janitor. The payment tendered is often based on a measured property (for example, hours per day) that bears no resemblance to the measured properties of the final commodities priced for sale. For this reason, observed market prices cannot directly guide the owner of the input to perform in the same manner as if every activity he performs were measured and priced. Hence the suiTender of use rights often implies the delegation of the right to decide what to do. With private property rights, economic analysis asserts as an axiom that when an input owner enters into a contract of the type described (joining the firm) he expects a gain relative to his other options, for he has had the option of not joining. What must be explained is why that increase occurs. Could it be that letting someone else make the decision is often more productive? The answer is no. We have noted that delegating the right to make a decision is the result of the difference in pricing and measuring properties.

如果资产的所有者有如下三种清楚界定的权利,这些资产就是私有的:(1)、对资产使用排他的、完全的决 定权,(2)、对资产产出的完全独占权,(3)、对资产转移和交换的完全处置权。交换的权利意味着缔结合约 的权利,而产权可以通过一个广泛的合约安排进行交易。这些权利的交换,当然是为了使权利所有者得到 更高的收入,而合约的选择也白然地受到交易费用的约束。在此,我们所重点关注的不是交易本身,而是 合约的安排。通过这些合约安排,资产的使用权被委派给另一个法人使用,并因此产出最终产品,然后卖 给消费者。当资产所有者保留某些权力而不是全部转让时,这些合约就成为结构性的合约了 7。通过如下形 式,资产拥有者放弃了一系列明确界定的权利,换取一份收入:以合约的形式,将不同的资产拥有者约束 在一起,使其资产的使用统一在在管理者的指挥下进行,而不是让各个资产的生产活动服从于这些资产可 能参与的纷繁复杂的生产活动的市价指引。(28°注:理论上,各个资产可以参与的生产活动是纷繁复杂的, 这些生产活动都可以有一个市场价格,资产所有者会根据最高价格,决定资产的使用,从而市场价格引导 或者指挥了资产的生产活动。而在公司下,各种资产通过合约缔结在一起,并服从十一个代理人的指挥, 实现生产,而资产所有者则用缔结合约时所放弃的权利换取收入。)资产所有者放弃并委托的所有权只是这 项资产所有权的一部分,这些权利由合约来界定,并通常由暗含的不成文规定、风俗和普通法来补充界定。 如,秘书不会被耍求去做通常由看门人执行的职务,这通常是不言自明的。资产拥有者通常根据委托出去 的使用权的价值量,要求得到相应的报酬。这些使用权的价值量通常与最终产品的售价没有相似之处。因 此,可观察的产品市价不能直接指导资产所有者安排其资产的使用。所以,使用权的放弃通常意味着委托 了使用的决定权。由于产权是私TT的,经济分析认为存在这样一个公理:因为资产所布•者TT不缔结合约的 选择权,当他缔结前文所说的合约(加入公司)时,他希望得到相对于其他选择更多的报酬。我们必须解释的 是,为什么会出现比不缔结合约(加入公司)更多的报酬?是不是让别人决定资产的使用通常会更有效率?答 曰:非也。我们已经注意到,资产使用决定权的委托是由于对资产进行衡量和定价存在分歧。

It cannot in general be the case that management decisions are superior to consumer decisions reached through the price mechanism. Errors are bound to be less frequent when price information guides every activity perfonned.Could it be that specialization, coordination, and economy of scale achieved by pooling input resources from many owners will yield higher incomes for all, so that each chooses to join the firm? Again the answer is no. As noted earlier, if every activity is measured and priced, then benefits arising from specialization and coordination can be realized without the “factor marketn -the right to decide and use one’s input need not be delegated to some agent or entrepreneur because in a product markel the input owner will receive a payment for every contribution.Could the firm emerge because people shirk, cheat, or arc opportunistic–as some recent theses iniply?8 Maybe. But the problem is (hat this sort of behavior is ubiquitous and will vary only in degree and in kind depending on the form of contract chosen or on how the property transacted is measured and priced. The behavior of a factory worker whose shirking requires the service of a monitor results from the workefs delegation of the right to use his labor. He would not shirk, or at least he would shirk differently, if fbr every small contribution he were paid a pricc.Coasc*s answer is bold: “The main reason why it is profitable to establish a firm would seem to be that there is a cost of using the price mechanism. The most obvious cost of Organizing* production through the price mechanism is that of discovering what the relevant prices are” (emphasis added).9 He offers several reasons why the discovery and negotiation of prices arc costly, although his explanation seems incomplete. I propose to offer here four general reasons, at least two of them derivatives of Coases reasoning.Perhaps the most obvious reason why the cost of discovering prices is higher in the absence of a firm is that significantly more transactions are required, each calling for a separate price. If the consumer were to pay for each contribution to or each component of the commodity, instead of for a single finished product, the cost would often be prohibitive. As an alteniative, all cooperating input owners might contract with one anoihcr, each agreeing on a price for his services, and all the prices then might be aggregated for the final product. As a substitute for these contracts a central agent might conlracl with each input owner, paying him a price for the use rights rendered and selling the final product at another price. On this form of contract reduction Coasc wrote: “A factor of production (or the owner thereof) docs not have to make a series of contracts with the factors with whom he is co-operating within the firm, as would be necessary, of course, if this co-operation were as a direct result of the working of the price mechanism.

一般情况下,管理队伍的决策不可能比价格机制所达成的顾客决策来得高明。由价格机制引导的生产活动 所产生的错误必然比管理队伍的决策产生的错误来得少。是不是专业化生产、合作,以及规模效应(指将各 种资产所有者的资产集合起来合伙经营会为所有合伙人带来更大的收入),所以人们都选择加入公司?答曰: 亦非也。如前所述,如果每个经营活动都可以测量和定价,那么,即使没有要素市场,由专业化和合作产 生的(额外)收益也会被清楚的识别—在产品市场,资产所有者的每一份贡献都会获得相应的报酬,资产所有 者的资产使用和决定权是没有必要委托给代理或企业家的。是不是因为人们会卸责、欺骗和有投机行为一 就像现在某些论文所喑示的一所以公司出现了呢? 8可能是。问题是,这些行为普遍存在,并且只会随着所 选合约的形式和对交易的资产的衡量与定价的不同,在程度和种类上有所差别。工厂工人的卸责行为…这 些行为要求有监督者对其进行监督一是由于工人将其劳力的使用权委托给工厂而产生的。如果对工厂的每 一份微小的贡献都能得到相应的报酬,他就不会卸责,至少会他的卸责方式会有所不同。科斯的回答很大 胆:“为什么成立一家公司会有利可图,其主要原因似乎是,使用价格机制是有费用的。通过价格机制’组 织生产’最明显的费用是,发现相应的价格是多少(强调)9″。他提供了为什么发现和协商价格存在费用的几 种原因,虽然他的解释看起来不完整。我打算提供四种一般性的原因,其中至少两种是由科斯的原因派生 出来的。为什么公司不存在时,发现价格的费用更高,其显而易见的原因是,这种情况下需要大量的交易, 而每个交易都需要一个单独的价格。如果顾客为生产产品有贡献的每个要素或者为产品的每一个组成部分 分别付款,而不是为一个单独的最终产品付款,这样的交易费用通常将大到让人望而生畏。作为替代选择, 所有为产品生产而共同协作的资产所有者,可以互相缔结合约,每一个人都同意自己为产品生产提供服务 的价格,每一个价格随后集合成最终产品的价格。作为这些合约的代替,一个中枢代理人可以和每一个资 产所有者分别订约,并为其使用权的放弃付一个价格以作补偿;同时: 他将最终产品以另一个价格卖出去。 就这种简化合约的形式,科斯写道:”产品生产要素(或其所有者)不需要和其他要素…他将和这些要素在同 一个公司里合作生产一缔结i系列合约。当然,这些生产合作由价格机制直接组织生产时也是必须的。

A second factor apparently not considered by Coase is the information cost of knowing a product. When parts or components of a product considered separately have no easily recognizable usage, agreement on price between producer and consumer of each and every part tends to be more costly than the whole product. Reaching agreement on the price of a spring inside a camera incurs a proportionately higher cost than does the camera. Although the consumer has the final say in assessing the worth of the whole product, he cannot be expected to recognize the value of each component part-he may not even know what some of them are or even that they exist. It simply costs too much to learn about everything in every commodity we buy. As we shall see, in piece-rate contracts the parts or components of a commodity arc often directly measured and priced, but these negotiations arc between specialist agents and input owners. That is, for a component which by itself has no readily identifiable value, agreement on price is less costly between specialists and input owners than it would be between input owners and consumers or between specialists and consumers. The one who produces component parts tends to know more about them than the one who consumes.A third cost of discovering price is that of measurement. In every transaction, some characteristics or attributes must be measured, whether the deal is between an agent and a customer, an agent and an input owner, or an input owner and a customer. If the activities performed by an input owner change frequently, if these activities vary greatly, or if some of the activities to be performed cannot be conveniently stipulated in advance, it lends to be more economical to forgo any direct measurement of these activities and substitute another measurement to serve as a proxy. Thus, an agent may hire a worker by the hour or lease a building by the square fool without going through the process of metering every conlribution ihe input performs. The varied input activities which, in fact, arc the source of product value arc not priced at all because measurement would be too costly. The input owner receives payment for his varied contributions by measuring an attribute totally different from those of his actual contributions or of the final product sold lo customers. The agent deals with two different sets of measurements, absorbing any gain or loss by directing and monitoring the perfonnance of input owners and providing to consumers total commodities with specified characteristics.Coase seemed to have in mind the use of a “proxy” measurement to avoid the cost of measuring greatly varied activities when he wrote the following:It may well be a matter of indifference to the person supplying the service or commodity which of several courses of action is taken, but not to the purchaser of that service or commodity. But the purchaser will not know which of these several courses he will want the supplier io take. Therefore, the service which is being provided is expressed in general terms, the exact details being left until a later date. All that is stated in the contract is the limits (o what the person supplying the commodity or service is expected to do. The details of what the supplier is expected to do is not stated in the contract but is decided later by the purchaser.When the direction of resources (within the limits of the contract) becomes dependent on the buyer in this way, that relationship which I term a “firm” may be obtained. … It is obviously of more importance in the case of services-labour than it is in the case of… commodities. In the case of commodities, the main items can be stated in advance and the details which will be decided later will be of minor significance.! 1 Finally, the problem of separating contributions generates cost in reaching price agreement. When input owners work in collaboration, in some situations the contribution of each may not be easily delineated and each may claim more than he deserves. It is true that competition among input owners will reduce excessive claims, but the problem will not be eliminated. An agent hiring the collaborating participants may therefore exercise a right similar to that of eminent domain, offering a price for each on a take-it-or-Ieave-il basis by again measuring a proxy instead of the contribulion itself.

12As examples of the gain from collaboration and the difficulty of delineating contributions, Alchian and Demsetzl3 cite the examples of loading and of fishing. My own favorite example is river boat pulling in China before the communist regime, when a large group of workers marched along the shore towing a good-sized wooden boat. The unique interest of this example is that the collaborators actually agreed to the hiring of a monitor to whip them. 4 he point here is that even if every puller were perfectly Hhonest.M it would still be too costly to measure the effort each has contributed to the movement of the boat, but to choose a different measurement agreeable to all would be so difficult that the arbitration of an agent is essential.! I Coase, supra note 1 , at 391-92. Coase argues that Ihe diverse activities described in this quotation lead lo ihe use of a long-term conlract-which I do not consider important to his thesis. The training of workers or the remodeling of a rented building, like improvements made on agricultural land by a tenant, appears to be a more incisive reason for the choice of a long-term contract because of ihe difficulty of recapturing the investments committed.

第二个因素是,了解一个产品需要信息费用,这个因素看起•来科斯并没有考虑。如果产品的一部分或其零 件单独考虑时没有简单易识的用处,在生产者和顾客之间对每一组成部分的价格达成一致,其费用趋向于 比就整件产品的价格达成一致更高。对相机里的一个弹簧的价格达成一致所需费用,比对相机本身的价格 达成一致所需要的费用分摊到单个弹簧上的部分要高。虽然顾客对评估整个产品的价值有最终决定权,却 不能期望他能对产品的每个组成部分的价值都了解一他甚至可能不知道某些组成部分的存在。如果我们耍 对所购买产品的每一部分都了如指掌,其学习费用也太大了。就如我们将在下文看到的一样,在计件工资 合约里,产品的每一部分或零件常常被直接衡量和定价,但是,这些衡呆和定价过程是在专业的代理人和 资产拥有者之间进行的。即,对于一个不容易辨认其本身价值的零件,在专业人员和资产所有者之间对其 定价的费用,要比在资产所有者和消费者、专家和消费者之间对其定价的费用低。生产产品部件的人往往 比使用这些产品的消费者对产品部件了解得更多。第三个发现价格的费用是测量费用。在每一次交易中, 一些特性或品质必须被测量,无论这个交易是在代理人和消费者之间、代理人和资产所有者之间,还是在 资产所有者和消费者之间。如果由资产所有者进行的活动经常变动,如果这些活动变化很大,或者如果其 中的一些活动不能方便的预先规定好,那么,放弃对这些活动的直接测量,并代之以代理人的测量,这种 做法常常更经济。因而,一个代理人可能会以按劳动时间付费的方式雇佣一个工人,或以建筑面积付费租 借一座建筑,而不会去测量资产投入的每一点贡献并以之作为付费的依据。各种各样的资产投入一这些投 入实际上是最终产品价值的来源…根本没有被定价,因为测量这些投入的贡献,其花费实在是太大。资产 拥有者因其各种各样的贡献获得报酬,是依据一个与其实际贡献或者卖给消费者的最终产品完全不同的某 项属性的测量。代理人处理两类不同的测量:通过指挥和监管资产所有者的行为,承担生产产品的增值或 亏损;同时提供给消费者一个有特殊特性的完整产品。当写下下面这段话时,科斯的头脑中似乎使用了“代 理人”测量这i概念,用以避免测量有较大变化活动的费用:对提供(由若干活动过程组成的)服务或产品的 人来说,这(指代理人?)可能无关紧耍:但是对于购买服务和产品的购买者来说却不是。但是,购买者不会 知道哪几个过程是他所购买产品所需要的。因此,要求提供的服务会用一些一般性的术语表达,而具体的 细节则留待以后。在合同中规定好的,则是产品或服务需要提供的活动限定。要求提供者(即上文所说的资 产拥有者)具体做什么,其细节不会在合同中写明,而是随后由购买产品的人来决定。当资源的使用(在合 同中限定范围内的)通过这种方式,由产品购买者决定的时候,我称之为“公司”的关系可能就产生了。…… 很明显,(这种关系)在服务-劳动这种情况中,比在产品生产中更重要。就产品生产而言,其主要项目可以 事先说明,而其随后被确定的细节,则不那么重要。最后,分离共同活动的贡献,并达成1致,也会产生

费用a当资产拥有者协同工作时,在某弊情况下,每种贡献可能并不容易描绘清楚,而每个人都会夸大其 贡献。身无疑问,资产所有者间的竞争会减少这种夸大行为,但是这种行为不会消失。代理人雇佣合作者, 并行使类似支配权的权力,为每一个合作者提供一个基于“要么接受,要么放弃”的价格,测量一个代替 品,而不是测量贡献本身。作为从协作中获利及描绘贡献存在困难的例子,Alchian和Demsetz引用了打鱼 与上货的例子。我则更喜欢共产中国前的纤夫拉船的例子,例子中一大队人拉着一艘大木船沿着岸边走。 我对这个例了的特别兴趣在于,这些协作拉船的人,居然同意雇仰一个监工来鞭打他们。这里的重点是, 即使每一个纤夫都极其诚实可靠,衡量每一个纤夫拉船的贡献其费用还是太大,而另选一个大家都同意的 测量方法也很困难,因此,需要一个代理人来进行仲裁。

With regard to this example, Alchian and Demsetz argue (hat the monitor (that is. the HfinnH) enters the picture because of the shirking. 14 My argument goes further back, asserting that the behavior has itself originated because a proxy instead of effort was chosen for measuremenl; the concept of shirking is, therefore, an indirect way of expressing that there is a cost in discovering prices for relative contributions. Within what Coase calls a firm, then, shirking takes place in a way that differs from dishonesty in the market.me summarize the arguments of this lengthy section. In principle, all contributions of input owners as well as the services of the coordinator can be separately priced and sold to customers by measuring directly various attributes related to each contribution. 15 In this case product and factor markets coincide. But the detennination of prices is costly because of the number of transactions, because consumers lack detailed information on the use of each component or contribution to a commodity, because of the difficulty of measuring varied and changing activities, and because of the need to separate conlributions.One effective way to reduce the costs of discovering prices is to substitute some device other than the direct and separate pricing of activities. This substitution may be as simple as the use of the piece-rate contract or as complex as the establishment of a communist regime.l 6 Coases main concern is substitution that entails the delegation of use rights from private inpul owners, lo ihe extent that the conlribution or activity of each is not directly priced. This implies measurement by a proxy. An ^entrepreneur0 therefore emerges.Specialization and coordination are relevant here to the extent that they typically involve multiple input owners and tend to compound the costs of discovering prices. Had there been no cost of measuring and pricing performance there would be no firm, and the value of the social outputs would be maximal. But these costs do exist, and product market transactions decline as t