工程合同翻译报告 A Translation Report on Engineering Contracts

工程合同翻译报告

A Translation Report on Engineering Contracts

摘要

工程合同属于半法律文体,其主要功能是精确地规定工程合同各方商定的权 利义务,严谨地表达工程合同各方的合法意愿。中文工程合同英译是一个跨行业、 跨地域、具有多种业务模式的范畴,把握工程合同的语言特征,了解合同的特点 是准确理解、起草和翻译工程合同的基础和关键。为了达到这一目的,译者需要 通晓中英文对应的专业词汇、外来词,缩略语等。英语中一词多义现象非常普遍, 许多普通英语单词在工程合同英语中被赋予了新的涵义,翻译过程中不能孤立理 解,应根据实际情况选择最贴切的词语。

本文在工程合同中译英的基础上,从翻译过程中的句法和词法两个层次对尤 金•奈达(EugeneNida)的功能对等理论、工程合同的特征及功能对等理论在工程 合同英语翻译中的应用等方面进行了深刻剖析。最后,笔者依据自己在工程合同 英译实践中的经验,从工程合同专业词汇翻译、常见短语翻译、被动语态、冠词、 语序等方面对工程合同英译的关键点进行了总结,以备同行参考。

关键词:工程合同英译;工程合同特征:功能对等理论

ABSTRACT

Engineering contracts are the semi-legal instruments containing legal effects. The main functions of the engineering contracts are to settle down the agreements between the different parties on rights and obligations, which express the legitimate aspirations rigorously. The translation of engineermg contracts is a business scope containing different industries, different regions and different business departments. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the different language characteristics, especially the Chinese engineering contracts is the foimdation and the key points to draft and translate the engineering contracts. To achieve the targets, translators frequently use professional vocabulary, synonyms, loan words and abbreviations, etc. In the application of technical English, ifs a widely acknowledged phenomenon that a word usually possesses a variety of meanings. Some daily words are given new meanings in engineering contracts, lb translate the engineering contracts properly, translators should weigh the meanings of these words carefully and select the precise meaning on the basis of the actual situation.

This paper applies Eugene Nida’s Functional Equivalence Theory to interpret the characteristics of the engineering contracts in their translation from syntactic and lexical levels. According to the experience in the translation of engineering contracts, the author summarizes the key points of engineering contract translation from the translation of engineering contract vocabulary and common phrases, the use of passive voice, articles and the word order etc. The author hopes that the present research will provide help to the fiiture translations on engineering contracts.

KEYWORDS: English Translation of Engineering Contracts; Characteristics of Engineering Contracts; Functional Equivalence Theory

目录

摘要 iii

ABSTRACT iv

1翻译项目概述 1

2翻译过程描述 3

3翻译标准的确定 5

4工程合同翻译原则 7

5工程合同翻译实践总结 15

结语 20

参考文献    21

附录 22

作者简历 49

独创性声明 50

学位论文数据集 51

1翻译项目概述

  • 项目背景介绍

进入21世纪,中国已逐步成为世界第三大经济体,中国的现代化建设取得了 举世瞩目的成就。随着我国综合国力的不断增强,中外文化交流呈现出范围广、 层次深、力度大等特点。作为跨文化交际,翻译所起的作用不容小觑。在广泛深 入交流的过程中,翻译所涉及的范围已经远远超出语言本身,渗透到文化的各个 层面,其中工程合同英语翻译也是中外经济、文化交流中的一个重要方面。

工程合同是指发包方(建设单位)和承包方(施工人)为完成商定的施工工 程,明确相互权利、义务的协议。工程合同文本的主要功能是规定合同各方商定 的权利义务,是承包人进行工程设计、建设、施工,发包人支付价款的合同,是 工程建设质量控制、进度控制、投资控制的主要依据。工程合同的效力是国家法 律赋予合同双方的权利与义务,当合同当事人违反合同约定的条款,即产生相应 的法律后果,必须承担相应的法律责任。

因此,作为一个跨地域、跨行业、具有多种业务模式范畴的工程合同的英文 翻译对合同双方起着不可忽视的重要作用。合同术语的误译给法学研究者带来了 很大的障碍,甚至误入歧途。法律术语翻译的最大难题在于如何实现语言学和法 律上的双重对等。(钱立武,2006:28)所以,把握合同英语的语言特征,了解合同 英语的词汇、句法特点、采用规范的术语和表达方式、明确双方责任和义务就成 为了一项重要课题。

本翻译材料来源于中交四公局海外公司的海外工程项目部与柬埔寨方签订的 一项工程合同。其中主导性科技项目共61项,桥涵项目占15项。合同签订之前, 专家根据交通厅要求对申报项目进行了评审,四公局以及相关协作单位分工承担 相应工作。笔者承担的翻译是中交四公局与柬埔寨签订的一部分工程合同。

在本报告中,笔者就如何严谨、准确地对中文工程合同进行翻译、如何保证 合同条理清楚、语言严谨准确、内容真实,并且使之具有法律效力等方面开展了 认真的分析研究。

  • 项目内容特点

目前,人们还较少涉猎中文工程合同的翻译,这是一个跨领域、跨行业、具 有多种业务模式的范畴,是以商务、经济、交流为主要目的译语文本表达形式。 工程合同英语是人们根据交际目的、交际对象和社会文化等用语环境及条件,在 长期的经济活动中形成和使用的既具有经济英语特点又具有专业英语特点的交流 语言。因此,把握工程合同英语的语言特征,了解工程合同英语的词汇特点是准 确理解、起草和翻译工程合同英语的基础和关键。

工程合同文本因其特有的专业性,并非所有翻译工作者都能准确地进行翻译。 在工程合同制定过程中,应采用规范的术语和表达方式,明确双方的责任和义务, 用词正式规范,语言正式严谨、详细准确,避免在合同中出现歧义性语句,以确 保合同条理清楚、内容真实、并且具有法律效力;否则,如果在合同履行过程中 出现了问题,签订合同的某一方就有可能利用合同的漏洞逃避责任。因而,在工 程合同拟定之后,在工程合同翻译过程中,必须严谨、准确地对原文进行翻译, 以免因翻译不准确而带来不必要的损失。

由于其特殊的使用环境,工程合同英语的语篇较为单一,信息结构是描述性 的,不能掺杂情感色彩。虽然工程合同的翻译受到各种不同翻译理论、语境、社 会环境的影响,但从总体上看,工程合同与其他的文学体裁相异,在风格、体裁、 语体以及手段和格调上稍显简单。因此,在进行翻译的时候,就须在“信、达、 雅”的理论基础上,结合工程合同的语言特点和形式要求,坚持忠实准确 (Faithfiilness and Accuracy完整规范(Completeness and Standardization)、达意 通畅 (Expressiveness and Smoothness) 的标准。

2翻译过程描述

  • 译前准备

在翻译工程合同之前,译者必须对合同的文体特征以及工程方面相关知识有 所了解,并且熟悉、储备工程合同中一些约定俗成的说法和专业术语。另外,还 请教工程专业人员深入了解了一些工程术语在施工中的应用,这样有助于笔者在 翻译时能更加准确地选择词汇,以及正确地理解和整合句子结构等。

  • 翻译过程

在正式的翻译开始之前,笔者先查阅网上翻译工具、翻阅手头现有的工程翻 译材料以及合同翻译材料,并广泛涉猎优质的工程翻译、法律翻译、合同翻译教 材,从中获得了不少值得借鉴的翻译经验,了解并积累了地道的法律、工程、合 同术语的翻译常识和规范。除此之外,在翻译中遇到的最大困难就是复杂长句的 翻译,此时笔者往往先请导师帮忙分析句子结构,再结合文体特征理解、整合及 翻译句子。笔者通过以上种种途径,努力保证翻译质量。

笔者在翻译工程合同的过程中翻阅、查询了大量的中英工程合同书及施工合 同书,详细地了解工程合同的各项注意事项和有关法律问题的一些条款。比如, FIDIC条件,即《土木工程施工合同条件》。FIDIC是国际咨询工程师联合会 (Federation Internationale Des Ingenieurs Conseils)的法文缩写,有时习惯上也指 FIDIC条款。笔者还从中文工程合同中了解到合同签订的一些注意事项:

(1)研究投标文件的编制方案

投标文件的内容直接决定合同条款的内容,作为承包人必须对投标文件的编 制方案进行研究。

(2)设置签订合同时的进退策略

施工合同条款虽然也都由双方协商,但实际操作中发包人往往处于主导地位, 承包人处于被动地位,把握好哪些条款必须坚持,哪些条款可以退让,对于将来 合同的履行将有很大的影响。

(3)强化管理人员的风险防范意识

对于承包人的合同管理人员应该各自明确分工,谈判人员的管理分工、审查 合同人员的分工及批准和签订合同人员的分工必须严格分清。

还有我国《合同法》第一百七十五条规定的内容,承包人都应该注意。通常情 况下,发包方与承包方的地位是不平等的,很多条款都是由发包方事先拟好,而 承包方无法变动,对此承包人不能仅仅为了经济效益而随意承诺,以防纠纷发生 后,利益受损。

《最高人民法院关于审理建设工程施工合同纠纷案件适用法律问题的解释》第 二十条规定:”当事人约定,发包人收到竣工结算文件后,在约定期限内不予答 复,视为认可竣工结算文件的,按照约定处理。”

该条内容是施工条款的重中之重,是承包人在工程完结后,讨要工程款的重 要保护条款。对此,非常有必要进行双方明确的约定。

  • 译后校对

由于工程合同翻译文本属于法律合同,要作为甲方与乙方签订合同的一部分, 为了确保其严谨性和权威性,笔者最后将一稿先请导师检查,初次翻译在句子结 构的处理上存在较大问题,对此译者对初译稿进行二次修改,再交国内负责本项 目的专业译者进行审阅,最后由驻外译员进行审核,本合同的英译稿方可成为最 终工程合同提交甲乙双方签署。

 

3翻译标准的确定

  • 功能对等理论的由来

功能对等理论是美国人尤金•奈达(EugeneNida)在1964年出版的《翻译科 学探索》中首次提出的翻译原则。所谓功能对等理论,是指从语义到语体在译语 中用最切近而又最自然的对等语再现原语信息,就是说翻译时不求文字表面的死 板对应,而要在两种语言间达成功能上的对等,翻译的功能对等要求译者应当把 握原文的意义和精神,不拘泥于形式对应。奈达的功能对等理论认为:源语与目 的语的文本或更小的语言单位之间的要保持一致关系,译文从语义到文本要用最 贴近、最自然的对等语重现原文的信息。翻译的服务对象是译文读者,评判译文 质量的标准是译文读者的评价,必须把这种评价和原作读者对原文的评价进行对 比,功能对等理论要求译文读者对译文做出的评价与原文读者对原文做出的评价 基本一致。正如奈达对功能对等理论的定义:“Dynamic equivalence is to be defined in terms of the degree to which the receptors of the message in the receptor language respond to it in substantially the same as the receptors in the source language95 (动态对 等指的是译语的信息接受者即读者对译文信息的评价应该与原语接受者对原语信 息的评价基本相同)o (Eugene A. Nida, Charles R. Taber, 1969: 8)由于译语和 原语的历史背景和文化不同,功能对等理论要求译文在不同的语言结构里尽可能 完满地再现原文意旨,而不是由译者自由、毫无节制地发挥。

  • 功能对等理论的特点分析

二十世纪七十年代,面向译文和译文读者的翻译研究趋势逐渐在西方译界出 现。这种趋势打破了先前文本中心论的翻译传统,认为译者应该更多地关注译文 和译文信息接受者,更多地关注译文的实际功能和社会效应。Sarcevic认为,法律 翻译文本很重要是因为它决定了在一些特定的法律交际环境中哪一个文本可以被 采用。法律翻译不再被人们视为一个语言学的转换代码的过程,而是一种法律机 制中的交际行为。(向世旭,2006:1)这种新趋势的出现便涉及到了翻译主体的问 题,因此,翻译主体研究逐渐被翻译研究所重视,而翻译者的思维创造性和主观 能动性成为翻译主体研究的重点和焦点。此时,一批新的翻译理论体系相继出现, 较著名的有以勒菲弗尔、赫曼斯和巴斯奈特(Bassnett)为代表的操纵学派翻译理 论(Manipulation Translation Theory),图里(Tuory)的译语文本翻译论(Target Translation Theory),埃文•左哈尔(Evan-Zohar)的多元系统论(Polysystem Theory) 等。他们的理论为新的翻译研究取向提供了坚实的理论基础,使翻译研究的层次 进一步深入、范围进一步扩大。

尤金•奈达的功能对等理论自上世纪八十年代初被引进到中国以来,在中国 译界产生了深远的影响。功能对等理论摒弃了传统的“文本中心论”主张,从一 直受忽视的译文读者的角度出发,给予了读者更多的重视,很大程度上解决了长 期以来国内翻译界存在的直译和自由译之间的讨论,因此在短时间内被我国翻译 界学者所接受,并逐步发展成为我国翻译界的主流思想,也使得功能对等理论得 到了广泛的发展。此理论强调译文的效果以及原文读者和译文读者对原文和译文 两个文本反应之间的比较,合同翻译正是需要原文和译文在双方读者理解效果上 达到统一(李俊,2010: 227-228),因此可以将功能对等理论作为合同翻译质量 的衡量标准。

  • 功能对等理论对工程合同翻译的适用性

奈达的功能对等理论包括四个方面:词汇对等、句法对等、篇章对等和文体 对等。在这四个方面中,奈达认为“意义最重要,而形式其次”,译文读者对译文 的评价等值于原文读者对原文的评价。法律语言有不同的社会属性,它是全民语 言的一种社会功能变体(style),或更确切地说是一种语域变体(register),或按照法 律界人士的话来说是一种行业语(profcissional jargon) □(朱敏冠,2011:65)在翻译 中,如果一味追求语言的等值,势必会忽略翻译作为一种跨文化交流的实质。因 此,为了减少原语和目的语间的转换差异,在翻译过程中,应努力创造出符合原 文语义并体现原文文化特色的译文。(杜朝明,2012:97-98)从这个角度看,奈 达的功能对等理论较之文学翻译而言更适合于应用文的翻译,尤其适用于工程合 同翻译。

 

4工程合同翻译原则

  • 中文工程合同特征

合同是指当事人或当事双方之间变更、设立、终止民事关系的协议。中文工 程合同语言表达准确(Accuracy) > 规范(Expressiveness)、完整(Completeness) ; 且其篇章结构规范单一。(杨菲,2012: 212)所以其行文表达与文学及其他文体 具有较大差异。

语言的运用必须适合特定场合的要求,工程合同英语也是如此。每一个行业 都有特殊的术语,或者被称作专业术语,即在某个特定的行业内所使用的词语及 表达。(傅希刚,2012: 34)工程合同术语指的是被用在工程合同中具有特殊含 义的表达方式,例如:合伙承包合同、设计合同、工程总承包合同、转包合同、 工程分包合同等。

工程合同的文本特征可以概括为以下三个方面:条理性、规范性和专业性。

(1)条理性

合同文体的基本形式为纲目、条款和细则,因此条理性是工程合同的重要特 征之一。工程合同条理性主要体现在语言表达方式上,为使得工程合同在行文和 语言上的条理清晰,工程合同的条款在句式结构上往往大同小异。目的则是为了 保持其结构上的一致性。(郑霄雁等,2007: 200)如下例:

原文1:

在本合同中(如下限定),下文使用的词语和表达方式应该具有赋予他们的意 义,除了另有规定的内容之外:

(二)“工程师”指的是业主指定的任何能够胜任工作的人员,并且将这些人 员通知承包商。他们是代表业主的工程师。

(三)“工程师代表”指的是工程师根据第2. 2条的规定随时指定的代表人 员。

分析:“工程师代表“位于“工程师”之后,按照本合同规定,”工程师代表” 为“工程师”授权人员,指工程师随时指定的代表人员,也可能随时撤销等此类 授权,需在工程师许可范围内行使其职权。上述示例体现中文工程合同的条理性。

原文2:

(A)工程师应履行合同中规定的职责。

(B)工程师可以行使合同中规定的或暗含的权限。

分析:“暗含的权限”为“规定的职责”之隐含的附属条件,在合同拟定过程 中,拟定人员按照逻辑关系先指明表层意思,继而指明深层含义。上述示例体现 中文工程合同的条理性。

(2)规范性

工程合同是双方为了维护自己权益而拟定的书面依据,在工程合同的履行过 程中,常常会出现各种各样的意外情况。如若工程合同中未考虑到这些意外情况, 将可能使合同当事人遭受重大损失。例如合同中如果未对业主因某种原因延迟付 款的后果做出明确规定,就会给承包商带来损失,因此,工程合同中必须明确规 定,业主会因延迟付款而遭受何种惩罚,或承包商有权采取何种行动避免遭受损 失。合同各方在起草合同时应充分考虑到各种可能出现的情况,这些情况在工程 合同语言表现为规范性。其遣词造句要求使用正式文体或庄严体语言。工程合同 仅在双方同意后方可对条款进行变动或修饰,不允许文字上的随意性。如下例:

原文3: “图纸”指的是合同项下规定的由工程师提交给承包商的所有图纸、 计算书以及同等属性的技术信息资料等等,以及承包商提交给工程师批准的所有 图纸、计算书、样品、花纹、模型、操作和维修保养手册以及其他同等属性的技 术信息资料等等。

分析:“图纸”描述了一个概念,是对于一种事物的本质特征或一个概念的 内涵和外延所作的简要说明,并区别于其他相关概念的表述。

上述示例确定了一个对象在有关事物的综合分类系统中的位置和界限,以明 确的语言具体、清晰的表达了图纸的概念,体现中文工程合同的规范性。

(3)专业性

工程合同的专业性非常强,包含建筑施工合同、装修合同、工程设计合同、 建筑工程勘察合同、工程保险合同等,内容涉及金融、税务、商贸、保险、工程 质量检验、法律等多项领域,一个工程合同即为多种领域专业知识的复合文本。 因此,工程合同拟定的过程就是一个整合、利用资源的过程。(方志达,2001: 91)如下例:

原文4:

(七)“留存款项”指的是业主扣除的作为履约保证金的金额,与承包商结 算账款时使用。在质保期到期之后,业主将会连同最后一次款项一起返还给承包 商。

(A)“标段”指的是合同中特别说明的作为单独一段的工程。

分析:“留存款项”、“标段”均为工程行业专业术语,其他行业从业人员 无法明确其含义,或者不具备理解此名词含义的专业能力,体现中文工程合同的 专业性。

  • 英文工程合同特征

工程合同作为一种半法律文体,其主要功能是精确地规定合同各方商定的权 利义务,严谨地表达其合法意愿,以备查考。因此,人们最常使用的就是专业词 汇、同义词和外来词等。同样,英文工程合同的间接性、严谨性和严肃性要求表 达上的严密性和客观性。(段友国,2010:143)与中文工程合同类似,英文工程合 同同样具有条理性、规范性和专业性的特点。(陈白壁,2005:101)笔者在翻译前 和翻译过程中参阅了大量的FIDIC条件,即《土木工程施工合同条件》,FIDIC是 国际上最有权威的的咨询工程师组织,并且得到了世界银行的认可。FIDIC于1957 年首次出版了标准的土木工程施工合同条件,从此,专门适用于国际工程的合同 条款便诞生了。以下几个例子就是出于FIDIC条件:

(1)条理性

英文工程合同既是经济文书,又是法律文书,合同英语不追求语言的艺术美, 而追求逻辑的严密性与精确性,思维的清晰性与条理性,因而合同措辞要准确、 严密、具体,避免产生误解或争议。(朱敏冠,2006: 128)

例1:

  • If the contract is terminated under the provisions of sub-clause 65.6, the contractor shall-••
  • Unless prohibited by law, the contractor shall, if so instructed by the Engineer within 14 days of such entry and termination refened to in sub-clause 63.1, assign to the Employer- • •
  • Provided that a Taking-over Certificate given in respect of any Section or part of the Permanent Works before completion of the Whole of the works shall not be deemed to certify completion of any ground or surfaces requiring reinstatement, unless such Taking-over Certificate shall expressly so state. (FIDIC, 48.4)
  • In the event of
  • the amount or nature of extra or additional work, or
  • any cause of delay referred to in these conditions, or
  • exceptionally adverse climatic conditions, or
  • other special circumstances which may occur, other than through a default of or breach of contract by the contractor.

分析:类似此例中的条件状语从句在英文合同中很常见,合同的严谨性要求合 同条款要考虑到各种意外情况,所以就会出现大量从句,如④中in the event of引 导了几个平行的条件句;如b, c中,有两个甚至更多相嵌套的条件从句;如有三 个或三个以上的从句或长句并列,则选用序号标明,不仅可避免产生歧义,还便 于阅读,如上例d,英语语言表达上讲究条理清晰,上述条款对可能遇到的特殊情 况作了全面考虑和分析,这体现了英文工程合同的条理性。

(2)规范性

英文工程合同英语的词法非常严谨,合同撰写者往往选择词义范围较小,语 义较为明确,决不允许含有歧义的词。在其他文体中常见到的表示程度或频率的 词如“always”,“often”,“very”等在工程合同英语中几乎不用,因为这些词表示的 程度或频率不确切。有时即使是定冠词“the”也经常由“such”代替,因为其限定范围 更小一些。

例2:

The Engineer may delegate inspection and testifying of materials or plant to an independent inspector. Any such delegation shall be effected in accordance with sub-clause 2.4 and for this purpose such independent inspector shall be considered as an assistant of the Engineer. Notice of such appointment (not being later than 14 days) shall be given by the Engineer to the Contractor. (FIDIC, 37.5)

工程师可以将检验和试验材料或设备的权力委托给一个独立的检验人。这种 委托应按第2.4分项条款办理,这种检验员应作为工程师的一个助手。这种任命通 知书由工程师至少于14天前发给承包人。(邓含能,2001: 8)

分析:此例中的such delegation指的是之前提到的任命,同理,such appointment 指的是刚才提到的独立检验人,such appointment也指的是文中刚才提到的任命, 而若把这三个such都换成the的话,语义就没有用such明确,因为the既可以翻 译为“这个”,也可以翻译为“那个”,而such只作“这种”讲。英文的工程合同 尽量选用词义较小的,不容易产生歧义的词,这说明工程合同英语的用词非常严 谨,这体现了英文工程合同的规范性。

例3:

The Engineer may by any interim certificate make any correction or modification in any previous certificate which shall have been issued by him and have authority-(FFIDIC, 60.4)

工程师可以发出中间性证明,对以前由他发出的证明进行校正或修改……(邓 含能,2001: 8)

分析:此例中“correction”和”modification”分别是”校正”和”修改”的意思, “correction”表示对错误的内容进行改正,“modification”表示对不符合特定条件的 内容进行调整或修正,调整或修正的内容并非错误,只是运用场合不当。上述两 词在日常应用中人们甚至不会注意到这些差别的存在,应用中按照个人偏好而不 加以区分。但合同中不允许出现哪怕是最细小的失误或是遗漏,因此,英文工程 合同的严谨性要求合同英语中采用近义词并列的方法来阐明合同双方的权利和义 务,以使表述不允许出现组漏,充分体现英文合同条款的规范性。

工程合同英语中词义的确定性在情态动词“may”、“shall”、“should”、“will”的 使用中体现得尤为明显。在日常生活用语中,“may”用于一、二、三人称,表示”许 可”或“可能”,可与“can”混用;”shall”用于第一人称表示“意图”,而用于二、 三人称表示“必须”,“坚持”或“愿意”;“should”表示“必然”或”应该“,可用 于各人称;%血”用于第一人称表示“决心”或“愿意”,用于二、三人称表示“坚 持要在日常用语中,这几个词在用法及含义上的差别非常不明显,尤其是在口 语中,“shal尸、”should”、飞曲”经常混用,它们的差别主要体现在正式程度及语气 方面,混用一般不会造成严重后果。但是在工程合同英语中,这几个词的含义相 差很大,它们所规定的权利及义务是不同的,混用可能会带来纠纷或者严重后果。 例如:

例4:

At the end of each month the Contractor shall deliver to the Engineer a priced statement of the labor, material and Contractor’s Equipment- • , (FIDIC, 52.4)

承包人应在每个月的月底向工程师提交一份标了价的关于所用劳力,材料和 设备的报告。(邓含能,2001: 8)

分析:上述例子当中,”shall”表示“应该”,而不能用“should”。“shall”被赋 予了法律意义,表示“一方负有一定的义务或责任,如不履行,将被视为未履行 合同而要负法律责任” ;“should”仅用于条件句中,表示较低的可能性;(邓含能, 2001: 8)因为在合同英语中,表示“应该”须用“shall”,绝不能混用。

(3)专业性

任何行业都有自己的专门术语,英语工程合同也必然会涉及到工程方面的术 语,英文工程合同撰写时首先要掌握工程行业的一些常用的术语。下面一些词汇 在工程合同中被赋予了新的词义,合同撰写时要注意这些词的含义和用法。如下:

例5:

The Employer will use his best endeavors in assisting the Contractors, where required, in obtaining clearance through the Customs of Contractors Equipment, materials and other thing required for the Works. (FIDIC, 54.3)

工程实施中,业主须尽最大努力协助承包人将他的设备,材料和工程所需的 其他物品,办理通过海关的通关手续。

分析:上述例子中,“Works”在日常应用中为“作品”之意,而此处指代“工 程”,为工程合同中专业术语,如若按照日常用法进行翻译将造成合同信息的严重 失真,此处体现了英语工程合同的专业性。

4.3功能对等理论在工程合同汉译英中的应用

工程合同通过明确当事双方的职责、权利和义务,合理分摊双方的责任风险, 保证工程项目的顺利实施。合同中明确约定的各项权利和义务是双方的最高行为 准则,是双方履行义务、享受权利的法律基础,也是处理工程项目实施过程中各 种争执和纠纷的法律证据。因为工程合同文本的特定读者为当事人双方,而准确 撰写双方达成的合同条款是保证工程合同顺利实施的必要保证,也是工程成功的 关键。(翁莉,2013: 68)因此,在对外工程项目活动中,工程合同翻译起到至关 重要的作用,为避免不准确的翻译造成不必要的损失,必须严谨、准确的对原文 进行翻译,努力创造出符合原文语义、体现合同特色的译文,从这个角度看,奈 达的功能对等理论成为工程合同翻译的合理选择。

与中英文工程合同撰写要求相同,工程合同汉译英过程中同样具有条理性、规 范性和专业性的特点。(王盈秋,2011: 97-99)同时,翻译过程对原文与译文的功 能性具有更高的要求,即合同的功能性。合同的功能性主要体现在合同的约束性、 执行性,是合同当事人主观意志的体现。针对中英文工程合同翻译中普遍存在的 不对等现象,本文依据功能对等理论,从工程合同汉译英过程中的条理性、规范 性和专业性入手,实现工程合同翻译的功能性。

(1)工程合同约束性

工程合同的约束性体现在当事人双方在合同规定范围内行使自己的权限,维 护自己的利益。中英文合同中均具有强制性的约束性,在翻译过程中不能产生变 化,例如:

原文5:

工程师代表按其授权向承包商发出的任何接洽联系均应视同为工程师的行为 作用。但条件是:

(A)工程师代表未能否定任何作业、材料或设备的情况,不得削弱工程师否 定该作业、材料或设备以及发出整改指令的权力;

(B)如果承包商对工程师代表的任何联系事宜提出置疑,那么,工程师代表 可将此事上报工程师,由工程师确认、推翻或改变该问题内容。

译文5:

Any communicative contact sent by the engineer’s representative to the contractor shall be regarded as the action taken by the engineer on condition that:

  • The engineer representative failed to deny any work, materials or equipment, and shall not reduce the engineer’s power of denying the work, equipment, materials and that of rectifying directions; and
  • Provided that any query on communication proposed by the contractor, then the engineer’s representative may submit it to the engineer, who shall change, overturn or confirm the problem.

分析:翻译的首要任务是语言信息或语义的传译,因此,原语信息内容的传 递在工程合同翻译中是摆在第一位的,示例中,笔者依据功能对等理论,较为准 确的实现了工程合同英语翻译中原文与译文的信息对等;同时,示例中指明“工 程师”与“工程师代表”在职权的上下级关系,强调“工程师代表”为“工程师” 负责的关系,体现了工程合同中的条理性原则。

(2)工程合同执行性

从工程合同成立的目的来看,任何当事人订立合同,都是为了能够实现工程 合同的内容,而合同内容的实现,有赖于工程合同义务的执行。工程合同的执行 是工程合同目的实现的根本条件,为工程合同当事人主体意愿的执行,因此,工 程合同的执行是合同制度的中心内容,无论是中文工程合同、英文工程合同及翻 译过程,均为其执行性服务。

原文6:

书面指令

工程师的指令应当以书面形式发出,倘若因任何原因工程师认为有必要给予 任何口头指示,承包商应遵守该指令。无论是在执行该指令之前或之后,由工程 师口头给定的指令均以书面确认,且应被视为本款规定内的指令。再者,如果在 七天内,书面向工程师确认的工程师的任何口头指令与工程师在七天内以书面形 式确认的内容不矛盾的,其应被视为是工程师的一条指令。

译文6:

Written Orders and Directions

Directions and orders issued by the engineer should be in written form. In the event of any reasons that it is of necessity for the engineer to present oral directions, the contractor shall observe them. All the verbal directions should be confirmed in written form by the engineer and shall be taken as the directions in this clause, either before or after the execution of the directions. Furthermore, if within 7 days, the contractor confirms in written form with his or her oral directions of the engineer, the content of which is not contradictory with them and that shall be deemed as the same direction of the engineer.

分析:示例中,以明确的条文规定了本合同的执行方式,体现了工程合同的 执行性;同时,在工程合同汉译英过程中,笔者注重遵循功能对等理论中术语对 等(termino logy equivalence)的翻译原则,并按照工程行业专业术语如”承包商 (Contractor)”进行翻译,避免引起歧义,实现工程合同英语翻译中语义信息对 等和风格信息对等,从而体现了工程合同英语汉译英过程中的规范性与专业性。

根据奈达的功能对等理论,翻译的最终目标是语篇上的功能对等。由于中西 民族在语言习惯、文化思想、艺术交流等方面的差异,有时词语和语句不对等, 也不能保证语篇的功能对等,此时,在进行翻译时我们可以作一些调整,以实现 语言功能和效果上的对等。在奈达功能对等理论的指导下,分析语篇,以了解原 文语篇的整体风格和文体形式特征,进而在追求意义和文体形式上的功能对等。

 

5工程合同翻译实践总结

法律翻译的基本要求是严谨,即译入语应精确地表达源语的真正意涵。专门术 语是法律英语中最重要的元素,因此,精确翻译专门术语是达到“严谨的必要步 骤。(穆凤良,2011:5-9)英语法律文本有一些特定的句式,工程合同语言具有与 其他语言明显不同的句法特点(桂仁娜,2013:227),其中很多用法在日常英语中 并不常见,没有文学上的夸张、比喻,亦没有口语中的方言、俚语,合同翻译多 采用来源于拉丁语的正规词语,如”otiierwise”、^subject to”、”provided that / provided…that”、'”where”、”fbr the purpose of5‘、”notwithstanding”、”save”、 “except(fbr)”、”in respect of’等。现探讨如下:

  • 词汇上的功能对等
  • .工程合同专业词汇翻译

在中文工程合同中有一整套专业的词汇,同样的,中文工程合同翻译成英文 时也有一整套相应的专业术语,它们具有规范性和专业性,不可用其他日常用语 代替。笔者在翻译过程中积累了一些专业词表,以下是摘自其中的一部分词汇翻 译例子:

中标通知书the letter of acceptance
不可抗力Force M^eure
工程works
计算书calculations
竣工completion
标段section
施工execution
修复repairing
造价cost
保修期warranty periods
标书bidding document
留存款项retained fund
临时付款证书certificates of temporary payment
结算账款settle account
履约保证金perfbnnance security
设备plant/equipment
临时工程

放线

项目总工程师

施工现场

授权

接洽联系

temporary project laying out of the route chief engineer of the project construction site

delegate

coimmmicatioii (与 give 连用)

分析:以上词汇为工程合同专业词汇翻译,不论在中文还是英文中,都具有 规范性和专业性,同时也具有合同的执行性和约束性,不可随意改变。

  • .常见短语翻译

在工程合同汉译英过程中,除了专业词汇的对等,还有一整套固定短语的翻 译,它们在工程合同翻译中也起着举足轻重的作用,因此,笔者除了收集工程合 同专业词汇外,还收集了专业短语翻译,例如:

合同项下规定的 根据第……条 行使权限 履行职责 明确表示 对……负责

由某人另行决定 本合同期 条件是

倘若……再者……

需要

under the Contract

pursuant to/according to Clause exercise the authority carry out/fidfill the duties expressly stated be responsible for otherwise determined by for the duration of tiiis Contract

Provided that

provided that if…/provided fiirther / that if be required to

分析:以上短语为工程合同专业短语翻译,中文工程合同的固定短语在翻译 为英语时也有其对应的说法,其在特定的领域被赋予了特定的涵义,具有专业性, 条理性和规范性,同时也体现了执行性和约束性。

  • .古英语的使用

在英美国家的法律文献中,古英语具有言简意赅、约定俗成、表达更加准确 的作用。

例如:

原文7: “临时工程”指的是工程施工和完工以及任何缺陷工程修复所需的所 有性质的任何工程(承包商的设备除外)。

译文7: “Temporary Project“ refers to any projects (the contractor’s apparatus excluded) to be executed, completed and repaired of any drawbacks therein.

分析:therein等古英语词在合同中经常用到,虽然原文并没有明确提到这个 词,但是由于工程合同的规范性和专业性要求在必要时要使用古英语词汇。

原文8: “工程”指的是临时工程以及永久性工程或者其中的任何一种适用的 工程。

译文 8: “Project“ refers to the temporary project, the pennanent project or any one of the appropriate herein.

以下是笔者在翻译过程中总结的一些古英语词汇,并对其作了英语解释,这样

理解起来更容易。
中文释义古英语词语英文释义
特此,藉此Herebyby this means
以下Hereinafter in a subsequent part of this document
关于此事Hereuponabout this matter
至此(文)Heretoto this(piece of writing)
于此Hereinin this(piece of writing)
在此之下Hereunderfollowing

4.冠词

条款中,比如说第几条前零冠词,这是一个很小的点,但是在合同翻译中几 乎每条都会重复一次,细节上应该准确无误。

例如:第2.1条

译为:Sub-Clause 2.1

  • 句式上的功能对等
  • .被动语态

奈达的功能对的理论指出,在翻译过程中,不能只追求形式或字面的对等, 而是要体现出原文的真正涵义,必要时强调原文的重点和中心。因此,合同翻译 被动句较多,其中使用被动语态通常是因为(1)、强调动作对象(即受动者),如 例(1)〜(4)此时,往往施动者没有必要说出或不愿说出;或者(2)、施动者本 身无法确定,如例(6);或者两种情形兼而有之,如例(5)

(1)工程师的指令应当以书面形式发出。

Instructions given by the Engineer shall be in written form.

分析:此译文的被动语态是为了强调动作对象,即受动者engineer。

  • “分包商”指的是合同中指定的作为某一部分工程的承包商的个人,或 者业主许可的将某一部分工程分包给某个人,或者作为分包商人员的继承人。

“Subcontractor55 refers to the individual who is appointed in the Contract as a contractor in a part o fthe project, or as the successor of the subcontractor.

分析:此处用被动是因为无法确定施动者具体是谁,所以采用被动语态。

  • “竣工试验”指的是合同中规定的或者工程师和承包商批准的、由承包 商在工程或者任何标段或者任何部分工程移交给业主之前进行使得试验。

”Completion Tests” refer to the tests provided in the Contract or any section or part of work approved by the engineer before the project or any part or any section to be taken over by the owner.

分析:在上述例子中为了强调“Owner”业主,所以采用了被动语态。

  • “留存款项”指的是业主扣除的作为履约保证金的金额,与承包商结算 账款时使用。在质保期到期之后,业主将会连同最后一次款项一起返还给承包商。

“Retained Fund” refers to sum of money deducted and retained by the owner as the performance margin when reckoning with the contractor which shall be returned to the contractor with the last payment by the owner before the deadline of the valid period.

分析:在上述例子中为了强调连同最后一次款项应该归还承包商(contractor), 所以此处采用了被动语态。

  • “永久性工程”指的是合同项下需要施工的永久性工程(包含设备)。

“Permanent Project“ refers to the Permanent Project (the Equipment included) required to be constructed in the Contract.

分析:在上述例子中无法确定、也没有必要具体提出施动者,所以此处采用 了被动语态。

(6)通知、许可、批准、证书以及决议

无论合同中任何条款要求某人出具或者签发任何通知书、许可证、批准函、 证书或者决议等等文件,除非另有规定,否则该通知书、许可证、批准函、证书 或者决议应该以书面的形式下发,并且应该在文件中相应的采用“特此通知”、“兹 证明”或者“决议如下”字样。任何许可证、批准函、证书或者决议不得被毫无 理由的滞留或者延迟下发。

Notice, Permission, Approval, Certificate and Determination

Any clauses in the Contract require the person to issue or sign any notice, permission, approval, certificate or determination, unless otherwise stipulated, the notice, permission, approval, certificate and determination shall be issued in written form, and the words such as “notice”, “certificate”, “determination“ shall be written accordingly. Any notice, permission, approval, certificate or determination shall not be detained or delayed without reason.

分析:在上述例子中是为了强调受动者“任何许可证、批准函、证书或者决 议”都不允许毫无理由的滞留,所以采用了被动语态。

  • .语序一致

(1)在工程合同属于法律文件,在词法和句法层面以及文体层面都是独一无 二的。工程合同有严格的结构,每部分的顺序绝对不允许调整,这就体现了工程 合同的规范性、条理性和专业性。

例如:

“标书”指的是承包商提交给业主关于合同条款中规定的工程施工和完工以 及缺陷工程修复的报价文件,并通过中标通知书的形式表示接受。词组“标书” 应该与带有“竞标文件字样的”“投标书”和“投标文件”具有相同的意思。

“Bidding documents“ refer to priced document, completion and rectification of the drawbacks that the contractor offers to the owner according to the clauses of the Contract. “Bidding documents^^ equal to “Bids” or “Tender Documents”.

(2)有时合同翻译的顺序几乎不变,即使是时间状语都不置后,这也体现了 工程合同的规范性和条理性。例如:

工程师可能随时授权给工程师代表任何职责和属于工程师的权限,也可能随 时撤销等此类授权。任何此类的授权或撤销授权均应为书面形式,并且,只有在 向业主和承包商提交了一份该授权或撤销授权的书面文件后,此授权或撤销授权 才为有效。

The engineer may at any time grant any duties and limits of authority to the representative, and may repeal such authorizations. Such authorizations and repeals shall be in written form, and only after handing such documents to the owner or the contractor, the authorizations or the repeals shall be effected.

 

结语

笔者结合自己在工程合同汉译英过程中所掌握的专业知识,将奈达的功能对 等理论运用其中,从工程合同汉译英过程中的条理性、规范性和专业性入手,体 现翻译的功能性。

工程合同文本因其特有的专业性,译者需要通晓中英文对应的专业词汇、同 义词、古体词和外来词,缩略语等。在工程合同制定和翻译过程中,应采用规范 的术语和表达方式,明确双方的责任和义务,用词正式规范,语言正式严谨、详 细准确,避免在合同中出现歧义性语句,以确保合同条理清楚、内容真实、并且 具有法律效力。本报告在工程合同中译英的基础上,从翻译过程中的词汇和句式 两个层次对尤金•奈达(EugeneNida)的功能对等理论、中英文工程合同的特征及 功能对等理论在工程合同英译汉的应用等方面进行了深刻剖析。

在本报告中,笔者就如何严谨、准确地对中文工程合同进行翻译、如何保证 合同条理清楚、语言严谨准确、内容真实,并且使之具有法律效力等方面开展了 认真的分析研究。笔者依据自己在工程合同英译实践中的经验,从词汇和句式上 的功能对等对工程合同专业词汇翻译、常见短语翻译、古英语的使用、冠词、被 动语态和语序等方面对工程合同英译的关键点进行了汇总,以期对工程合同英译 工作者将来的工作起到参考的价值。

目前国内关于合同英语翻译的研究与日俱增,但是大部分只是单方面研究英 文合同用语的特征,而本文的创新点在于先将中文合同和英文合的特点分别进行 分析,之后进一步从词汇和句式两个方面探讨中英文合同翻译如何体现奈达的功 能对等理论。

尽管本报告有了一些新的研究成果,但是也存在一些局限性。由于时间有限, 本报告只对奈达的功能对等理论中的词汇对等和句法对等进行了分析,对工程合 同翻译中如何实现语篇对等和文体对等还有待于进一步研究。

 

参考文献

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附录

合同条款

CONTRACT CONDITIONS

定义和说明

Definitions and Interpretations

  • 定义
  • Definitions

在本合同中(如下限定),下文使用的词语和表达方式应该具有赋予他们的意义,除了 另有规定的内容之外:

In the contract (as defined hereinafter), the words and expressions used in the following contract shall have the meanings 叩pointed to, except otherwise defined.

(一)“承包商”指的是投标文件已经被业主接受采纳的单位,并且该自然人具有合法继承 权的人员,但是不是该人员的制定代理人(已经获得业主同意的除外);

  • “Contractor’ refers to the cooperation whose bidding documents have been accepted and whose owner has the right of succession, but not the assigned agent (except with the approval of the owner).

(二)“工程师”指的是业主指定的任何能够胜任工作的人员,并且将这些人员通知承包 商。他们是代表业主的工程师。

  • “Engineer9, refers to any person that is qualified for the work and assigned by the owner. The owner will inform the contractor of the engineer, who stands for the owner.

(三)“工程师代表”指的是工程师根据第2.2条的规定不时任命的代表人员。

  • “Engineer’s Representative55refers to the person assigned by the engineer according to Clause 2.2.

(四)“政府当局”指的是任何柬埔寨政府单位、实体或者组织,包含省级单位、机关以 及组织,或者市级单位、机关以及组织,或者司法单位、机关以及组织,法定机构以及税务 机构等等。

  • ^Government Authori1yMrefers to any Cambodian government, entity or organization, or provincial agency, department and division, or mimicipal agency, or the judicial unit, or the statutory authority and tax office and so on.

(五)“业主”指的是代表KohPuos (柬埔寨)投资集团有限公司,柬埔寨。

  • “Owner5‘ refers to Koh Puos (Cambodia) Investment Co. Ltd, Cambodia.

(六)“分包商”指的是合同中指定的作为某一部分工程的承包商的个人,或者业主许可 的将某一部分工程分包给某个人,或者作为分包商人员的继承人。

  • ^Subcontractor55refers to the person assigned by the contract as a contractor in one certain part of the project, or as a successor of ttie subcontractor.

(-)“合同附录”指的是附在合同条款后面的附件。

  • “Appendix of the Contract5, refers to the appendix affiliated to the contract.

(-)“工程量清单”指的是作为合同文件一部分的带有报价的完整的工程量清单。

  • “Bill of Quantities” refers to the complete bill of quantities with bidding prices as a part of the contract

(三)“合同”指的是这些条款、规范、图纸、工程量单、招标书、中标通知书、合同协 议(如果完成的话)以及中标通知书或者合同协议中(如果完成的话)明确指定的其他文件。

  • “Contract refers to the Clauses, norms, Drawings, bill of Quantities, Invitation of Bids, Letter of Acceptance, Contract Agreement (if completed), and related Letters of Acceptance or the other documents clarified in the Contract.

(四)“合同协议”指的是第9.1条中规定的合同协议;“规范”指的是合同项下工程的施 工规范以及第51条规定的任何工程整改或者附加工程量,或者提交给承包商并交由工程师批 准的规范。

(TV) “Contract Agreemenf, refers to the Agreement defined in Clause 9.1; ^Specification55 refers to the norm and standard of execution and any rectification as well as additional work specified in Clause 51, or the norms handed to tiie contractor and approved by the engineer.

(五)“图纸”指的是合同项下规定的由工程师提交给承包商的所有图纸、计算书以及同 等属性的技术信息资料等等,以及承包商提交给工程师批准的所有图纸、计算书、样品、花 纹、模型、操作和维修保养手册以及其他同等属性的技术信息资料等等。

  • “Drawing” refers to all the designing papers, calculation papers and technical infonnation materials submitted by the contractor to the engineer, and all the calculation papers, designing papers, models, operations, maintenance instructions and the other technical information materials approved by the engineer.

(六)“中标通知书”指的是业主正式的接受投标文件的信函。

  • “Letter of Acceptance99refers to the official bidding documents accepted by the owner.

(七)“标书”指的是承包商提交给业主关于合同条款中规定的工程施工和完工以及缺陷 工程修复的报价文件,并通过中标通知书的形式表示接受。词组“标书”应该与带有“竞标 文件字样的” “投标书”和“投标文件”具有相同的意思。

  • “Bidding documents” refer to priced document, completion and rectification of the drawbacks that the contractor offers to the owner according to tiie clauses of Hie Contract. “Bidding documents^^ equal to “Bids” or “Tender Documents”.

(C)

(一)“开工日期”指的是承包商受到工程师根据第41条要求发出的施工通知书的日期。

  • “Commencement Date55refers to the date claimed by the contractor to operate under the requirement of the engineer according to Clause 41.

(-)“完工时间”指的是从开工日期算起的到合同项下的工程、或者任何标段工程或者 工程的任何部分完工并通过实验验收的日期之间(或者第44条规定的延期时间)所需的时间。

  • ^Completion Time55refers to the time of completion and the time of passing the teste of any of its parts (or the time of delay stipulated in Clause 44).

(-)“工程移交证书”指的是根据第48条出具的证书。

  • “Taking-Over CertiEcates“ refer to the certificates provided according to Clause 48 of the contract.

(二)”工程移交检验方案”指的是一个独立的方案,描述签署移交证书之前进行最终 试验、检验以及调试的详细方法、计划和内容。承包商应该在最终试验前90 (九十)天内将 本方案提交给工程师进行批准。

  • “Taking-Over Test plan” refers to an independent plan of stating the detailed methods, programs and contents of the final experiment and test before handing in the Taking-Over Certificates. The contractor shall hand in the plan to the engineer 90 days before the final test.

(三)“竣工试验”指的是合同中规定的或者工程师和承包商批准的、由承包商在工程 或者任何标段或者任何部分工程移交给业主之前进行得试验。

  • “Completion Test“ refers to the test stipulated by the Contract or any section of work ratified by the contractor and taken over by the owner.

(四)“承包商设备”指的是工程施工和完工以及缺陷工程修复所需的任何性能的装备 和设施(临时工程除外),但是不包含作为永久性工程一部分的设备、材料或者其他事项。

  • “Contractor’s Equipment55refers to the facilities and equipment (the temporary work excluded) required in the execution and completion of the work and the repairing of the drawbacks, but not including the equipment, materials or otiier matters which is a part of the permanent project.

(一)“合同造价”指的是根据合同条款的要求,就承包商进行的工程施工和完工以及 缺陷工程的修复,在中标通知书中说明的需要支付给承包商的金额。

  • “Cost of the Contract55refers to tide sum of money that shall be paid to the contractor claimed in the Letter of Acceptance for the execution and completion of the prefect and the repairing of the drawbacks according to the Contract

(二)“保修期”指的是从双方代表签署移交证书当日之后的12 (十二)个月的时间。 这一点是工程施工的保证,而且在这段时间之内应该保持其有效性。

  • “Warranty Periods” refer to the 12 (twelve) months after the day when representatives from both parties sign the Taking-Over Certificate, which is legally valid in this period.

(三)“最终付款证书”指的是工程师根据第59.8条规定出具的支付证书。

  • Certificate of Final Paymenf, refers to the certificate of payment provided by the engineer according to Clause 59.8.

(四)”临时付款证书”指的是最终付款证书之外的由工程师出具的所有付款证书。

  • Certificates of Temporary P”ment“ refer to all the payment certificates provided by the engineer except the Final Payment Certificate.

(五)“付款计划”指的是双方代表签署的文件,规定以临时付款证书和本合同附件形 式确认的每个阶段的工程的款项支付方式和支付金额。

  • “Payment Plan” refers to the document signed by both parties that specifies the way and the sum of money on every stage of the Temporary Payment Certificate and the accessories to the Contract

(六)“留存款项”指的是业主扣除的作为履约保证金的金额,与承包商结算账款时使 用。在质保期到期之后,业主将会连同最后一次款项一起返还给承包商。

  • “Retried Fund” refers to sum of money deducted and retained by the owner as the performance margin when reckoning with the contractor which shall be returned to the contractor with the last payment by the owner before the deadline of the valid period.

(七)“标段”指的是合同中特别说明的作为单独一段的工程。

  • “SecticiT refers to the project as an independent part specially defined in the Contract.

(八)“现场”指的是业主提供的进行施工的场所,以及合同中指定的作为现场一部分 场地的其他地点。

  • “Site” refers to all the places that the owner provides as execution and other places as a part of the site assigned in the Contract.

(九)“永久性工程”指的是合同项下需要施工的永久性工程(包含设备)。

  • ^Permanent Projecf5refers to the Permanent Project (the Equipment included) required to be constructed in the Contract

(十)“设备”指的是将作为或者已经作为永久性工程的机械、装置以及类似的东西。

  • “Equipment” refers to the machines, the devices and other similar things that have been or shall be a part of the Permanent Project

(十一)”临时工程”指的是工程施工和完工以及任何缺陷工程修复所需的所有性质的 任何工程(承包商的设备除外)O

  • “Temporary Prqjecf,refers to any projects (the contractor’s apparatus excluded) to be executed, completed and repaired of any drawbacks therein.

(十二)“工程”指的是临时工程以及永久性工程或者其中的任何一种适用的工程。

  • “Prefect“ refers to the temporary prcyect, the permanent project or any one of the appropriate herein.

(一)“造价”指的是现场或者场外发生的或者即将发生的所有适当的开支费用,包含 经常性费用以及其他适用的开支,但是不包含任何利润补贴。

  • “Cost” refers to all the appropriate fees and expenses on or out of the site happening or to be h即pened, including daily expenditure and other 叩propriate expenditure, but excluding any profit subsidy.

(二)“天”指的是日历日。

  • “Day” refers to the day defined by the calendar.

(三)“书面”指的是任何手写、打字或者打印交往文件,包含电子邮件、电传、电报 以及传真。

  • “WritteiT refers to the documents written by hand, typing, or printing including emails, cables, telegrq)hs or faxes.
    • 标题和旁注
    • Headlines and Notes

这些条款中的标题和旁注,并不能作为理解该合同的条件,也不可被视为该合同的构成 部分。

The headlines and notes in the Contract shall not be understood as the terms or clauses of Ulis Contract, nor a part of this Contract 13解释

凡指当事人或当事人各方的词应包括公司和企业以及任何具有法定资格的组织。

  • Interpretation

The words referring to the party or any party shall refer to the corporation, company and any legal organizations.

  • 单数和复数

仅表明单数形式的词也包括复数含义,视合同上下文需要而定,反之亦然。

  • Singular and Plural

Words of the singular form also contain the plural meaning and vice versa, which depends on the context of the Contract

  • 通知、许可、批准、证书以及决议

无论合同中任何条款要求某人出具或者签发任何通知书、许可证、批准函、证书或者决 议等等文件,除非另有规定,否则该通知书、许可证、批准函、证书或者决议应该以书面的 形式下发,并且应该在文件中相应的采用“特此通知”、“兹证明”或者“决议如下”字样。 任何许可证、批准函、证书或者决议不得被毫无理由的滞留或者延迟下发。

  • Notice, Permission, Approval, Certificate and Determination

Any clauses in the Contract require the person to issue or sign any notice, permission, approval, certificate or determination, unless otherwise stipulated, the notice, permission, approval, certificate and determination shall be issued in written form, and the words such as “notice”, “certificate”, wdeterminationM shall be written accordingly. Any notice, permission, approval, certificate or determination shall not be detained or delayed without reason.

工程师和工程师代表

Engineer and Engineer’s Representative

2.1工程师的职责和权限

  • Engineers Duties and Limits

(A)工程师应履行合同中规定的职责。

  • The engineer shall fulfill the duties assigned in the Contract.

(B)工程师可以行使合同中规定的或暗含的权限,如果在任命工程师的条款中,业主要求 工程师在行使这类权限之前应获得业主的具体批准,则由工程师行使的任何权力均应视为是 经过业主授予的。

  • The engineer may implement the authority clarified in or implied in the Contract. Provided in the clauses of the engineer’s appointment, the owner requires the engineer to accept his or her specific 即proval before carrying out his or her authority, such authority shall be taken as the authority granted by the owner.

(C)除了合同中所明确表示的,工程师无权减免本合同下规定的承包商义务。

  • Unless clarified olherwise in the Contract, the engineer has no authority to deduct or abate the contractor’s duties in the Contract

(D)如果在发生紧急情况时,工程师认为这可能影响到人员和/或工程的安全,那么,合 同所含职责中的寻求业主批准的工程师责任可不必顾及。在这种情况下,承包商应遵守工程 师的指示,以便消除或削减危险。工程师应按照第52款确定增加的费用,并以书面形式相应 地通知承包商和业主。

  • In case of emergencies in which the engineer finds that the safety of the workers and/or the project may be afifected, then the approval of the owner in the Contract can be disregarded. In such situations, tiie contractor shall follow the engineer’s directions in order to eliminate or reduce the danger. The engineer shall confirm the additional expenses according to Clause 52 and inform both the contractor and the owner in written form accordingly.
    • 工程师代表

工程师代表应当由工程师任命,并且应当对工程师负责;工程师代表应当按照第2.3条的 工程师授权范围来履行职责和行使权限。

业主委任本合同期的下列工程师代表,或由业主另行决定:

  • Engineer’s Representative

The engineer’s representative shall be designated by the engineer and shall be responsible to the engineer; the engineer representative shall fillfill duties and authorities delegated by the engineer according to Clause 2.3.

  • .项目总工程师Dmitry Savalsky先生
  • . Mr, Dmitry Savalsky, the Chief Engineer of theProject
  • .施工现场经理(待任命的)
  • . Site Manager (to be appointed)
    • 工程师授权的权限
    • Engineer’s Limits of Authority

工程师可能随时授权给工程师代表任何职责和属于工程师的权限,也可能随时撤销等此 类授权。任何此类的授权或撤销授权均应为书面形式,并且,只有在向业主和承包商提交了 一份该授权或撤销授权的书面文件后,此授权或撤销授权才为有效。

The engineer may at any time grant any duties and limits of authority to the representative, and may repe咄 such authorizations at any time. Such authorizations and repeals shall be in written fonn, and only after handing such documents to the owner or the contractor, the authorizations or the repeals shall be effected,

工程师代表按其授权向承包商发出的任何接洽联系均应视同为工程师的行为作用。但条 件是:

Any communicative contact sent by the engineer’s representative to the contractor shall be regarded as the action taken by the engineer on condition that:

(A)工程师代表未能否定任何作业、材料或设备的情况,不得削弱工程师否定该作业、材 料或设备以及发出整改指令的权力;以及

(B)如果承包商对工程师代表的任何联系事宜提出置疑,那么,工程师代表可将此事上报 工程师,由工程师确认、推翻或改变该问题内容。

  • The engineer representative feiled to deny any work, materials or equipment, and shall not reduce the engineer’s power of denying the work, equipment, materials and that of rectifying directions; and
  • Provided that any query on communication proposed by the contractor, then the engineer’s representative may submit it to the engineer, who shall change, overturn or confirm the problem.
    • 助理人员的任命

工程师或工程师代表可按第2.1条的规定委任多名人员来协助工程师代表履行其职责。工 程师代表应当将被委任人员的姓名、职务和权限范围通知承包商。对于可以使其履行职责以 及确保其按本合同规定验收材料、设备或工艺的指令,这些助理人员应无权向承包商发出任 何该类指令,由这些人员中的任何一名发出的任何针对该目的的指令均应视为工程师代表发 出的指令。

  • Appointment of Assistants

The engineer or the engineer’s representative may appoint any number of people to help the engineer’s representative to perform his or her duties according to Clause 2.1. The engineer’s representative shall inform their names, tasks and duties to the contractor. For the directions of ensuring them to check and accept materials, artwork and equipment according to the Contract, these persons have no authorities to give such directions. For ttiis purpose any instruction issued by any one of such persons shall be taken as the instruction issued by the engineer’s representative.

  • 书面指令

工程师的指令应当以书面形式发出,倘若因任何原因工程师认为有必要给予任何口头指 示,承包商应遵守该指令。无论是在执行该指令之前或之后,由工程师口头给定的指令均以 书面确认,且应被视为本款规定内的指令。再者,如果在七天内,书面向工程师确认的工程 师的任何口头指令与工程师在七天内以书面形式确认的内容不矛盾的,其应被视为是工程师 的一条指令。

  • Written Orders and Directions

Directions and orders issued by the engineer should be in written form. In the event of any reasons that it is of necessity for the engineer to present oral directions, the contractor shall observe them. All the verbal directions should be confirmed in written fonn by the engineer and shall be taken as the directions in this clause, either before or after the execution of the directions. Furthermore, if within 7 days, the contractor confirms in written form with his or her oral directions of the engineer, the content of which is not contradictory with them and that shall be deemed as tfie same direction of the engineer.

本条的规定应当同等地适用于根据第2.4条任命的工程师代表和工程师或工程师代表任 命的任何一名助理发出的指令。

The terms of this clause shall equally apply to the directions given by the engineer or any aids of the engineer’s representative according to Clause 2.4.

  • 工程师公正行事
  • The Engineer’s Action of Justice

根据合同,工程师需要自行决定的任何情况:

(A)给出其决定、意见或同意,

(B)表示其满意或批准,

(C)确定的价款,或

(D)当行使可能会影响业主或承包商的权利和义务的行动时,其应当在合同条款的规定范 围内,全面地考虑所有的情况后再公正地进行裁量。任何这样的决定、意见、同意、满意的 表示,或者批准、确定价值或行动均可按第66款规定进行疏通、审查或修订。

According to the terms in the Contract, the engineer shall determine any of the following decisions independently:

  • providing his or her decisions, views or approval,
  • showing his or her satisfaction or permission,
  • confirmed cost, or
  • providing a complete explanation of all the circumstances and conducting fair discretion when any action might influence the execution of the owner or the contractors authorities and duties, this should be within the scope of terms and clauses of the Contract. Any of these decisions, views, decisions, satisfaction or permissions, confirmation of the cost, or actions can be communicated, examined or reformulated according to Clause 66.

转让和分包

  • 合同的转让

未经业主事先同意(尽管有第L5条的规定,应由业主自行决定是否同意),承包商不得 转让合同或合同的任何部分或者与本合同相关的任何利益或权益,以下除外:

Transferring and Sub-Packaging

  • Transfer of the Contract

Wthout the agreement of the owner (though it is claimed that the owner has the authority to decide whether to approve or not according to Clause 1.5), the contractor has no rights to transfer the contract or a part of the contract or any related rights and interests, except:

(A)承包商的银行应收到本合同下的到期或即将到期的任何款项的费用。

(B)承包商的保险公司应承担的(保险人履行承包商的损失或责任的情况下),承包商有 权获得的向任何其他一方承担责任的救济。

  • The contractor’s bank shall receive any sum of money that is due or will be due in the contract.
  • The contractor’s insurance company shall assume (in the case of the insurer assumes the contractor’s losses and responsibilities), the contractor has the authority to get the successor from any other party.
    • 分包合同

承包商不得转包整个工程。除合同另有规定外,未经工程师事先批准,承包商不得转包 工程的任何部分。任何此类分包批准不得免除本合同规定的承包商的任何责任或义务,并且, 承包商应当对任何分包商以及其代表,受雇人员或工人的行为、违约、疏忽大意等承担全部 责任,即视同为承包商以及其代表,受雇人员或工人的行为、违约、疏忽大意。前提条件是 该承包商未要求取得上述批准:

  • Sub-packaging

The contractor has no authority to subcontract the whole project. The contractor has no authority to subcontract any part of the project without the engineer’s approval unless there are specifications in the contract Any subcontracting agreement shall not reduce or exempt his or her duties and responsibilities of the contract, and the contractor shall assume the responsibility of the entire outcome of any de&ults, negligence and actions of any sub-contractor, his or her representative, employees or workers. That is to say, they are viewed as the misdeed of the contractor and his or representative, employees and workers. The precondition is that the contractor fails to require them to get tiie permissions on:

(A)提供劳务。

(B)按照合同规定的标准购买材料。

(C)在本合同中明确了分包商分包的合同部分。

  • offering the services,
  • purchasing materials as specified by the Contract,
  • specifying the sub-packaging part of the contractor in the Contract.

合同文件

  • 语言和法律

(A)本合同文件应当用英语书写。

(B)本合同应适用柬埔寨国家的法律,应由该国法律进行解释。

Contract Files

  • Language and Law
  • The contract should be in English.
  • The contract should comply with and be interpreted by the Cambodian laws.
    • 合同文件的优先级

形成合同的若干文件应当互为解释,如有含糊之处或偏差的情况,该情况应当由工程师 进行解释和调整,且应立即向承包商发出相关指示,在这种情况下,除非合同中另有规定, 形成合同文件的优先顺序应如下:

  • The Level of Priority of the Contract

All of the documents constituting die Contract shall be mutually interpreted between one another, if there are any unclear terms, the en^neer shall interpret or adjust them and send directions thereof to the contractor at once. In this case, unless it is specified otherwise in the Contract, ttie level of priority of the documents shall be in the following order:

(1)承包合同,

(2)合同的条件和附录,

(3)投标的澄清,

(4)工程量清单计价,

(5)技术规范,

(6)初始设计图纸,

(7)形成合同部分的任何其他文件。

  • the Contract,
  • die terms and conditions, and the attachments of the Contract,
  • the statements of the Bidding documents,
  • the bills of the costs of the quantities
  • the technical norms and standardizations,
  • the origind designs and drawings,
  • any other documents that constitute the Contract.
    • 图纸和文件的保管和提供

初始设计图纸应当交由工程师的全权保管,但应免费提供给承包商两个副本。承包商应 自费复制所需数量的复印件。除非是为履行合同绝对必要的,否则,未经工程师同意,承包 商不得将业主或工程师提供的图纸、规范和其他文件不得用于或传给第三方。在签发了缺陷 责任证书后,承包商应向工程师返回所有图纸、规范和合同规定的其他文件。

  • Keeping and Offering of the Drawings and Files

The engineer shall have the full authority to keep the original designs and drawings, but the contractor shall be provided with two copies free of charge. The contractor shall copy any number he or she wants at his or her own costs. Unless it is of absolute necessity to perform the Contract, the contractor shall not give the designs, drawings, norms and standardizations, and other documents supplied by the owner or 1he engineer to a third party without the approval of the engineer. After signing the defects liability certificate, the contractor shall return all the designs, drawings, norms and standardizations and other documents to the engineer

承包商应向工程师提供四份所有图纸、规范和根据第7条承包商提交的、工程师批准的 其他文件,连同任何材料的复制件(该件不能通过影印的方式获得同等的标准)。此外,承包 商应提供这些图纸、规范及工程师书面要求供业主所用的其他文件等更多的副本,相关费用 应由业主支付。

The contractor shall submit all the four designs, drawings, norms and standardizations and other documents that have been 叩proved by the engineer and provided by the contractor to the engineer with the copies of any materials (this copy shall not acquire tile same standard by photocopy) according to Clause 7. Furthermore, the contractor shall offer all these designs, drawings, norms and standardizations and en^neer5s written requirements, more copies of other documents in written form from the engineer used by the owners, and the related costs shall all be paid by the owner.

  • 现场存放一份图纸

按上述内容,由承包商提供或供应的一份图纸应当由承包商保存在工程现场,这份图纸 应当在所有合理时间内都可以供工程师和工程师书面授权的任何其他人员进行查看和使用。

  • Keeping One Design on the Site

As is stated in the above, one drawing of the design provided or offered by the contractor shall be reserved on the site by the contractor. This drawing of design shall be available for the engineer and any other representatives authorized by the engineer in written form at all reasonable time for reference and use.

  • 进度中断

当工程计划或工程的执行很可能会被推迟或中断的任何时候,承包商应通知工程师和业 主,除非工程师在合理时间内发出的任何补充的图纸或指令。该通知应包括图纸或所需指令 的详细说明和必需完成的时间,以及如果推迟则可能导致中断或耽搁。

63 Interruption of the Progress

When the plan or execution of the project is liable to be postponed or interrupted, the contractor shall inform the engineer and the owner; unless the engineer sends out any additional drawings of design or directions within a reasonable time. The notice shall include the drawings and design, the details of the needed instructions and deadline of the design in detml9 and the possible interruption or delay of the project if the project is proponed.

6.4承包商未提交图纸

如果工程师未能或无法发出任何图纸或指示,全部或部分的原因是由于承包商未能提交 图纸、规范或根据合同要求应该提交的其他文件而造成,按照第6.4条的规定,这应考虑为承 包商的违约事故。

6.4 Contractor’s Failure to Submit the Designs and drawings

If the engineer fails to or is unable to send out any designs, drawings, or directions partly or wholly due to the contractor’s dilute to submit designs, drawings, norms or standardizations or other related documents that he shall submit according to the terms in the Contract, this kind of accident shall be considered as title contractor^ fault.

7.1补充图纸和说明

为了正确完整地履行和完成工程以及对存在的缺陷进行修补,工程师有权在任何时间向 承包商发出所必需的补充图纸和指示。承包商应当执行这些补充规定文件并受其制约。

  • Additional Des^ns and Explanations

The engineer has the rights at any time to send out the additional designs and e即lanations to the contractor so as to correctly and complete and perform the project and rectify the existing drawbacks. The contractor shall carry out these additional regulative documents and shall be restricted by them accordingly.

  • 承包商的设计文件

承包商同意,由工程师或业主提供的初步设计图纸中的设计信息的金额足以在不超过合 同价的情况下按本合同的条件完成所有工程。如果需要完成工程更详细的设计,承包商应当 为完成所有工程而需要绘制所有的作业或施工图纸承担全部的责任。

  • The Contractor^ Documents of Project Des^ning

The contractor agrees that designs and drawings provided by the engineer shall cost no more than the budget and shall complete all the works according to the terms of the contract In case that more detailed designs are needed to be provided, tiie contractor shall assume all the duties of making all the drawings of designing and works needed in the completion of the work.

工程师必须在7 (七)个工作日内批准这些建设用图纸或给出修改意见。

(A)关于设计的适宜性和充分性,按照本合同规定的程序,这类图纸、规范、计算方法和 其他资料应被视为必须使工程师满意。

(B)承包商的文件应符合规范要求和工程师提供的其他信息,以及

(C)他们应使用第5.1条[法律和语言]规定的语言进行沟通联系,并应包括工程师所要求 的任何其他信息。

(D)作为整套的有足够的详细信息操作和维修手册与永久性工程图纸,应能够使业主结合 设计来经营、维护、拆除、重新组合该永久性工程。在这样的操作和维修手册连同竣工图和 竣工文件未提交工程师批准前,工程不得视为达到按照第48款的规定进行移交的竣工程度。

The engineer shall approve the construction drawings and designs or offer his or her corrective comments within 7 (seven) working days.

  • On the sufficiency and appropriacy of the design, according to the regulated progress of the contract, this type of designs, norms, standardizations, calculations and the other materials shall be deemed as satisfaction by the engineer.
  • The contractor^ documents shall comply with the requirements and the other information from the engineer. And
  • The documents shall be written in the language defined in the “Legal and Language” to communicate according to Clause 5.1 and shall include any other information from the engineer.
  • As the whole set with sufficient practicing information and maintenance instructions and permanent engineermg designs and drawings shall be able to let ttie owner to run, protect, demolish, recombine this permanent project with designs. Witiiout the approval of this condition and operation and maintenance manual with completion design and document, the project shall not be deemed as taking-over completion according to the terms in Clause 48.

73不受审批影响的责任

根据第7.2条的规定,由工程师做出的批准不得免除承包商在本合同项下的任何责任。

一般义务

General Responsibilities

  • Duties unaffected by the approval

According to Clause 7.2, the engineer’s approval will not exempt any of the contractor’s duties listed in the contract

  • 承包商的一般责任

8«1 General Duties of the Contractor

承包商应以应有的谨慎和勤奋来设计(在合同规定的范围内)、执行和完成有关工程,并 按照合同的规定候补其中的任何缺陷。承包商应提供这类设计、执行、竣工和修补任何缺陷 所需的所有管理人员、劳动力、材料、设备、承包商设备以及所有其他物资,无论是临时或 永久性质的,到目前为止,提供这类要求内容的必要性或合理性都是由合同推断的。

审查合同时,或在执行工程的10个(十)工作日内,当发现工程的设计或规范中存在的 任何错误、遗漏、差错或其他缺陷后,承包商应当通知工程师和业主。

The contractor shall design (within the scope prescribed by the contract), execute and accomplish the related project with the due diligence and carefulness, and repair any possible drawbacks according to the contract. The contractor shall provide such type of design, execution, completion and labor, equipment and admirdstrative staff and materials for tihie restoring of any defects and contractor’s equipment and any other needed materials, whether they are permanent or temporary, up to now, the reason and necessity of them can be inferred and interpreted in the contract.

When checking the contract, or within 10(ten) working days of starting the project, the contractor shall inform the engineer and the owner if any mistakes, error, omission or other drawbacks are found in the designs, norms or standardization.

  • 现场作业和施工方法

承包商应当为现场所有作业和施工方法的充足性、稳定性和安全性承担全部责任。承包 商不应当为永久性工程的设计或规范承担责任(除非下文另行商定),或非承包商编制的任何 临时工程的设计或规范。然而,合同中明确规定了永久工程的部分应当由承包商设计时的, 尽管有任何工程师批准,承包商应完全负责该工程部分。

8.2 Operation on the Site and Methods of Construction

The contractor shall assume the responsibility for all the work and the stability, sufiiciency and security of the methods of construction on the site. The contractor shall not be responsible for the designs or standards of permanent work (unless otherwise stated below), or designs or standardizations of any interim work completed by the non-contractor. However; the contract clearly states that the part of the permanent project shall be designed by the contractor. Even with q)provals of any of the engineers, the contractor shall still be fully responsible.

83工程进度报告

承包商应当每月编制进度报告,向工程师提交四(4)份。第一次报告应包括从工程动工 日至第一个日历月结束期的封面。随后的报告应每月提交一次,在报告所在月的月末14天内 提交。在整个合同期内,报告应连续提交直到签发移交证书为止。

报告应包括:

83 Report of the Projecfs Progressing

The constructor shall present monthly progress reports, handing in 4 copies to tiie engineer. The first monthly report shall include a cover with the detailed date from the start of the construction to the end of the calendar month. The following reports shall be handed in once a month. The reports shall be handed in within 14 days at the end of each month. Throughout the contract period, the reports shall be handed in continuously until the taking-over certificate is signed and given.

The reports shall include:

(A)工程进度的详细描述,包括每个阶段的设计工作以及任何必要的图表、图解等;

(B)生产厂家的证书、采购和运输通知、检查、安装和测试证书,包括承包商自有机器和 设备以及分包商的物资等;

(C)相关图片资料;

(D)质量保证和控制文件;

(E)工地安全统计信息,包括发生意外的事故、危险物质的泄漏以及其他环境事故等:

(F)公共关系问题;

(G)任何索赔、投诉或政府官员的要求;以及

(H) 一个比较实际和计划好的开支和进度图表,其中应包括当前或预见事件的详细资料, 这类事件可能会对按时竣工造成影响,以及采取的或应采取对策来克服工程拖延问题的详细 信息。

  • The detailed illustration of the engineering plan, containing the designing and any necessary forms, charts, and schemes of each stage.
  • The production’s credentials, purchases and transport notices, investigations, fix and check, such as the constructor and sub-constructor^ equipment and devices.
  • The materials and pictures related to the project
  • Quality guarantee and regulation files,
  • Information of site safety, inclucfing the infbnnation of dangerous substance leakage, contingency and other circumstance accidents.
  • Public Relations problems.
  • Any claims, complaints or requirements of the government officials; and
  • A more practical and a better planned expenses as well as scheme chart, including the detailed infbnnation about present and foreseeing events, which may affect the original completion tune, and the detailed methods shall be taken or have been taken to deal with such project delay.

9.1承包合同

如果有要求,承包商应当订立和履行承包合同,该合同由业主出资以这些条款所附的形 式进行编制和完善(附带可能需要的修改项)。

9.1 Contracting

If required, the contractor shall make and implement the contract that is funded by the proprietor; and edit and perfect the forms attached to the terms according to the items.

  • 现场监督

在承包商提交投标前,业主应提供给承包商业主获得的或由其代表对工程的调查中获得 的,但是由承包商应负责自行解释的有关水文和地下条件等数据。承包商,在提交标书前, 应被视为已对现场及其周围地区进行了考察,所提供的与其相关的资料满足了自身的要求(在 切实可行的范围内,已考虑到成本和时间),在如下方面:

  • On Spot Supervision

Before the contractor submits the bidding documents, the owner or his or her representatives shall provide the contractor with hydrology and undeiground statistics on the basis of the investigation of the project, illustrated by the contractor. The contractor, before submitting the bidding documents, shall have investigated the site and the surroundings of the site, and the related materials shall satisfy his or her own requirements (within the feasible scope of the cost and time), in following aspects:

(A)现场条件的形式和性质,包括地下条件,

(B)水文和气候条件,

(C)工程的范围和性质以及执行和完成工程以及任何缺陷修补所需的物料,和

(D)进入现场和住宿的问题,一般情况下,应被视为已获得所有必要的信息,按上述内容, 关于危险、突发事件和所有可能会影响或影响其标书的其他情况。

承包商应视为:其标书的编制是以业主和其自身进行的考察获得的数据为依据的,如上 所述。

  • the form and the nature of the project site conditions, tiie underground conditions included,
  • the conditions of hydrology and the weather,
  • the scope and nature of tfie project and any other materials required in the execution, completion and repairing of the project, and
  • problems of entering the site and of the accommodation, generally shall be taken as having equipped with all the needed information, as shown in the above terms, danger; emeigency and all Ihe situations may affect the bidding documents.

The contractor make the bidding documents on the basis of the statistics investigated from the owner him or herself as is shown in ttie above.

  • 标书的充足性

关于标书的正确性和充足性以及工程量清单所列的费率和价格,承包商应被视为已满足 自己的要求。除了合同中另有规定外,所有这些应当包括其在合同下的所有义务(包括在那 些关于货物、材料、设备或服务,或应急供应物资,对此,应有一项不可预见费),和正确执 行和完成工程以及修补缺陷所必需的所有事项和物料。

  • Adequacy of the bidding documents

The adequacy and correctness of the bidding documents and the prices and rates in the bills of quantities shall be deemed as satisfying the contractor^ requirements. Except defined otherwise in the contact, all of these shall include all the duties and responsibilities in the contract (including the relative goods, materials, devices and services, or emergency materials. An unpredictable fee is required for this.), and all the materials and matters needed in the appropriate completion, execution and repairing.

  • 不可预见的物理障碍或条件

但是,如果在履行工程期间,承包商在现场遇到气候条件以外的物理障碍或客观条件, 在其看来,该障碍或条件是一个有经验的承包商不可预见的,则承包商应随即通知工程师和 业主。工程师应在收到上述通知后,如果在他看来一个有经验的承包商在合理条件地不可能 预见到这些障碍物或条件,那么,在业主和承包商适当协商后,工程师应当做出如下决定: 11.2 Unpredictable Physical Barriers and conditions

However, in case in the period of implementing the project, the contractor suffered from the objective constrains or physical obstacles except the weather conditions on the site, which, in his or her views, cannot be predicted by an experienced contractor, the contractor shall inform the engineer and the owner at once. After the engineer has received the above infonnation and if he or she agrees that the obstacles and terms cannot be predicted by an experienced contractor; then, the engineer shall make the following decisions based on an agreement between the owner and the contractor:

(A)根据第44款规定,承包商有权延长的任意时间。

(B)由于此类障碍物或遇到的条件,而使承包商支出费用的金额应增加到合同价款中,并 应相应地通知承包商与业主。相关决定应考虑到工程师可能向承包商发出的任何相关指令, 以及承包商在缺少工程师具体指示的情况下采取的任何适当的、合理的以及工程师可接受的 措施。

  • According to Clause 44, the contractor has the authority to extend the time of the project to any period of time.
  • Due to such obstacles and situations they suffered, the amount of the expenses and fees shall be added to the general sum of money in the contract, and the engineer shall accordingly inform the contractor and owner. The relevant decisions shall take any relative instructions into consideration which may be sent to the contractor, and shall take into consideration any acceptable, reasonable and appropriate measures for the engineer that the contractor may take when the engineer is not on the site.

12.1工程符合合同规定

除非在法律上或客观上是不可能的,承包商应执行和完成工程并且对其中任何缺陷采取 补救措施,严格遵守合同规定,达到工程师满意的程度。承包商应符合并严格遵守工程师就 工程相关的任何事项发出指令。承包商应当只执行由工程师(或其代表)发出的指令。

12.1The Project Complying With the Contract

Unless the legal or objective impossibility, the comactor shall perform and complete the project and take action to repair any of its defects, strictly abide by the terms of the contract so as to achieve the satisfaction of the engineer. The contractor shall fit and strictly abide by the directions about any related matters which is given by the engineer. The contractor shall only perform the direction given by the engineer (or his delegate).

13.1提交的施工方案

承包商在获得中标通知书之日起21天(二十一)内,应向工程师提交其方案进行批准, 应当工程师应合理规定执行工程方案的形式和细节。一经工程师要求,承包商也应以书面形 式提供一般方法说明来描述其拟执行工程的方案。

  • The Construction Plan Submitted

The contractor shall hand in his or her construction plan to the engineer for approval within 21 (twenty-one) days from the time he or she gets the letter of acceptance. The engineer shall reasonably specify the form and the details in the enforcement of the construction plan. Once the contractor gets the engineer’s demands, the contractor shall also provide the general way in written form to describe the construction plan.

  • 经修订的施工方案

如果在任何时候工程师发现工程实际进度与已按第13.1条批准的施工方案不符,承包商 应当按工程师的要求修订方案,并在进度上标明修订项,以确保工程在竣工时间内完成。

  • The Revised Construction Plan

If at any time, the engineer finds the practical progress does not comply with the first construction plan of Clause 13.1 which has already been approved, the contractor shall correct the plan in accordance Mth the demand of the engineer, and mark the revised pages in order to ensure the completion of the work before the deadline.

133提交现金流量估计

承包商应在收到中标通知书之日起28天内,提供给工程师一份详细的现金流量估算表以 供参考,其中包括每月承包商根据合同有权获得的所有款项,以及日后承包商应提交修订的 季度现金流量估计(如工程师有相关要求)。

133 Submitting the Cash Flow Evaluation

Since the contractor gets the letter of acceptance, the detailed cash flow evaluation fbrm shall be submitted within 28 days, which contains all the p^nnents that the Contractor shall receive at each month, the evaluation on the revised cash flow and all the quarter cash flows .( as the engineer has required)

  • 不免除承包商的职责或责任

向工程提交并经工程师批准的方案或该一般性描述或现金流量估计的规定不得免除承包 商的在本合同中规定的任何职责或责任。

  • Non-exempting the Contractor’s Responsibilities and Duties

The plan, the general description, and the cash flow evaluation submitted to and having been approved by the engineer shall not exempt any of the contractor’s responsibilities or duties defined in the contract.

14.1承包商的管理

工程的执行期间,承包商应提供一切工程师认为必要的管理,以切实充分地履行其在合 同中规定的承包商义务。承包商或工程师批准的有资格的授权代表应赋予其全部时间的工程 管理,其批准可随时撤回。该授权代表应代表承包商接收工程师发出的指示。如果工程师撤销 了对该代表的批准,在收到退出通知后,承包商应当在切实可行范围内尽快地考虑更换事宜, 从将该代表从现场撤回,并且在该现场不得再次聘用其担任任何职务,替补的代表应获得工 程师批准。

  • The Contractor’s Management

In the construction, the contractor shall provide the necessary management and administration in accordance with the views of the engineer, so as to fidly fulfill the contractor’s duties listed in the contract The qualified authorized representative with the q>proval of supervision given by the contractor and the engineer shall be granted all the time and work control. The empowered representative shall represent the contractor to accept directions from the engineer. If the engineer revoked the representative^ approval, after receiving the revoking notice, tiie contractor shall consider changing the plan within a practical scope immediately, revoking tiie representative from the site, and shall not grant him or her with any duties on the site again. The substitute representative shall get the engineer’s approval.

  • 承包商管理层的英语水平

承包商须提供足够的具有很好英语水平的监管人员,或者,提供足够数量的翻译人员, 以便不会因为沟通不畅而妨碍工作的进展。特别是,承包商的授权现场代表应在口头和书面 具备良好的英语水平,以便其可以有效地在这两方面进行沟通。

  • The English level of the Contractor^ Management

The contractor shall provide sufficient management personnel with a good command of English, or provide sufficient translators and interpreters so as to avoid impairing the progress of the work due to English communication problems. Particularly Ihe site representative of the contractor shall have a good command of English both in writing and speaking, so as to communicate effectively with both parties.

  • 承包商的雇员

承包商应在现场配备相关的执行和完成工程和其中任何缺陷弥补的人员:

(A)只有在各自执行的职务方面技术熟练和经验丰富的技术助理人员以及这样的工长和 主管人员才有资格对工程进行合适的管理。

(B)承包商适当和及时的根据合同履行其义务需要熟练、半熟练技术人员和非技术工种。 15.1 The Contractor^ employees

The contractor shall be equipped with related personnel on the spot to practice, complete and rep 向 any of the defects:

  • Only tiie technical support personnel and administrative person and the director that are responsible for their respective duties and are skilled and experienced in their positions have the right to manage properly.
  • The contractor shall properly and timely perform his or her duties according to the contract, and dispatch the skilled and semi-skilled technician or non-skilled occupation.
    • 工程师有充分的权力提出反对意见

工程师应当有充分的权力提出反对意见,对于承包商提供的人员,如果承包商认为不称 职或在正确履行职责方面玩忽职守的或工程师认为是不可取的,承包商应立即将这些人员从 工程现场撤出。未经工程师同意,不得再允许在现场工作。所以从工程上清退的人员应当尽 快更换。

  • Full Authority for the Engineer to Object

The engineer has flie full right to put forward objections. For the personnel that ±e contractor provides, if the contractor finds them unqualified or derelict of the duties in properly practicing the work or their actions are unacceptable, the contractor shall withdraw them from the site at once and they shall no longer be allowed to work witiiout the permission of the engineer. Therefore, the personnel withdrawn from the site shall be replaced immediately.

  • 放线

承包商应负责:

(A)相对于工程师以书面给出的原来的点、线和标高,准确地进行工程放线。

(B)将上述所述的位置、标高、尺寸和工程所有部分对齐,和

(C)保证与上述职责相关的一切必要的仪器、设备和劳动力的配备。

16*1 Laying out of route

The contractor shall be responsible for:

  • Accurately laying out of route in accordance with the original point, line and elevation given by the engineer in written form.
  • Aligning correctly all of the above stated places, sizes, elevations with those stated in the project, and
  • Supplying all the necessary apparatus, equipment and workers related to the above stated duties.

如果在工程执行期间的任何时间,在工程任何部分的位置、标高、尺寸或对齐方面出现 任何错误,承包商应自费纠正这种错误达到工程师满意的程度,除非此类错误是基于工程师 书面提供的数据不准确造成的,在这种情况下,工程师应按照第52款确定追加合同价款,且 相应地通知承包商,该通知交业主一份。

If at any time of the operation period, any mistakes are found in size, elevation, aligning or position of any part of the project, the contractor shall rectify the mistakes at his or her own expenses to the extent that the engineer is satisfied, unless the mistakes are made because of the inaccurate written materials and statistics given by the engineer; on the occasion of which the engineer shall make sure the additional contract price according to Clause 52, and inform the contractor accordingly and the owner as well.

工程师对任何线或标高或放线检查,绝对不得免除承包商对放线准确性的责任,并且, 承包商应仔细保护和保存所有基准点、视轨、钉桩和工程放线所用的其他参考。

The engineer’s inspection of any elevation, line or the laying out of route shall not exempt die contractor from the duty of accuracy. And the contractor shall carefiilly protect and preserve all of the references on pile, point, pegs, rail and engineering screw.

17.1钻孔和勘探性挖掘

如果在在执行工程的任何时间,工程师要求承包商进行钻孔或进行勘探性挖掘的,这样 的规定应以第51款的指令为准,除非在工程量清单计价中包括一项或一笔与该工程相关的不 可预见费。

17.1 Drilling and Exploratory Mining

If at any time of the prefect enforcing, the engineer requires the contractor to drill and conduct exploratory mining, such rules shall be in accordance with Clause 51, unless one or a sum related unpredictable expense is included in the bills of quantities of the contract.

18.1安全、保安和环境保护

在工程的整个执行和完成期间,以及对其中的任何缺陷弥补,承包商应:

(A)充分考虑授权在现场以及坚守在现场的所有人员的安全(属于其管理范围内的人员), 以及工程在有序的状态下(到目前为止没有完成或由业主进驻的)执行,避免对这些人员造 成危险。

(B)自费提供和维护由工程师或任何正式组成的权威机构要求提供和维持所有的照明、守 卫、围栏、警示标志以及警示,以便保护该工程或为了公众或他人的安全和方便,以及

(C)采取一切合理的措施来保护现场和周围地区的环境,避免因污染、噪音或其他因为其 施工方法给公众或他人的人身或财产造成损坏或滋扰。本合同中制定的一个单独的环境保护 计划是作为附件8来来规范承包商的环境义务。

  • Security, Safety, and Environmental Protection

In the exercising and completion of the project, and in repairing any defects during 1he working period, the contractor shall:

  • Take into full consideration the site authorization and the security of all the personnel (belonging to the controlled personnel) on the site, and the project shall be completed under orderly situation (not completed or stationed by the owner until now), avoiding possible dangers.
  • provide and protect all of the guards, lighting, fencing, warning marks and warning stipulated by ofiicial organizations, so as to protect the project or to the personnel1safety and convenience. And
  • Take all the reasonable measures to protect the site and the environment, avoiding interruptions and damages to tiie public or other people due to the pollution, noise and other construction effects. A sole environmental protection term is made in this contract to specify the contractors obligations of environmental protection in the accessory 8.
    • 业主的责任

如果根据第31款的规定,业主应当使用自己的工人在现场工作,在该工作方面,其应当:

(A)已充分考虑到所有授权在现场工作的人员的安全,和

(B)工程在有序的状态下执行,避免给这些人员带来危险。

如果根据第31款,业主须聘用其他承包商在现场作业,应要求他们同等地考虑安全性和 避免危险。

  • The Owner’s Duties

According to Clause 31, the owner shall arrange his or her own workers to work on the site. In the construction, he or she shall:

  • take into full consideration all the authorized personnel’s security on spot, and
  • Ensure that the construction shall be practiced under the orderly situation to avoid dangers to the workers.

according to Clause 31, the owner shall employ other contractors to work on the site, he or she shall ask them to consider security and avoid danger equally;

  • 作业注意

自开工之日起直至整个工程的移交证书签发之日止,承包商应当对现场的工程及材料和 设备的看护承担全部责任,届时,看护的责任转移给业主。条件是:

(A)如果工程师对永久性工程的任何区段或部分签发一份移交证书,自移交证书签发之日 起,承包商看护该区段或部分的责任应终止,届时,看护的责任转移给业主。

(B)承包商应对现场的未完工程及材料和设备的看护承担全部责任,直到按第49款规定 的此类未完工程竣工。

  • Attentions in the Operation

From the construction day to the day of issuing taking over certificate, the contractor shall assume all the responsibilities and duties of the construction and materials as well as the custody of the devices on the site. And the day of issuing taking over certificate the duty shall be taken over by the owner. If:

(A) If the engineer submits a taking-over certificate for any section or part of the permanent project, from the issuing day, the duty for supervising the section and part shall be terminated. And then the responsibilities and duties shall be taken over by the owner.

(B)The contractor sh^l assume the ftdl responsibilities for the uncompleted project on the construction site and the custody of the equipment and devices of the site until the completion of the project stated according to Clause 49.

  • 修复损失或损坏的责任

如果现场的工程、或工程的任何部分、或材料或设备在承包负责看护期间,由于第19.4 条规定之外的任何原因发生损失损坏的,承包商应自费修复这种损失或损坏,以便使该永久 工程在各个方面符合合同规定,使工程师满意。承包商在执行第49和50款的规定义务时, 其所进行的任何操作过程中所引致的工程损失损坏的,承包商也应承担责任。

  • Responsibilities of Loss or Damage Repairing

In case that any part or material or equipment of the project or the project itself are damaged in the contractor^ supervision period due to any reasons except the statements in Clause 19.4, the contractor shall compensate the loss or rep而 the damage at his or her own expenses, so as to make the permanent project confonn to the contract terms in each aspect, and to make the engineer satisfied. As the contractor assumes the responsibilities stated in Clause 49 and Clause 50, any project loss or damage caused in the progress of the operation, the contractor shall also assume tiie responsibilities.

  • 业主风险造成的损失或损坏

在第19.4条定义的任何风险或与其他风险相结合引起任何损失或损坏的,如果在工程师 所要求的范围内,承包商应修复损失或损害,工程师应当按照第52款确认追加的合同价款, 并相应地通知承包商和业主。在风险组合的情况下造成的损失或损坏的确认应考虑到承包商 与业主各自的责任比例。

  • Loss or Damage due to the Owner’s Risks

Any risks or losses or damages defined in Clause 19.4, in case that they are within the scope of the engineer’s requirement, the contractor shall repair the damage or compensate the loss, and the engineer shall confirm the additional contract price in accordance with Clause 52, and shall inform the contractor and the owner accordingly. In the case of portfolio risks, the confirmation of the damages or the losses shall be considered in a proper proportions between the responsibilities and duties of the contractor and the owner respectively.

  • 业主的风险

业主的风险是:

(A)由于业主使用或进驻的永久工程任何区段或部分造成的损失或损坏,合同中规定的除 外,

(B)损失或损害的程度,由于承包人提供的或承包负责的设计任何部分以外的工程设计造 成的损失或损坏,和

(C) 一个有经验的承包商无法合理预期并采取预防措施应对的自然力作用。

19.4 The Owner’s Risks

The Owner’s Risks include:

  • damages or losses due to the owner’s using or entering of any permanent section or part, except for those stated in the contract,
  • the extent of losses or damages, especially the losses or damages caused by en^neering design 叩art from the contractor provided or any parts of the contracted responsibility, and
  • the natural forces that an experienced contractor failed to foresee reasonably and failed to take countermeasures accordingly.

204不可抗力

本协议中的“不可抗力”应当是指超出了合理控制的一个事件、条件或情况或事件或者 条件和情况的组合(连同影响力),并非任何一方的过失或疏忽所引起的,声称的不可抗力(“受 影响的一方“),尽管受影响方的尽一切合理的努力防止或减轻其影响,仍导致延误或中断, 或对受影响的一方根据本协议对其义务的履行造成任何其他不良影响Q除满足上述要求,不 可抗力应包括以下内容:

(A)战争,敌对行动(不论宣战与否)、入侵、外敌行动,

(B)叛乱、革命、起义、军事或篡夺权力或内战,

(C)电离辐射,或由任何核燃料或从任何核燃料燃烧的核废料、放射性有毒易爆或其他有 危险的爆炸核组件或核部件造成的放射性污染,

(D)音速或超音速飞行的飞机或其他飞行装置所造成的压力波,

(E)暴动、骚乱或动乱,除非仅仅局限于承包商的雇员或其分包雇员范围内。

  • Force Majeure

The Force Majeure defined in this contract refers to an event, a condition above the reasonable control or a situation or an affair or the combination of a situation and a condition (along witb the related influences), rather than any parties negligence. The clmmed force m可 eure (“affected party55), though tiie affected party makes his reasonable best to reduce or prevent tiie affect, still caused pause or delay, or any other negative effects on the influenced party according to the agreement. Except the above statement, the force m勾eure shall include the following items:

  • war, hostile actions (whether declared or not), invasion, foreign operations,
  • revolt, revolution, military or usurped power or insunection, civil war,
  • ionizing radiation, or radiation from any nuclear fiiel or from any nuclear fuel burning waste, radioactive, poisonous and explosive or any other hazardous eclosion of nuclear component or radioactive pollution caused by nuclear components,
  • the pressure wave caused by supersonic aircraft or other flying devices,
  • unrest or riots, unless limited to contractor’ s employees or its subcontractor employees within the scope.
    • 适用于本公司的不可抗力的例外事项

承包商无权考虑下列情形之一的不可抗力事件,该事件可能会中止其履行或借口不履行 其在本协议项下的义务:

(A)任何延迟或违约行为:

(B)在公司的任何承包商或分包商以及其任何直接或间接分包商的履行义务方面;

(C)在项目的设备和机械的交付和使用方面,

  • Exceptions of Force Majeure Applied to this Company

The contractor has no authority to claims one of the following force m^eure, although the event may interrupt his or her performing or non-performing the assumed responsibilities and duties in this contract by any excuses.

  • Any delay or defeult behavior, whether it is caused
  • In the duties of any contractor or subcontractor in tile company, and of direct or indirect subcontractors, or
  • In the aspect of delivering and using of the equipment and machinery of the project

(B)罢工、怠工或劳资纠纷或本公司的雇员或承包商或分包商对雇员的影响,这类事件与 一般的、区域性的、省级或国家级的影响不同,只影响承包商或分包人的劳动力或雇员人数; 或

(C)作为对该公共道路相关的承包人或分包商的影响的反应,因为个人行为导致承包商和 其分包商所用公共道路的封闭。

  • Strikes, delays and slows, or labor troubles or influences j&om tihie employees of the company itself or from the contractors or subcontractors. These events are different from those general influences of a district, a province or a state, because the latter only exert influence on the labor or the number of the labors of the Contractor or Sub-contractor; or
  • Causing the closure of public roads used by the Contractor or the Sub-contractor due to the individual behavior as a response to the influence of the related Contractor or Sub-contractor of the public road.
    • 不可抗力的索赔

受影响的合同方应有权暂停履行其在本协议项下的任何义务,其有权根据本条款的进行 救济。一旦意识到该不可抗力事件的发生以及对履行义务造成影响,受影响的合同方应及时 通知另一方。受影响的一方应把所有有关的详细事宜,包括不可抗力事件的详细信息以及受 影响的义务的详情以及其已采取的行动的详细或建议或弥补这种情况的细节,以及其估计无 法履行其义务的期限和弥补这种情况估计所需的费用告知另一方。任何一方都不得向另一方 提出索赔。

  • Force Majeure Claims

The influenced party shall have the right to suspend any responsibilities and duties under the clauses of the Contract, and the right to relieve according to the articles in the clauses. Once the influenced party realizes the happening of the Force M句eure and the influences on the duties and responsibilities, the party shall inform the other party in time. The influenced party shall inform the other party of all the related matters including the detailed information about the Force M可cure, the influenced duties and responsibilities, actions adopted or the remedy of the events and the evaluated deadline of failures to perform the duties and responsibilities as well as the evaluated expenses required on this event Any party shall not claim compensation from the other party.

  • 义务的暂停期限

(A)受影响方根据第67.2款的规定正当地发出通知的,自发出通知起,其义务应暂停。 受影响的一方未能遵守这些义务的不构成本协议规定的违约;条件是:

这些义务只能在其真正的受到不可抗力事件不利影响的情况下暂停。

暂停将不适用于本协议项下的任何到期金额的支付。

(B)当能够重新开始履行本合同下受影响的义务时,受影响的合同方必须及时通知另 一方*

  • The Time Limit of Duty Suspension
  • The influenced party legally issues a notice in accordance with clause 67.2, and his or her duties and responsibilities shall be suspended from the issuing day of the notice. The influenced party 国lure to perform these duties does not make a breach of the Contract; If:

These duties shall be suspended only on the condition that the party is indeed influenced by the Force M^eure, and

The suspension shall not 冲ply to any payment of tiie due sum in the Contract

  • The influenced party in the contract shall inform the other party in time once he or she could resume the duties and responsibilities of the Contract.
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