法律文件句式结构汉英翻译研究《交通银行个人房产抵押贷款合同》翻译实践报告

成律文件句式结构反美翻译研究 《交通银行个人房产抵押贺歆合同》翻译实践报告

C-E Translation Studies on the Syntactic Structure of Legal English A Report of Translation of Personal Housing Mortgage Loan Contract

摘要

法律翻译,尤其是法律文件汉译英,很多翻译人员担心译文是否具备一定的“专 业度”,专业度反映到方方面面。从语言学的角度来看,需要从词法、句法和文体 上加以分析。根据笔者多年的实践,认为能最直接反映译者“专业度”的,是他对 法律英语句法结构的把控与运用。因为句法是最终反映法律文体风格的载体;为使 撰写者的意图能得到真实的反映,“用词”在“句法”层面上,需要再次斟酌。因 此,根据笔者多年的翻译实践,以及阅读大量相关文献的基础上,将法律文件汉译 英中的句式结构表达特点进行了系统性归纳,包括句式应用原则和句式应用策略。 这种归纳法有别于学术性文章,不是知识点的罗列陈述,而是基于笔者的实践尝试, 着眼于具体实践中,译员最有可能碰到的问题,以及这些问题的解决方法。在句法 层面上,将法律英语写作的要素,融入到翻译中来,使译文不仅意思传达准确,而 且表达流畅,从而摆脱“为译而译”的瓶颈,最终达到专业的程度。论文探讨法律文 件汉译英中,其句式结构的运用策略,站在实践的角度,探讨法律翻译方法的,在 国内还很少。在法律翻译专业度方面,希望本论文对初学者能提供帮助。

关键词:法律翻译;句法;翻译实践;专业度

Abstract

Legal translation is a daunting task to most of us for it requires wprofessionalism,,5 especially in C-E translation. Professionalism, in all aspects though, can be viewed from the perspective of linguistics, wherein analysis is available on lexicon, syntax and style. Based on years of practice, the author holds that professionalism can be reflected to the extent of how a translator masters and exerts his knowledge of legal syntax, simply becaxise syntax carries legal styles and expresses the true meaning of the writer, and that is why “diction“ has to be weighed on the level of “syntax”. In order to achieve professionalism by breaking the bottleneck as “translating for the sake of translation”, the author intends to work out systematically legal syntax structures under two broad categories: the principle and the strategies in the application of legal syntax. This is based on the author 5s translation practice and his reading and understanding of the legal documents. Different from other scholarly articles that have a complete range of knowledge, this paper is prepared solely on the experience of the author in seeking possible solutions to any problem that he and his coworkers have encountered in translation. And while doing do, the author also introduces necessaiy legal writing factors so as to render accurately and fluently. By applying syntactical structure in Chinese to English legal translation whereby to probe into an effective methodology in translation practice is so far not prevalent in China. Therefore, the author hopes that in terns of professionalism, this thesis can provide guidance to the beginners.

Key words: legal translation; syntax; translation practice; professionalism

目录

摘要 i

Abstract ii

第一章绪论 1

第二章理论基础 5

第三章法律文本英译的句式应用原则 9

~3.1重点突出 9

3 2逻辑一致连贯 1 1

3.2.1法律写作的目的 . 1 1

322法律写作目的下的逻辑思维 1 3

3.2.3复杂句的逻辑连贯  1 5

3.3 整体效果问题    1 6

第四章法律文本英译的句式应用策略  1 9

第五章实践总结与建议 3 1

第六章结语 3 2

参考文献. 3 3

猛录1:个人房产抵押雇款合同 二.……3 5

附录 2: Personal Housing Mortgage Loan Contract 5 0

第一章绪论

  • 任务描述一一商务法律文件的翻译

随着中国经济的长期发展与对外交流的日趋频繁,涉外商务法律文件已为一般 从业者所接触。笔者所从事的移民留学行业,每天需要为申请人翻译大量的文件, 其中的大部分为中国商务法律文件的英译中,如申请人的劳动合同、业务文件、个 人财产文件等。这些文件的英译本,需要呈递给移民律师、签证官员审核。

从事本行业的翻译人士不少,总体译文水平却差强人意。究其原因,是因为法 律英语,在很多人眼中,是一个让人望而却步的神秘领域。之所以神秘,是因为它 难懂、措辞独特、长句古语,似乎离我们的现实生活很远。如果这是以英语作为本 族语的人们的想法,那么除非初生牛犊,对于法律翻译,特别是法律文本汉译英, 我们就会觉得无所适从。原因有以下几点:

①法律知识博大精深,有众多分支;仅涉足这一领域,就会耗费我们大量的时 间;而且,翻译人员是位跨学科的杂家,对每一学科都做到精通,事实上也不可能。

②有些人尝试通过学习法律教材入手;通过读范文入手。但实际翻译时,会发 现所学的,难以应付工作中碰到的各种的问题,如何活用所学的知识,做到融合贯 通、成为译者的难题。

③困扰译者的最大难题,是汉译英的译文读上去是否像法律文件。接触过英美 人的法律文件,就会发现,无论的行文习惯、措辞表达,与我们的一般翻译人员翻 译的法律文件差别还是很大的。

综上所述,译者所担心的其实就是译文“专业度”问题。而专业度反映到方方 面面。从语言学的角度来看,需要从词法、句法和文体上加以分析。根据笔者多年 的实践,认为能最直接反映译者“专业度”的,是他对法律英语句法结构的把控与 运用。原因很简单,一般从业人员“词法”的运用,更多的是“术语”、“套语” 的运用,一般从业者只要具备应有的法律术语知识,并借助词典和翻译软件,就能 应付日常工作;而且,国内有不少词法方面的著述,出自于著名学者之手,如宋雷、 李克兴、施万彪等。他们对法律词汇的研究,特别是英译汉词汇的研究,已达到非 常高深的地步,虽然很多方面,他们还没有形成共识。所以有关“词法”,就一般 从业者而言,多为“应用”,而不是“如何应用”。至于“文体”,有提纲挈领的 作用,是对法律文件的一个总体观感,对译员也起到一个所谓“知其然”的作用。

“句法”则不同,句法是最终反映法律文体风格的载体;为使撰写者的意图能 得到真实的反映,“用词”在“句法”层面上,需要再次斟酌。很多人会去了解“格

 

式文本”,鲜有人会探究“格式文书”为什么要这样写的原因。知其然,又知其所 以然,才会读懂法律英语写作背后的成因,才会在具体翻译时,尤其汉译英时,做 到有的放矢。

论文中将以本人翻译实践《交通银行个人房产抵押贷款合同》的素材,对法律 文件汉英翻译中的句式结构展开研究。

论文涉及的内容为法律文件汉译英中,句法结构的应用问题。从《中国知网》 上,可以查询到不少这方面的论文。浏览这些文章后,就会发现,很多对法律英语 的句法特征进行归纳举例,对于想要了解这方面知识的读者来说,帮助很大。然而, 这些文章并非基于实践,并在此基础上得出译员迫切需要了解的翻译策略方法,或 更确切地说,翻译的切入点和关键路径。

本论文的特色与创新之处,在于实例为先,通过实例,找出翻译的切入点与关 键路径,活学活用翻译理论与策略。在法律翻译专业度方面,希望本论文能起到一 个抛砖引玉的作用。

  • 中国法律翻译学术与实务现状

李德凤,胡牧(2006)的《法律翻译研究:现状与前瞻》对法律翻译研究现 状进行了分析,在肯定了法律翻译研究成就的基础上,对其研究的缺陷作了剖析: 第一,缺乏系统性研究。其中,法律翻译理论层次的研究亟待加强,法律翻译理论 的探讨成果远远滞后于其他研究范畴,仅为9%,相比较而言,法律词语的翻译研 究占了 33%,法律语言特征及翻译占24%,文章指出该词汇/语言研究不乏重复性。 第二,缺少方法论指导。迄今为止,法律翻译研究缺乏方法论作为引导方向,缺乏 深入研究的明确目标。法律翻译研究的方法论应该体现自己的特色,不应该是其他 任何学科包括翻译或法律的附属物或替代品。第三,缺乏学科建立和学科独立意识。 法律翻译研究在大陆缺乏理论定位,因为它综合了法律和翻译两门学科但又居于中 间的灰色地带。

也有学者认为,在法律翻译繁荣发展的同时,不能忽视法律翻译在质量上存在 的问题。例如,米健(2005)在《法律翻译的现状与问题》中指出,有些翻译带来 的问题直接进入学界,以讹传讹,给教学与科研带来许多不必要的讨论与争议,甚 至带来立法理论上的混乱。

因此,中国法律翻译的学术研究虽已具生机,但法律翻译学术研究尚缺乏一套 规范、系统的指引与规制,这种规范与规制仍然任重道远。其次,中国大陆的法律 翻译实务相对滞后,亟待推进。虽然大陆地区并不存在两种官方语言的社会背景,

但随着经济全球化使得中国两岸四地中的香港、澳门、台湾的法律翻译实务与学术 亦然走在前列。(张天飞,何志鹏,2012)

  • 任务过程

译前准备:首先需要了解英语商务法律文本的特点,如其文体特征与写作要素, 以便使译文在总体架构上,符合英美法律文书的特点;其次,需要研读与翻译任务 类似的英文读本,这种读本有类似于范文的效力;最后,配备合适的法律词典、寻 求有效的解决问题的途径,如正确的网络资源等等。

译中:翻译过程中,需要遵循一些基本的原则,如:通读原文,根据语境,敲 定术语的运用;注意篇章结构与前后衔接;根据原文的行文特点,确定译文的句式 结构。同时,在掌握英语法律文本文体特征的基础上,需要了解英美法与我国法律 制度的不同点,以便在翻译时,不生搬硬套。

译后:法律翻译,既要懂法、又要懂翻译。所以,翻译任务完成后,首先需要 论文导师在语言学和翻译学的角度上,对实践内容进行审校;其次,我们是译员, 不是法律工作者。法律文件具备法律效力,有很强的目的性,其目的达成与否,事 务律师,尤其是英美事务律师的建议,尤为重要。

  • 论文结构

本文以笔者翻译《交通银行个人房产抵押贷款合同》的实践为素材,对法律文 件汉英翻译中句式结构展开研究。论文第一章为绪论。第二章理论基础部分对当前 中国流行的各种法律翻译理论进行了概述,并根据笔者的观点,着重讨论了对比语 言学在指导法律翻译时应起到的作用,其中有关句式结构,笔者重点引用了李克兴 先生的“条件句加含有情态动词(shall/must/may)的法律行为主句的结构”,以此 作为起点,展开下文的例证讨论

论文第三章句式应用原则部分,重点讨论句式应用有哪些原则需要遵守,可以 使译文表达更专业。根据法律英语的行文特点和笔者的实践经验,归纳出三条原则, 即:重点突出、逻辑一致连贯和整体效果问题。

论文第四章句式应用策略部分,是具体翻译时,运用那些策略、路径,将正确 的法律英语句式结构应用到翻译中来。具体的策略当然有很多种,本文根据笔者的 实践经验,将其中认为最重要的部分,归纳出三条策略,即:确定主谓结构,连接 词的娴熟应用以及句法特征层面上的词性转换与搭配规律。

论文第三、第四章的各种例证,大多取自于本人的翻译实践《交通银行个人房 产抵押贷款合同》(后附),也包括一些英译中的法律条文(笔者译)。引用的这 些例子,目的是为了佐证论文所讨论的原则与策略,并根据例子的具体内容,适当 进行一些补充说明(比如“用词”),读者可以借此了解笔者翻译时所运用的各种 思路和技巧。

论文第五实践总结与建议、第六章结语部分,阐述实践和论文的收获,同时也 指出了存在的问题与缺陷。

 

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第二章理论基础

  • 法律翻译的相关理论

大多译学界流行的翻译理论在法律领域都已被尝试,如动态对等理论、异化归 化等,众说纷坛,目前尚无某一种理论能真正成为法律翻译的实践依据。更有学者 认为,法律翻译应为一种方法论,所谓“方法”,有相对的独立性,不都是理论派 生的,也不都是依附理论的。(杨自俭,2007)法律翻译理论的尝试,笔者认为, 有其适用性和局限性。李克兴(2013a)也在其著述《高级法律翻译与写作法律翻 译理论》中谈及了目前学术界流行的翻译理论在指导法律翻译时的作用与局限性。 2.1.1动态对等理论及其局限性

动态对等包括四个方面:1)词汇对等;2)句法对等;3)语篇对等;4)文体 对等。这些原则,放之四海皆准,所以李克兴先生认为这对法律翻译也颇为适用, 但他同时认为此理论的实践者,都过于强调“动态”文化交流这一侧面,且往往舍 去形式的对等,对于法律翻译绝对“忠实”的要求,显然是不适合的。(李克兴, 2010: 60)

  • 归化和异化翻译策略及其局限性

根据李克兴先生的观点,归化和异化,应该要适度,需要“酌情使用”,它不应 成为一种翻译策略,而应被视为策略之下一层面的翻译方法。就英译汉而言,异化 文本往往句子冗长、结构复杂、可读性差;而归化的,一般目的是为了迎合大众读 者的审美情趣和欣赏习惯,所以不适合专业的法律工作者。(同上:61)

李先生在他的著述中,同时提到了 “目的论”功能主义翻译策略、语义翻译或 传意翻译策略的局限性。笔者认为,李先生并没有全盘否定这些理论,只是指出凡 事都有其适度性,过犹不及。

  • 李克兴的静态对等翻译及其适用范围

主流法律文本的译本都是具权威性的信息型文本。理想境界的法律译本与源文 本应该从信息、语义、句式、格式、风格上都是对等的,译本所能发挥的法律功能 和所具有的法律效力也应该与源文本完全相同。要取得这诸多方面的对等,只有静 态对等的策略才可能做到。(同上:65)

李先生这里谈及的静态对等翻译理论所对应的主流法律文本,笔者认为主要涵 盖以下两方面:

其一、以香港的法律为背景。香港的法律制度,原隶属于英美法系,香港的法 律文件,往往以英文版本为准,其法律制度背景,与中国大陆的法律制度,有所不

 

硕士学位论文

1/ MASTER’S THESIS 既竺步/

同。

其二、“立法”格式存在不同。

中国大陆的法律,当然有不少借鉴国外的地方,法律文本多少有些“异化”, 但随着法规、地方法规的不断发展完善,其行文特点,有着极强的本土风格。这方 面,单依靠静态对等(抑或“升华”的静态对等),是无法做到的,需要从语言对 比的角度加以分析。

杜金榜,张福,袁亮在其文章《中国法律法规英译的问题和解决》中说到:“法 律汉语与法律英语的差别会给法律法规英译时语句与语篇成分的安排造成困难。中 国法律法规翻译中有时出现语句紊乱问题。由于拘于原文句式,译者往往没有较大 的自由选择法律英语的句式。中国现有法律法规的翻译风格主要照顾原文,原文的 风格清晰可见,而法律英语的特点不突出,形成的印象是原文庄重、严肃、是法律 文体,但译文简单易懂,与现有英美法律的文本相去甚远。”(杜金榜,张福,袁 亮,2004:73-74)

综上所述,笔者认为,法律翻译是系统工程,译者不能仅仅依靠某一翻译理论, 就对其作出阐释。需要仔细研究汉语法律文本与英语法律文本之间的语言差异,而 若要行之有效地找出这些差异点的,就需要有个立足点。这个立足点,就是对比语 言学。

  • 对比语言学在法律翻译中的作用
    • 对比语言学是翻译的基石

根据许余龙,对比语言学是语言学中的一个分支,其任务是对两种或两种以上 的语言进行对比研究,描述它们之间的异同,特别是其中的不同之处,并将这类研 究应用于其他领域。(许余龙,2010:第一章绪论3)

举例而言,英语注重形合,是因为英语具有丰富的形式组合手段。譬如,词缀、 词形变化、指代词,被动语态以及表各种关系的连接词等等。而汉语主要依赖意义的 内在衔接,形成一种隐约的意义脉络。汉语强调意合,主要在于其语言本身是表意文 字,自古以来就有重“神”,重“意”的传统。汉语的意合结构主要体现在词序、主 动语态上,以及紧缩句、四字格中。

应用于翻译实践,需要对译入语和译出语的文体异同,具体而言,对词法、句 法、篇章、语用,作系统性分析研究,才能在翻译实践中,做到有的放矢。笔者认 为,对比翻译语言学是一门系统工程,它不等同于某一种翻译理论(因为任何理论 都有其局限性),也非抽象性概括。它是具体系统、见微知著的训练指南,因此应

 

为翻译实践的基石。

  • 对比语言学在法律翻译中的作用

法律翻译工作者,首先必须明白译文的读者群,不是普通大众。法律语言,也 与大众化的语言差别很大。一位合格的法律译员,应具备基本的法律知识,懂得法 律语言的特征;其次,他不仅需要了解译入语的法律知识,而且还能用专业的译出 语,地道地表现出来;有了以上的基本知识,最后,他还必须善于运用翻译理论与 技巧,使语言转换切实可行。只有符合以上各项要求,翻译的文本才能被法律专业 人士所接受。

基于此,译者应仔细阅读、比对中英法律文本,找出异同点,以对比语言学的 视角,加以归纳总结。这种方法,即对比法律语言学。

宋雷,张绍全在其著述《英汉对比法律语言学——法律英语翻译进阶》一书的 序言中谈到:“从对比语言学的角度探究译学的奥秘,是一种更原生态的研究范式。 要想提高法律英语翻译水平,是翻译技能产生一种飞跃,译者必须研习一定的对比 语言学理论。当然,此种理论不能过于抽象,纯粹的形而上学容易丧失文本的指导 意义,导致理论脱离实际。”(宋雷,张绍全,2010:序)那么,对比语言学在法 律翻译中,有哪些具体作用?

  • 法律对比语言学的方法与途径

法律语言对比分析一般包括三项内容:(1)将英汉两种语言体系进行比较, 从中寻求差异;(2)对法律语言进行历史性研究;(3)对法律语言实践,包括翻 译转换进行研究,提高法律语言适用性能和技巧。(同上:54)

本论文为翻译实践报告,故讨论重点为上述第(3)点中的,法律句式汉译英 对比研究。

从“句式”这一角度加以考虑,第一,我们需要了解影响句式表达的关键因素, 即:英美法与我国法律立法的不同:

中文立法条款固定,一般由假定、制裁和处理三部分组成。(同上:125)

举例如下:

甲方未按本合同约定足额偿还任一期还款额或其他费用时,丙方应按乙方 的要求立即支付甲方的全部到期应付款项。

英美法立法结构(The Structure of an Act) 一般包括15项内容。(转引自宋雷, 张绍全,2010: 126)与中国的法律立法很不相同,但根据李克兴在《英文立法文 本写作解密之一》中所说,一条完整的法律条文都要有法律主体和法律行为;如果 该法律条文要付诸实施,或具有可操作性,都必须具备适当的状/情况(包括case, circumstance 以及 situation),或特定的条件(包括 condition, qualification 和 restriction)。在复杂的法律条文中,甚至往往要两者具备。英文法律文本中最常见 的表达方式或句型是条件句加含有情态动词(shall/must/may)的法律行为主句的结 构。(李克兴,2013c: 88)

这种观点,在目前中国法律文本英译中,也最常见,该例译文如下:

Where Party A foils to pay in full any amount due for any of the installments and other fees as specified herein, Party C shall inunediately clear all the due payments of Party A under request of Party B.

这里where引导一个条件状语从句,法律行为主体“丙方”加情态动词(shall) 的主句,构成上述的常见句式。然而,即便是这种常用的句式,翻译时,也煞费心 思。因为相对于一般文本,正式的法律条规和文本中由于对中心词的限定过多,对 某一法律概念成立的条件限定很多,所以法律英语长句多,短句少,语法结构往往 比较复杂。(施光,2008: 141)

第二、我们应了解译出语的句式结构有几种,经过对比研究后,它们所对应的 中文句式是那些。宋雷将法律英文句式特征归纳为长句、重复、第三人称、被动语 态等。(宋雷,张绍全,2010: 123-136) 了解这些句式特征后,可以使我们在翻译 时有意识地对比中英文句式的不同,以及那些中文句式需要转换成被动语态,或那 些句子可以合并成长句,等等。

第三、在对比语言学的框架下,应用各种翻译策略和技巧,翻译法律文件。翻 译的基本原则应该是在理清源语的逻辑关系、划分意群的基础上,根据目的语的语 言特点和法律语体的特殊要求,进行句式和句序的调整。这是由英语和汉语之间的 差异所决定的。(温建平,2001: 69)

 

第三章法律文本英译的句式应用原则

  • 重点突出

法律英语多为复杂长句,如果逻辑不清、重点不突出,这种句子不仅无法让人 理解,无形中也会制造出很多歧义。所以,目前中国法律文件英译,很多人按照中 文语序,简单句的表述方法,然而这种译文与标准的英文法律文本差别很大。

  • 辨别主要信息

中文的立法结构格式,正如前述,是典型的“条件句+法律行为主句”结构。

例1:

本合同项下的抵押物权减少、毁损或灭失时,甲方应及时提供乙方认可的 其他担保,保险公司或其他第三人为此支付给甲方的赔偿金应用于提前偿还贷 款本息。

既然是“条件句+法律行为主句”结构,从句和主句应各有其主要信息。

条件句的主要信息为:条件的主体,即;“抵押物权”;

主句的主要信息为:法律行为,即:“其他担保”、“赔偿金”(的使用)。

中文法律文本英译,多将条件句置前。然而,笔者读过的事务律师法律文件, 更多为条件句置后。这主要取决于文本的篇章结构(discourse)。翻译时,考虑到 句子间的衔接和连接词的运用,就应该适当调整语序,如下面译文中用了连接词 whereon o

例1译文:

Party A shall timely provide other recognizable guarantees to Party B in the event that the real right of the mortgage property is declined in value, impaired or lost whereon a compensation, if any, paid by the insurer or any other third person shall be used for prepayment of loan principal and interest.

例1中的前半句,按照条件句置后的方法(in the event that相当于if,在法律 语言中经常使用,原文中虽然有“…时”,但并非是时间状语从句,而是条件状语 从句,因为此类事件仅为假设),不难翻译;前半句有个难点,即:“抵押物权减 少”,如果按字面意思翻成”the real right ofthe mortgage property is declined”,译

9

 

文意思表达不全,“减少”的应是某种具体的东西,如价值,而这恰恰是原文隐含 的真实含义,故将之翻成“declined in value”(添词).此句翻译主要的难点在于 原文后半句与前半句的衔接,后半句的主要信息为“赔偿金(的使用)”,与前半 句的逻辑关联为:前半句可以作为后半句的“条件句”,在前半句的“条件背景” 下,(如果有)赔偿金的,则如何使用。译文中用了连接词“whereon”(对应原 文“为此”),就可以将前后半句的逻辑层次表述明确,“ifany”以插入语形式, 在法律英语中经常使用,其他如“ifapplicable”等。这里使用“ifany”,是将原文 中的隐含的“如有”,在译文中表述出来。

  • 主要信息在句中的合理位置

如上所述,主要信息在句子中的合理位置,应根据文本的篇章结构和句子衔接, 做出调整。然而,最重要的一点是,该主要信息应成为整个句子的中心,其他信息, 应按照逻辑思维,作为其修饰限定成分。

例2:

甲方未能投保或续保的,乙方有权自行投保、续保,代为缴付保费或采取 其他保险维持措施。甲方应提供必要协助,并承担乙方因此支出的保险费用和 相关费用。

例2译文1:

Where Party A fails to insure or reinsure, Party B has the right, at its own discretion, to insure or reinsure, to pay a premium on behalf of or to take other measures in maintaining the insurance for Party A. Party A shall provide necessary assistance and indemnify such premiums and other related fees as Party B has paid for this purpose.

译文1有以下几点问题:

1)句子的主要信息缺失,根据上下文,投保续保的对象为“抵押物”,译文 中应加上;2)法律英语多为被动态,且此处论述对象为“抵押物”,作为受事主 语,有必要使用被动态;3) 一个法律条文,如可能,尽量翻译成一个英语句子, 这里应合并句子。

例2译文2 (改进):

Party B has the right, at its own discretion, to have the mortgage insured or

 

reinsured if Party A foils to have it insured or reinsured, to pay a premium on behalf of or to take other measures in maintaining its insurance for Party A who shall therefore provide necessary assistance and mdemnify Party B for any expenses on such premiums and other related fees arising thereafter.

上文前半句句式结构的重点,围绕在“抵押物”(the mortgage)上,且根据英 语主要信息一般置前的原则(根据逻辑思路,状语从句必须放在句首作为铺叙的例 外),将“乙方有权自行投保…措施”作为主句。“自行”有两种翻译方法,一种 为译文插入语的”at one’s own discretion”,另一种为”discretionarily”。”投保” 翻成”have sth. insuredw ,是因为乙方向保险公司申请保险,比起所谓的”apply for the insurance”,表达更为地道。后半句的主语为“甲方”,合并句子时由于需要衔 接,因此前半句的语序应作调整,将前半句的条件句置后,“甲方”放在句尾,这 样为后半句的衔接做好铺垫(用连接词“who”顺利衔接)。Who引导的从句添词 “therefore”,可以表明两句合并后,逻辑上的递进关系。后半句的“承担乙方因 此支出的保险费用和相关费用”,如何表达才能更加符合法律英语的特点?这里有 两个地方值得讨论。第一是“承担”,很多译员将之翻成“assume” “bear” ,须 知在法律翻译中,这种表述就是典型的“为译而译”,忽略了法律用词的作用。这 里应为”indemnity sb. for”或”have sb. indemnified (同理,取决于”谁” 是实际承担者)。译文一 aindemnify sth.,,,而非“indemnify sb.”,是错误的。 第二是”因此支出”,译文一 “has paid this purpose”宜可,但没有充分利用法 律用语“arising thereafter”(由此产生的)。译员必须能熟练运用各种法律指代性 副词(pronominal adverbs),以使译文更地道简洁。

  • 逻辑一致连贯

法律翻译中,中国译者最容易忽略的是逻辑一致连贯。英译中时,由于需要理 解,理解后的译文或可规避逻辑上出现的问题。而中译英,非英语本族语的译者, 极有可能犯逻辑上的错误。

  • 法律写作的目的

法律写作由极强的目的性,事务律师写作时,何时引用的法律条款,引用哪种 条款,敏感的地方,运用哪种模糊语处理手段,都需斟酌再三,所以即便是格式文 本,其内容也绝非空泛。

法律写作是有章法可循、熟能生巧的过程。法律写作不同于一般写作,组织架 构上对逻辑要求更为严谨。好的法律写作应具备三要素:首先,应该有清晰、准确 的逻辑。第二,文字应该明确,容易理解,不产生歧义。第三,文章的组织结构应 该合理,整篇文章的框架应该清晰,主次分明,段落与段落之间应该有联系,不让 人觉得突兀。以上三个方面对律师提出了很高的要求。

行文表述不仅仅是语言层面的问题,在写作前,还应该首先明确写作的目的, 确定文章的读者,清晰地认识到读者的实际情况和需求后再动笔。1

法律翻译,也应遵循法律写作的要求,译文必须符合法律写作的行文特点,举 例如下:

例3;

Severability. Any provision of this Agreement which is prohibited or imenforceable in any jurisdiction shall, as to such jurisdiction, be ineffective to the extent of such prohibition or unenforceability without invalidating the remaining provisions hereof, and any such prohibition or unenfbrceability in any jurisdiction shall not invalidate or render unenforceable such provision in any other jurisdiction.

Pledge Agreement of EB5 Manhattan Project

某位译员将此文译成:

例3译文1:

可分割性。在任何管辖区内禁止或不可实行的本协议的任何条款应在该管 辖区内在该禁止或不可实施性不影响本协议其它条款的无效性的范围内无效, 并且该管辖区的该禁止或不可实施性不应使该条款在任何其它管辖区无效或不 可实施。

这种完全对应原文的翻法,在目前中国法律翻译中很常见。然而,任何一位读 者,包括专业读者,对其可读性都会产生怀疑。因此,笔者认为,在最大可行性范 围内,法律文件翻译,需要“归化”,在句式表达,中国式的逻辑思维方面,尤其 如此。因此,首先应将句子根据不同的成分和意思进行切分。然后根据中文逻辑思 维习惯,重新排序。

Severability. 2 Any provision of this Agreement which is prohibited or

lhttD:〃www,360doc.com/c(mteiit/15/0109/15/U376152 43942806Lshtml

 

unenforceable //I in any jurisdiction //shall,3 as to such jurisdiction, //4 be ine^ctive to the extent of such prohibition or unenforceability //5 without invalidating the remaining provisions hereof I/6 and any such prohibition or unenfbrceability in any jurisdiction Z/8 shall not invalidate or render unenforceable such provision IP in any other jurisdiction.

例3译文2 (改进);

可分割性。1在任何管辖区内,2如果本协议任何条款被禁止或无法执行,3 则在该管辖区,4被禁止或无法执行的条款无效,5而不影响协议其他条款的有 效性。6在任何管辖区内任何条款被禁止或无法执行,7在其他管辖区8不应无 效或无法实施。

例3的英文长句在翻译时,先进行切分,此句可以切分成八段(见上文),根 据中文逻辑思维,翻译语序变成“2, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 7”。然后我们思考一个 问题:将上述的“改进译文”作为原文,如何”回译”成英文?根据李克兴先生的 静态对等观点,只要是标准的法律格式文本,完全有可能“回译”成原文。(李克 兴,2010)但如果读者仔细比对原文和译文,会发现差异其实是很大的。虽然如“any ” 这种词,在译文中尽量保留(中文法律文本就该词的使用频率没有英文文本多,中 译英时需要添加,其他如人称代词“his, her, its等”的添加,都应从对比语言学的 角度加以考虑),这方面回译的难度不大,其他如中文的逻辑思维和行文特点(例 如译文中,为了逻辑表述清晰,添加的“如果”,“则”),受其制约,“回译文” 极有可能与原文大相径庭。即便如此,译者应尽其所能,翻译出尽量“归化”成目 标语读者思维习惯的文章。最后,我们需要经常比对法律文本语言之间的细微差别, 这样就可以对法律的句式表达有初步的了解。

  • 法律写作目的下的逻辑思维

例4:

甲方要求变更还款账户时,应提前向乙方提出申请,经乙方同意后,双方 另行签订协议,在该协议确定的新账户启用日期前,仍使用原账户。

中国在改革开放中,借鉴了很多外国的立法经验,对完善经济法制起了很大的 作用。涉外企业与外界交流,引入国外大量的法律文本,久而久之,中国的法律文

1 3

 

件行文特点,与国外的格式文本,产生不少相似性。上文就是典型的英文格式法律 条文的汉译:

状语从句(变更账户)+法律行为(申请+协议)+该法律行为的除外条件 (原账户)

然而,我们如果按照中文的语序来译:

例4译文1:

In requiring for change of the repayment account, Party A shall make application to Party B in advance. Upon consent of Party B, both parties shall enter into an agreement. (However,) before the date a new account provided therein is activated, the old account remains in use.

这种按照先因后果、沿时间铺叙的逻辑思维,外国人当然也看得懂。中国化的 法律条文,无论与国外的相似性如何,毕竟已经中国化了,所以在忠实原文、意思 表达准确的前提上,不必字字对应,在句法层面上,可以适当添词、省译、转换词 性等(专业术语例外)。此外,译文1分成三句,显然不是法律英文的特点,这里 完全有必要、有可能合并成一句。但复杂长句,要让人理解,逻辑关系至关重要, 而在英文中理顺逻辑关系的,连接词与语序调整起着决定性作用!

例4译文2(改进):

Party A shall apply to Party B in advance for change of the repayment account, for which a supplementary agreement shall be concluded upon consent of Party B; nevertheless, befiare the date a new account provided therein is activated, the old account remains in use.

译文中,为了理顺逻辑关系,首先应将主要信息置前,即“申请变更账户”, 随后的“签订协议”要求,连接词“fbr which”表明的两者之间的逻辑关系,用非 限定形式修饰前面的整个句子。”另行签订协议”的“另行”,在译文一中没有体 现。所谓“另行”不能用”separately”,因为它是本法律文件的补充,所以应为“a supplementary agreementw o添加“nevertheless”,逻辑上表明转折关系,前用分号, 表明本条文为一个整句,后面的“除外条件”应是前面条款的补充说明。通过合并 句子,将句子结构调整为专业的法律条文表述,使法律写作的目的达成。

3.23复杂句的逻辑连贯

很多法律复杂句,或描述引用某一概念的复杂,或采取法律行为的步骤条件复 杂。如下文:

例5:

本合同签订后,贷款发放前,如遇法律法规或监管要求发生变化,致使乙 方发放贷款将违反该等法律法规或监管要求的,乙方有权暂停发放贷款,甲乙 双方应就相关内容另行协商,如双方未能就本合同的修改达成一致,乙方将停 止发放本合同项下尚未发放的贷款,本合同自行终止。

仔细通读整个句子,要做到逻辑一致连贯的,以下几个要点需要考虑: 第一、法律行为有哪些?

第二、引起这些法律行为的“条件”、“原因”是什么?

第三、法律行为的具体措施有哪些?

第四、在法律英文中,这些信息的是如何在逻辑上进行关联的?

有二种不同的翻译语序,一种是将状语从句置前,法律行为置后;另一种相反。 法律文件当然也有从句很长,仍然置前的写法。笔者认为这里有个原则,即那些信 息权重,应“首先”传递给读者的?其次需要考虑句式结构的合理流畅:这里的“暂 停发放”和“停止发放”,在逻辑上属并列结构,如果将两句合为一句,那种句式 结构最妥帖?

例5译文:

Party B has the right to suspend the loan if there is any change to the requirement of laws, regulations and supervisions, after the contract is signed and before the loan is issued, which will result in the loan issued by Party B in violation thereof, and to stop extending any unissued loan hereunder for the contract to be terminated automatically if both Party A and Party B fail to reach a consensus for the modification hereof after consultation of both parties on the related matters.

显然,这里如果采用“乙方有权暂停发放贷款…如果…且停止发放贷款…如 果…”这种并列句式,是最简洁明了的结构。前面的“如果”条件句“…发生变化, 致使…”,不难翻译,但“本合同签订后,贷款发放前”这个时间状语从句在句中 的位置较难处理。好在法律英语中,可以大量使用插入语,前后用逗号隔开,因此 可以将之放在“…发生变化”和“致使…”之间,作为插入语,而不影响到译文的 可读性。“违反该等法律法规或监管要求的”翻成“inviolationthereof”,因为从 句中的主语“loan”是无灵主语,“违反”不可使用有灵谓语“to violate”,以“in violation ofw 代之。同样情况如”comply with”、”in compliance with”等(李克兴, 2011) o后半句并列句,用“and”衔接。“停止发放尚未发放的贷款”,“发放” 有几种不同的译文,如“issue” , “offer” , “extend”等,这里有两个“发放”, 不是约定的术语,可以选用不用的译文,求雅替换词(elegantvariation)宜适用于 法律文本。“本合同自行终止”根据逻辑关系,应是“停止发放贷款”后的结果, 翻成单独英文句子,逻辑关系缺失,这里应翻成结果状语从句。总之,将逻辑是否 一致连贯作为前提考虑句式结构,译文更容易被读者理解,句式表达也会更地道。

  • 整体效果问题

一个句子翻译后,需要细心通读一遍。有些看似处理到位的翻译,读上去仍然 有些怪异。其中有一些细枝末节,如汉译英中,有没有添加人称代词,来取代定冠 词的使用等;还有一些从翻译角度上似乎可以,译出效果却不理想。究其原因,是 一些本地化词语的英译,没有根据上下文灵活处理,翻译时只顾字面忠实(可能混 淆误解了法律翻译忠实性原则)如:抵押担保、办理手续等,结果翻译出来的东西 翻译腔很浓。

例6:

共有人均同意以第一条约定的房屋为乙方在本合同项下债权提供抵押担 保。

例6译文:

The co-owners all agree to mortgage the house specified in Article 1 hereof as a guarantee of the obligatory right herein.

“提供抵押担保”译者第一时间的反应是”to offer the mortgage guarantee”, 这种表述无可厚非,然而英语中,”mortgage”与”guarantee”不会很死板地搭在 一起,会根据不同的意思和句式灵活变化。但有例外,即当该”抵押担保”作为术 语时(法律英语文件一般会另起篇章,给术语(glossary)做定义(definition)), 则该术语的使用应保持前后一致。这里”mortgage sth. as a guarantee of”,表达更 加自然一些。

例7:

甲方应在本合同签订后立即向有关登记机关办理抵押登记手续,并在登记 手续办妥后将抵押登记证明文件正本交乙方保管。

例7译文1:

Party A shall go through formalities in mortgage registration in the related registration department immediately after signing this contract, and give the original copy of the mortgage registration certificate to Party B to keep after finalizing such formalities.

“go through fomalities”(办理手续)作为官方说法,一般是指海关出入境手 续。笔者翻译实践中,看过表示“办理手续”意思的几十种中文搭配,英文的搭配 也不应该仅仅为上面这一种表达。这种中式搭配,有中国原创的,也有借鉴外来语 后,本地化的词语。所以,我们在翻译过程中,应该寻找合适的英文搭配(词法角 度),如果没有,则在表达上灵活调整(句法角度)。

有关语言习惯的细节把控,还有重要一点,即语言表达上,尽量做到简洁达意。 这也是法律英语写作的趋势所在。

例7译文2(改进):

Party A shall, after signing this contract, have the mortgage registered at the registration authority and thereafter lodge the original certificate obtained therefrom with Party B.

译文中,情态动词(shall, may, must)与动词之间使用插入语,在法律英语中 很常见。”办理抵押登记手续”,如果翻成“go through fi3rmalities of mortgage registration”,显得很累赘,翻译腔也很浓,一种表达“百搭”万般“手续”。“手 续” 一词,在中文里使用过于频繁,如同“情况”,可以根据上下文,能省略就省 略,故译文为”have the mortgage registered”,”登记”转换词性,从名词转换成 动词,将最重要的信息以最直接的方式表达出来,同时也省去了不必要的信息,以 符合法律语言简洁达意的要求。同理,”有关登记机关”在译文一中翻成“therelated registration department”也很累赘,”有关”一词大可省去,英文中也没有如此多的 “有关”,除非有上下文的关联,因此译文为”the registration authority”。”obtained therefrom w 意指 aobtained from the registration authority w ,为”办妥”的意译。”交… 保管”也是很本土化的词语,直译只能使意思变得很幼稚,译文一“give … to keep”, “keep” 一词意义就变得很含糊,没有起到法律条文的约束作用。“lodge” 一词,

在西方的法律文件中很常用,如:”lodge the application with the immigration”,移 民留学行业将之翻译成“向移民局提交文件”,但单纯“提交”,用“submit”即 可,“lodge”不仅仅为提交,还有“存放”的意思。《元照英美法词典》对“lodge” 作为动词做释义如下:L存放(文件等);寄放、寄存;2.提出(申述、控告、 抗议);告发、举报。(薛波,潘汉典,2013: 865) o起法律效力的“保管”, 也可以用”be in the custody of”。

 

第四章法律文本英译的句式应用策略

  • 确定主谓结构

汉语语序相对固定,采用层层分叙,节节延伸的方式来推进内容,意义明确, 条理清楚。英语插入成分多,状语位置灵活,丰富的时态、介词、非谓语成分、从 句可以将大量信息穿插在一个句子中。

英语和汉语在语句衔接方式上有明显的不同。英语重形,在句法形式上多使用 过渡词将句子成分连接起来,即句子的上文和下文的逻辑关系要借助过渡词这种具 体的语言形式来传输,即“形合法”。汉语重意,是靠句子内在的意义而不是具体 的词汇形式来表示语义内容的衔接,即“意合法”。(温建平,2001: 69)

根据法律英语的句式特点,翻译时,首先应确定主谓结构。

  • 划分旬群

法律文本作为一种较特殊的文本类型,本身有着用词、句法等各方面的文本特 征。法律语言的一大句型特征就是句子长,句子结构也相对复杂,从句套从句,定 语从句、状语从句、限定词、条件从句等盘根错节,是名副其实的葡萄藤(grape pattern)。(李克兴,2013a: 31)

例8:

1甲方未按时足额偿还贷款本金、支付利息或未按本合同约定用途使用贷 款的,乙方有权按逾期贷款或挪用贷款的罚息利率计收利息,并对应付未付利 息计收复利。/“本合同利率按第三条约定发生调整的,乙方有权相应调整罚息 利率,〃自合同利率调整日起,按调整后的罚息利率计收逾期或挪用的罚息,// 但包含合同利率调整日的当期复利不分段计算,适用调整后的罚息利率。

这是一个条款的内容。有关如何划分句群,切分或合并句子,有一个基本原则, 即:如果一个条款只有一个中心意思,围绕该中心意思有很多限制条件和相应的法 律行为,以及包括修饰该条件行为的子条件、子行为等,这样的条款,一般可以将 之翻译成一个长句。虽然法律文件中有很多长句,但我们翻译的目的,并不刻意追 求写长句,而在于原文意思的正确表达,事实上,翻译中“匠”出的长句,与单纯 按写作意图写出的英文长句(后者可以按照作者的意图灵活变化表达,而前者不得 不受制于对原文的忠实),区别是显而易见的。

上文的例子,中文分成两句,英文也可就此分成两句。原因有二:其一、该文

 

本的行文特点,有着很强的国外格式文本的特点而将之本地化的,事实上这份合同 成功借鉴国外格式文本,成为目前国内格式文本主流之一,是值得探究的一类范本。 其二、根据意思划分。句子与句子之间关联度不是很大的情况下,就没必要合并句 子。换个角度,有很强的逻辑关联度,却切分句子,使得一个条款丧失其中心意思 的表达,就需要合并。

  • 涵盖主要信息

上述例8条款的第二句:

例 8 (2):

2本合同利率按第三条约定发生调整的,乙方有权相应调整罚息利率,〃 自合同利率调整日起,按调整后的罚息利率计收逾期或挪用的罚息,〃但包含合 同利率调整日的当期复利不分段计算,适用调整后的罚息利率。

主谓结构应涵盖那些主要信息?

诚如李克兴在《高级法律翻译与写作》中所言,英文法律文本中最常见的表达 方式或句型是条件句加含有情态动词(shall/musl/may)的法律行为主句的结构(李 克兴,2013a: 62),分析上述句子,其核心应是“调整罚息利率”。其他的内容或 为该“调整”的条件(前提),或对调整后的“罚息利率”做出补充说明。

因此,主句的主谓结构为:

IfParty B has the right to adjust the punitive interest rate,…

因此也得出结论,确定主谓结构以及随之的句子其他成分,应以引用或描述该 条款的逻辑思维为脉络。

  • 合理衔接句子其他成分

主句主谓结构的确定,必须同时考虑句子其他成分如何合理衔接的问题。

第一、先根据不同意思,将句子切分成三段;

第二、考虑这三段之间的逻辑关联,运用合适的连接词;

第三、理清每一段内容之间的修饰与被修饰关系。

第三段谈的是“复利”,与前文有何关联,是否应该分立一句?最让人困惑的 是逗号后面的连接词“但”,因此我们应该从深层次做一下分析.

这里的复利俗称“利滚利”,是跨月后,本金、利息、罚息合计后再乘以罚息 利率后的金额,应按“段”(如按月)计算,适用该“段”内的利率。故:“复利 不分段计算”的“分段”不应按字面意思翻成“by period”,它的正确意思应以“合 同利率调整日”为界限,之前的按原有的利率,之后的用调整后的利率,将之分成 两段计算。“但”的深层意思是指:“调整日”之后,(才)按调整后的罚息利率, “但”计算当期复利,有在“调整日”之前的,也按调整后的罚息利率。完全理解 原文后,就可以动手翻译了。

例8译文:

If Party A fails to repay the loan principal and interest on time and in full amount, or to use the loan as specified herein, Party B has the right to accrue an interest thereon at the punitive rate for overdue loan or misappropriated loan, and a compound interest for accrued interest payable. If the interest rate herein is adjusted under Article 3 hereof, Party B has the right to adjust the rate of punitive interest accordingly whereon to accrue a penal interest on the day thereof, but not to calculate the compound interest of the current period, if it is inclusive of this date, on the different rates before and after such adjustment, subject to the punitive interest rate after adjustment.

如前述,例8按照条文意思,没有进行句子合并。

法律英文中有很多指代性副词(pronominal adverbs),使用目的是为了行文的 简洁,避免重复。如译文中下划线部分,“thereon”是添词,指代前面的整个条件 状语从句;”herein”指代”in this contract” ; “hereof”指代”of this contract”, 避免两个”contract”在一句中重复出现,避免行文累赘。“thereof”指代“ofthe contractual interest rate adjustment^^ ,通过介词置于”there”之后,可以指代任何非 涉及“本”法律文件或条文(“本”用“here”类指代性副词),但前文中有过描述 的内容,如本例句中的“合同利率调整日”,因为有前文铺叙,后面就可以使用 “thereof”,达到行文简洁的效果。例8译文的粗体字为连接词的使用。根据前述 含义,”分段(计算)”翻译成”on the different rates before and after such adjustment 以插入语形式,置于句中。“但”后面的句子,译文中也可以忽略所有的标点符号 (西方的法律文件很多情况下,都这么做),但这里为了增加译文的可读性,使用 了三个逗号隔开句子。笔者认为,缺少标点符号,有时候会给法律条文理解带来困 难,甚至因此增加其模糊性。笔者至少认为,本译文如果去掉三个逗号,可能会使 读者不知所云。

这是一句相对平整的句式。一些法律句子,有很多修饰与被修饰关系,一个句

 

子中,有不同的概念得到不同的解释,这在英语中,就需要“从句套从句” 了,不 同从句的衔接,需要通过不同的语序和连接词,表明不同的逻辑关系。

  • 连接词的娴燕应用
    • 从“意合”到“形合”的转换

形合翻译是指采用形合手段来显示分句、句子和句群中各个成分之间的相互关 系,而意合翻译是指依靠逻辑意义上的关联来显示这些关系。英语和汉语在句法上 均有形合翻译和意合翻译。不过总的来看,现代英语句法重形合,其主要形合手段 是连词、关系代词、关系副词等。

英语句子的表达是首先确定主谓结构为翻译全句的中心,然后利用丰富的词形 变化,将各个分句处理成介词短语、分词短语、状语从句、独立结构等不同形式, 附加在句子的主干上面。

较之英语,汉语是重意合的语言,究其原因可能是汉语本身没有关系代词和关 系副词,连接词的数量也比英语少。对英汉语句的理解常常是靠对语义和逻辑关系 的感悟和具体语境来实现的,而不是求助于话语的形式完备。汉语句子充分体现汉 语多以分句叙述为主,平行安排结构,句式松散,使用较多的动词,以意相连。2

例9:

甲方的行为足以使抵押物的价值减少,且未按乙方请求恢复原状或另行提 供特别担保的。

本句结构为:甲方的行为使…,且(甲方)未提供…。根据确定主谓结构为翻 译全句的中心,且法律句式多为并列句、完整句原则,上述例子应确定一个共同主 语,就可以顺利翻译成一句并列句。

例9译文:

If Party A has an act to sufficiently cause the value of the mortgaged property to decease, and fails to restore the mortgaged property to its original status or otherwise provide special guarantees on the request of Party B.

http://www.oktranslation.com/news/twininfb3357Lhtnil

例9是条件状语从句,是篇章结构的组成部分。前半句”甲方的行为使…”与 后半句“(甲方)未按…”,主语不一致,如果前半句翻成“The act of Party A”, 则后半句就需要增添主语“PartyA”。笔者译文中,将前半句做了调整,变成“Party Ahasanactto”,以此为并列句确定一个共同主语“PartyA”。作为形合手段的, 除了合并主语外,并列句也运用了连接词“and”。然而,中文看似并列的句子, 翻成英文时往往不适合用“and”(见下例)。

  • 理顺逻辑关系

法律文本翻译需要遵循忠实性原则。很多人翻译时,在句式结构、词语重复方 面不加甄别地对应原文,忽略了条文信息的内在逻辑关联。这种内在逻辑关联,是 合理运用连接词,理顺逻辑关系,顺利实现“意合”至“形合”转换的关键所在。

例10:

声明:本公告仅供本行与上述借款人联系之用,通知上述借款人尽快与本 行联系还贷事宜,〃任何人均不得将本公告拟作他用,否则将承担一切法律责任。

前半句,逗号后面“通知…”前缺主语,根据上下文,应为“本公告”,若以 此作为主语,则句式结构为并列句:This announcement is used for… and for…

然而,这里用并列句并不理想,主要是因为“联系之用”与“通知”之间有英 种逻辑关联;且,“上述借款人”句中出现两次,如果不是法律术语、法律条件、 法律行为的必要重复,则可以考虑合并。

例10译文:

Notice: This announcement is used exclusively for the contact between our bank and the said borrowers whom are thereby informed for prompt repayment of the loan of our bank. Any other person is not allowed to use it for any other purposes, or otherwise shall take all legal responsibilities.

通过译文,读者首先了解到“本公告”为联系“借款人”之用,其目的是让“借 款人”还贷。因此,前半句译文的递进逻辑关系应表述明确。使用“whom”避免 了 “上述借款人”在句中出现两次,添加“thereby”为表明原文中隐含的逻辑关系。

再举个英译汉的例子:

例11:

Australia Asia Capital Management will not, without your prior consent, disclose personal information for any purpose other than those purposes described in this Privacy Policy to which you have already consented. We may disclose your personal information where required by law to do so.

Privacy Policy of http :www.aacmf c0mz

这里由于连接词分别修饰不同的词语或句子成分,看原文,意思一目了然,但 如何将这种葡萄藤结构转换成中文的流水句结构,是个难点。

例11译文:

没有经过您的事先同意,澳大利亚亚洲资本管理有限公司不会因任何目的, 披露您的个人信息,除非此等目的在隐私政策中有描述,且经过你同意披露的。 如果法律有要求,我们可以披露您的个人信息。

对应连接词与中文译文,不仅能看出中译英中连接词的作用,而且对法律英语 的行文特点也会有所了解:otherthan-对应”除非”;to which-中文无译词。如果 将译文“除非此等目的在隐私政策中有描述,且经过你同意披露的”回译成英文, 我们极有可能译成”unless those purposes have been described in the Privacy Policy and you have already consented for disclosure w。我们来分析这句回译文,看看有什么缺 陷:“unless”与“otherthan”词义上有差异。”unless”在逻辑上更多有转折的成 分,谈论个人信息披露,某些允许,某些不允许,笔者认为“otherthan”的用词更 为确切一些。回译文的“and”与原文“to which”,在逻辑关联上,后者更妥帖一 点。此外,法律条文的时态应用,通常为一般现在时,现在完成时只在必要时偶尔 使用,原文规避了很多可以规避的时态应用。

  • 法律特定连接词的使用

影响法律英语句式的用词特点(diction)有以下几个方面:

双词连用(Doublets):如 null and void (无效);terms and conditions (条款 与条件)等。

指代词(Pro-forms):如 the said issue (该);the fbregoing article (上述)等。 指代性副词(Pronominal adverbs):如 hereof, therein 等。

短语动词(Phrasal verbs) : enter into the contract (签署);write off debts (注

销)。3

此外,法律特定连接词,如:other than, provided that, unless,这些词的使用, 是法律措辞(iegalese)的重要组成部分。同时,连接词在逻辑表达,增加可读性方 面,起着关键作用。笔者尝试从出版物、网络信息查找有关法律连接词的著述,尚 未发现有人进行过系统性研究。由于本论文是基于翻译实践的材料展开,受题材局 限,且连接词属于词法层面,故这里不再赘述。

  • 句法特征层面上的词性转换与搭配规律

词性转换,在翻译中,是最常用的技巧之一。法律翻译讲究的是忠实,然而很 多人以为所谓“忠实”,至少词汇方面,特别是专业词汇,要做到字字对应。其实, 那是误解。

43.1对等翻译的不专业

中文与英文就其语言本身有很大差异,除此之外,表达的习惯、思维模式也很 不相同,尤其在句法特征层面上,为了意思表达的准确与流畅,就必须进行必要的 词性转换,否则,对等翻译的译文就会显得很不专业。

例12:

第13.7条所列应通知的任何事项之一实际发生,乙方认为将影响其债权的 安全:

例12译文1:

Any one of the events listed in Article 13.7 for notification actually happens and Party B believes that it will affect the safety of its creditor’s right.

译文1显然不是地道的法律行文,类似于日常英语。原因有四点:第一、这句 是篇章结构中的条件句,不是完整句子结构;第二、译文平铺直叙,是中文的流水 句表达,用了 “and”使条文的重点丧失;第三、用词不准确。如“影响”,在法 律术语中,应使用“prejudice”,而非“affbct” ;第四、也是最重要的一点,译文 没有根据原文的意思,在句式结构上进行词性转换与搭配,因此对等翻译后的译词 在句子中充当的成分不合理,如”actually happens”。

http:en.wikipedi&or£/wiki/Le3 English

例12译文2 (改进):

The occurrence of any one of the events listed in Article 13.7 for notification that is deemed by Party B as prejudice to the safety of its creditor’s right;

译文2将前半句作为名词性结构,重点放在“发生”,因为本条文讨论的“事 件的发生”,而非“事件”本身,“发生”的词性也由动词转换成名词;后半句that 引导从句,用被动态,”be deemed as”使“认为…影响”的表述更符合习惯表达, “影响”也因此由动词转换成名词。

例13:

妥善保管保单正本…,若有遗失或毁损的,(乙方)应负责补办并承担由 此而造成的损失。

该句中的”补办”很有中国特色,如”补办证件”,类似于asupplement/reissue a new license”,需到主管部门申请补办,所以这里的“补办且承担”,不能对应 中文的语序来翻,如:”responsible fbr its reissuance”,也是一种中国式表达。

例13译文:

Party B shall keep properly the original insurance policy…, and have these documents reissued if lost or damaged and assume the loss incurred therefrom.

译文中,”负责补办”如译成”responsible its reissuance”,不仅是中国 式表达,在句子中显得突兀,而且表达上增加了含糊性(乙方有责任补办,但无补 办的权责)。“负责”在中文中出现的频率远大于英文,没有必要对应翻译,译文 “shall have…reissued”已经将“负责”的含义表明无误。

例14:

按以下第2种方式确定本合同利率调整日

如翻成:the following Sub-article 3.4.2.2 is used to determine the Adjustment Date of the Interest Rate of this contract,如果是作为术语,在文本中做了定义,且多次 出现,应该这么翻。通常法律英语文本会另起一章,给术语做定义(Definition,或

Glossary),上述的“利率调整日”,可能做成首字母简写,如“ADIR”。其他情 况下,应按照英文语言习惯,故译文:

例14译文:

the following Sub-article 3.4.2.2 is used to detennine the date on which the interest rate herein is adjusted.

译文中的“利率调整日”,没有用作术语,或按照中文的语序翻译,相反,将 确定“日期”作为主要信息先做处理,用后置定语补充说明该日期,更加符合英语 的习惯表达。相似的用法如:“以邮寄之日后的第五日视为送达日”,以日期作为 条文的主要信息,一般表达如下:“the fifth day after the date the notice is delivered by mail is deemed as the day of delivery。

  • 本地化的法律词汇英译

例15:

甲方有逃避乙方监督、逃废债等行为时,乙方有权……0

条文中的“逃废债”,就是一个典型的本地化法律词汇,有关本地化法律词汇 的英译,笔者归纳为以下三种方法;

1)按照英语文本特点,给术语做定义;

如果某篇法律文件,“逃废债”作为主要术语,出现频率很高,那么就有必要 将之“术语化”,如:Debt Evasion and Invalidation (DEI),下文可以直接引用DEI, 如:”If Party A has an act of DEI, Party B has the right …”

2)用“解释”的方法简明扼要地翻译;

有时有些本地化法律词汇,如果不做“解释”,很难让目标语读者理解,如: “核定征收与查账征收”。目前这两个术语还没有官方答案。如对之加以了解,“核 定征收”是指某企业或个人的收入无法在其财务账簿上显示,因此需要给予一个核 定的税额,按此税额征税;“查账征收”是指某企业或个人按照制订的财务报表纳 税。

在此情况下,译文就需要基本反映原文的含义,如“核定征收”为“Tax Collection on Verified Amounts ”(按照核定的金额进行税务征收);“查账征收”为”Tax Collection on Account Books”(通过查账进行税务征收)。但用“解释”的方法地翻译,必 须简明扼要,有时过多的解释,反而画蛇添足,使原本已经术语化的法律汉语,意 思变得狭隘,甚至出现歧义。

3)在句法上,该词语的译文应尽可能贴近英语的语言习惯。

本地化的法律词语,如果没有必要术语化的,则需要在句式表达上,采取“词 语切分”,使之尽可能贴近英语的语言习惯,因此例15的译文做了如下处理:

例15译文:

Party B has the right to … any acts of Party A in evading Party B’s supervision, escaping or invalidating his/her financial obligations.

例15前面有“逃避”监督,用了动词“evade”,后面的“逃废债”完全有必 要用“动宾结构”,将“逃”和“废”转换成动词,使前后对账工整。“financial obligations” 比起“debts”,语域要宽,因为“债”不仅仅指“debt”。

  • 使句式结构流畅合理的词性转换

可以说,词性转换是翻译的基本技巧之一,在法律翻译中也是经常用到的。即 便中国法律的行文特点与西方的文本有相似之处,如果没有必要的词性转换,译文 的句式就不会地道。

例16:

乙方有权按甲方提前归还的贷款本金的壹%向甲方收取提前还款补偿金, 用于补偿提前还款日至贷款到期日的利息。

例16译文1:

Party B has the right to charge a compensation from Party A at one % of the loan principal repaid in advance, which is to compensate the interest of a period from the prepayment date to the maturity date of the loan.

例16译文2 (改进):

Party B has the right to be indemnified by Party A at one % of the loan principal repaid in advance, for the interest of a period from the prepayment date to the maturity date of the loan.

从语域(register)角度出发,“compensate”的用途范围比“indemnity”大, 后者一般为金额上的赔偿,所以在法律文本中,应用更确切。毋庸置疑,译文2更 地道,更符合法律英语的句式表达。其中,“补偿金”从名词转换成了动词的被动 语态ato be indemnified;“补偿”从动词转换成介词”fin”,比译文一 “charge a compensation”和”tocompensate”表达更为地道,也更简洁。

  • 符合法律句式表达的搭配与合并

法律英语文本,除了一些固定的用词搭配,在句式层面上,也应根据具体情况 做出调整。

例17:

贷款期限在一年以内(含一年)的,不应提前归还部分本金;

这句的法律主体为“乙方”,但这里没有法律主体行为,仅强调“归化部分本 金”的限制条件,谈的是客观性,所以译文中不应添置“乙方”作为主语。

例17译文1:

No partial repayment of principal in advance for the length of maturity less than a year (including a year);

这样翻译,犯了逻辑错误。“repayment”对应的“loan”,而不是“lengthof maturity”,所以“贷款期限”应在译文句式上作调整。

例17译文2: :

No partial prepayment of principal fbr a loan under a year (incl. a year) of maturity;

法律句式有并列、有重复;与此同时,法律句式也有所谓的“词语合并”表达, 如下例:

例18:

在签订本合同时,甲方不是丙方的股东或《公司法》所定义的“实际控制 人”,也没有关于成为丙方的股东或实际控制人的计划。

 

例18译文:

Party A is not and is not planning to be a shareholder or an “actual controller^^ of Party C as defined by the Corporation Law in signing this contract.

由于前后两句谈论的内容完全一致,译文“is not and is not planning to be”就顺 理成章地将两句合并成一句。英语文本中,这种合并表达不胜枚举。如:“Subject to and in accordance with the Act, the manager… ”,中国人可能不会想到”subject to” 与“in accordance with”合并在一起的用法,译文:“根据《法案》规定并受其制 约,经理人……” o读者如果经常阅读英文法律文件,将一些我们通常不会用到的 表达法加以归纳总结,运用于中文法律文本中,积水成渊,久而久之,就会使我们 的法律文件汉译英水平产生质的飞跃。

 

第五章实践总结与建议

  • 问题及缺陷

这篇《交通银行个人房产抵押贷款合同》经笔者翻译实践后,在原译文基础上, 按照法律英文的句式特点与要求,做了一次自我修订。同时,笔者也仔细阅读参考 了其他一些文献,如《中华人民共和国担保法》、《中华人民共和国物权法》英文 版,以及国内外的相关著述(见参考文献)。然而,由于国内学术界有关法律英语 句式方面的文献很少,目前尚未发现有专家学者撰写的法律句式专著,因此,本文 的翻译实践以及在此基础上撰写的论文,多少有些探索的成分,而且银行类格式文 本,目前尚无出版的译文可供参考(包括术语选词,各大银行也都各自为政),因 此,译文可能会存在一些问题与缺陷。

  • 实践的收获

即便有上述一些不确定因素,翻译实践收获颇丰!首先,在自己的实践基础上 写论文,以论述的标准来衡量自己的翻译水平,就会发现一些原本不会注意的细枝 末节,而这些细枝末节有时往往却很关键;其次,请论文导师审核,从学术的角度 加以分析,可以将自己的水平“逼”上一个台阶;再次,通过实践加论文模式,可 以对自己的理论知识架构起一个梳理、完善的作用,可以对将来的翻译实践起指导 作用。

  • 建议

从对比语言学角度,对法律翻译进行系统分析比对的,目前中国还很少有人涉 足,出版的学术论文也很鲜见。目前出版的中国法律文件英文版,绝大多数为国家 法律法规,日常事务文件几乎没有。所以笔者建议专业人士能在这方面进行更多的 专业研究。

 

第六章结语

笔者在移民留学行业从事翻译工作。日常事务中,接触大量的商务法律文件, 与文案专员、移民律师合作,进行大量的翻译实践。在实践中,笔者发现很多翻译 人员的译文,由于受到法律文件忠实性原则的制约,在体现该原则上,大多人茫然 采用字对字的翻译手法(word-for-word translation),对法律英文句式结构特征了 解甚少,因而译文质量受到很大影响。

通过对法律英语句式结构的深入分析,在对比语言学的视角下,仔细比对法律 英汉两种句式结构的差异,以此习得来指导法律英语翻译实践,有事半功倍的作用。

本论文的特色与创新之处,在于实例为先,通过实例,找出翻译的切入点与关 键路径,活学活用翻译理论与策略。但鉴于本人理论知识不足、理论架构不完善, 本文有关法律文本汉译英句式研究的论题阐述不够透彻,需要进一步增加认识,积 累经验。而且,本研究仅从句式结构上对商务法律翻译进行研究,没有涉足法律语 言的文体特征、篇章结构和词法套语,有很大的局限性.最后,有关法律文本汉译 英句式研究,目前国内尚未有此类专著,而本文仅从笔者的实践出发做的各种论述, 错误缺陷在所难免,因此希望本文能起到一个抛砖引玉的作用。

 

附录1:个人房产抵押贷款合同

交通银行股份有限公司

个人房产抵押贷款合同
特别告知

为了维护您的权益,在您签署本合同之前,请仔细阅读如下条款并确认有关事 宜:

  • .您所提交的文件、材料及所作陈述是真实、合法、有效的。
  • .您已经仔细阅读本合同的所有条款,特别是带有人人标记的条款,并对其含 义及法律后果有充分理解。
  • .您有权签署本合同。本合同生效后,您必须按约行使权利并主动承担义务. 您与房产出售者间因购房所产生的任何纠纷均不能作为您拒绝履行本合同项下义 务的理由。
  • .请您用钢笔或签字笔工整填写需要您填写的内容及签字。
  • .如果您对本合同及相关的交易有任何不解之处,请向我行咨询,也可以拨打 95559向交通银行客户服务中心咨询。如仍有疑问,请暂缓签署本合同。

甲方(借款人即抵押人):

乙方(贷款人即抵押权人):

丙方(保证人):

鉴于甲方购买商品房作为□住房口商业用房,并以该房屋向乙方申请个人房产 抵押贷款,为明确甲、乙、丙三方的权利和义务,经协商一致,订立本合同。

第一条房屋

甲方购买并用于向乙方提供抵押的房屋的具体情况:

第二条贷款

  • 金额;人民币(大写)
  • 贷款期限:240 (□年0月),自放款日—至
  • 放款金额、放款日和到期日以《借款凭证》的记载为准。
  • 贷款用途:购买第一条约定的房屋。

第三条利率及调整

  • 本合同项下贷款利率:_% (历年利率□月利率)。该利率系中国人 民银行现行相应期限档次贷款的口基准利率;口基准利率上浮_%; EJ基准利率下 浮_%。

3.2本合同项下,甲方以回月口季□半年□年为一期,按期还款,首期利息 自放款日起计算。计算一期的正常利息采用期利率,本合同项下的期利率为:EI月 利率=年利率/12; 口季利率=年利率/4; 口半年利率=年利率/2; 口年利率。日利 率=年利率/360。

人人3.3本合同签订后、放款前,遇中国人民银行调整法定利率的,乙方将按 相应利率档次执行调整后的利率,利率浮动水平按3.1条约定执行。

人人3.4本合同项下贷款实际发放后,遇中国人民银行调整法定利率的:

□ (1)本合同利率不调整;

0 (2)按以下第2_种方式确定本合同利率调整日。自合同利率调整日起,按 合同利率调整日相应利率档次执行调整后的利率,利率浮动水平按3.1条约定执行。

  • .2.1自贷款实际发放日起(分笔发放的以第一笔贷款发放日为准),每满口 月口季□年的当日为合同利率调整日;
  • .2.2以次年1月1日为合同利率调整日。

贷款发放后,如遇人民银行调整后的基准利率为浮动利率或取消基准利率的, 甲乙双方就贷款利率另行协商调整,但调整后利率不低于当时适用的利率;自人民 银行调整日起超过登□月也天,双方仍未就调整后利率达成一致的,乙方有权宣 布本合同项下贷款全部提前到期。

人人第四条贷款的发放

  • 在下列条件全部符合前,乙方有权拒绝放款:

(1)乙方已收到甲方已支付首期房款(首期房款应不低于乙方规定比例)的

证明文件;

(2)乙方已收到第九条约定的抵押登记证明文件正本;

(3)乙方已收到第十条约定的保单正本;

(4)甲方在第十一条项下所作的陈述和保证是真实的;

(5)没有发生可能对甲方的还款能力有不利影响的事件;

(6)其他先决条件:o

  • 放款的条件得到满足且甲方办妥手续后,乙方在三个银行工作日内放款。
  • 放款账户

甲方以本人名义在乙方开立太平洋卡账户/储蓄账户,账号:作为 乙方发放贷款的账户。

  • 贷款划转

甲方授权乙方将贷款以甲方购房款名义从上述账户转账至下述账户:

收款人:

账号:

开户行:

第五条还款

  • 甲方选择下述第生种还款法还款:

(1)一次还本付息法,利息自放款日计至还款日,利息计算公式为:

利息=贷款本金X期利率X期数X贷款本金X日利率X零头天数。

  • 一次还本、分次付息法,利息自放款日计至还款日,利息计算公式为:

利息=贷款本金x期利率x期数x贷款本金x日利率x零头天数。

(3)等额本息还款法,即贷款期限内每期以相等的额度偿还贷款本息。每期 还款额计算公式为:

每期付息额=(贷款本金-已还清贷款额)x期利率

每期还本额=每期偿还贷款本息金额-每期付息额

每期还款额为人民币(大写金额):

(4)等额本金还款法,即贷款期限内每期以相等的额度偿还贷款本金,贷款 利息随本金逐期递减并逐期结清。每期还款额计算公式为:

每期偿还贷款本息金额=每期还本额+每期付息额

每期付息额=(贷款本金-已归还本金累计额)x期利率

每期还款额为人民币(大写金额):

(5)等额递增或等额递减还款法,指贷款期限内每期还款金额呈等差数列。

根据本金、期限、利率,按照等额本息公式求出本息和:

根据下述公式得出每期递增/递减金额(当甲方指定首期还款金额)或首期还款 额(当甲方指定首期还款金额):

A1 =首期还款额 G =每期递增/递减金额

每期(递增/递减)金额G为人民币(大写金额):,首期还款 额为人民币(大写金额):o以后每期还款金额是上一期还款金额加上/减 去Go

(6)分段还款法,指将贷款本金分成最多不超过五个阶段偿还,在每个阶段 约定偿还的本金和还款期数,并统一按等额本息或等额本金方式计算各阶段内每期 还款额。

归还某一阶段贷款时,该阶段外未归还的所有本金单独计算利息(利息=该 阶段外未归还的所有本金X期利率X期数+该阶段外未归还的所有本金X日利 率X零头天数)。

阶段内每期还款额与该阶段外未归还的所有本金在当期产生的利息之和即为 每期实际还款金额。

本合同项下贷款分为 个阶段还款,各个阶段内采用□等额本息;□等额本

金方式还款,其中:

第一阶段还款期数—期,本段偿还本金人民币(大写金额):

  • 还款日

(1)选择一次还本付息法的,还款日为贷款到期日o

(2)选择一次还本分次付息法的,贷款本金于贷款到期日归还,利息按期支 付,甲方选择下述第一种付息日确定方式。

付息日为放款日的对应日。

Q付息日为每期末月的—日,甲方以月为一期的,即每月的—日。若当月无 此日期则为当月最后一天。

(3)选择等额本息、等额本金、等额递增或等额递减还款法的,本息按期支 付,甲方选择下列笫一种还款日确定方式。

存付息日为放款日的对应日。

 

3付息日为每期末月的—日,甲方以月为一期的,即每月的—日。若当月无 此日期则为当月最后一天。

  • 选择一次还本分次付息、等额本息、等额本金、等额递增或等额递减还款 法时:

(1)贷款发放当月不扣收本息,到首次还款日进行扣款。首期利息计算公式 为:利息=贷款本金X期利率X期数X贷款本金X日利率X零头天数,首期 还本付息金额为人民币(大写);

(2)若贷款到期日距最近一次还款日不足一期的,该还款日不做还款,待到 期日一次结清。末期利息计算公式为:利息=末期贷款本金金额x期利率x期 数x末期贷款本金金额x日利率x零头天数。

  • 乙方将根据本合同的约定制定《还本付息计划表》,并在贷款实际发放后 及时向甲方提供,甲方同意按照《还本付息计划表》按时归还贷款本息。
  • 宽限期

乙方给予甲方天宽限期,自各期还款日的次日起算。甲方在宽限期内归还 该期贷款,乙方均认同甲方为按时还款。宽限期内不计收罚息和复利,若超过宽限 期仍未还款,则从该期还款日期计收罚息和复利。

第六条还款方式

  • 甲方以第3条约定的放款账户作为还款账户,并委托乙方以自动转账方 式从该账户扣划资金还款。

八人6.2甲方应在还款日前一天将该期应还款足额存入还款账户,以按时足额 履行还款义务。因还款账户中余额不足或其他原因(包括但不仅限于账户被有权机 关冻结等)致使乙方无法按时划款的,甲方应按第十七条承担违约责任。

人人6.3乙方划账所得款项按照先前期、后当期和先本后息的顺序抵充甲方应 偿贷款本息。

  • 甲方要求变更还款账户时,应提前向乙方提出申请,经乙方同意后,双方 另行签订协议,在该协议确定的新账户启用日期前,仍使用原账户。
  • 还款账户被有权机关冻结时,甲方应及时向乙方提供其他账户作为新的还 款账户或以现金、支票等至乙方规定的营业柜台办理还款手续。

第七条提前还款

 

  • 提前还款应符合下列规定:

(1)贷款期限在一年以内(含一年)的,不应提前归还部分本金;

(2)提前还款日不能为利率调整日;

(3)部分提前还款本金金额应不少于每期还本付息额的六倍;

(4)提前还款时甲方应结清已还本金的利息,利息按本合同约定计至提前还 款日的前一日;

(5)提前还款时本合同项下若存在逾期贷款或欠息则应先归还逾期贷款或欠 息。

  • 甲方要求提前还款的,应至少提前十五个银行工作日向乙方提出书面申请, 经乙方同意后,双方另行签订书面协议,载明提前还款后的剩余本金、剩余还款期 数和期还款额。协议生效且用于提前还款的资金已存入第1条约定的还款账户后, 方可办理提前还款手续。

人人7.3甲方经乙方同意后提前归还部分本金且缩短剩余还款期数的,剩余的 贷款本金仍适用原贷款期限对应的中国人民银行相应期限档次贷款的利率,利率浮 动水平和调整仍按本合同第三条约定执行。

人人74对提前归还的贷款本金,乙方不退还已计收的利息,并按本合同约定 的利率向甲方收取上一还款日至提前还款日的利息。同时,乙方有权按甲方提前归 还的贷款本金的壹%向甲方收取提前还款补偿金,用于补偿提前还款日至贷款到期 日的利息。

第八条保证

  • 丙方为本合同项下贷款提供连带责任保证。
  • 保证期间为本合同项下贷款到期日之日起两年;分期付款的,保证期间按 各期还款分别计算,自每期贷款到期日起,计至最后一期贷款到期之日后两年止。
  • 保证范围为本合同项下贷款本金及利息、罚息、复利及乙方实现债权的费 用。实现债权的费用包括但不仅限于催收费、诉讼费(或仲裁费)、保全费、公告 费、执行费、律师费、差旅费及其他相关费用。
  • 甲方未按本合同约定足额偿还任一期还款额或其他费用时,丙方应按乙方 的要求立即支付甲方的全部到期应付款项。
  • 甲方取得第一条约定房屋的权利证明,且乙方取得抵押物的现房抵押登记 证明文件正本后,丙方的保证责任解除。但在乙方取得现房抵押登记证明文件正本 前,甲方已有欠款或欠费的,丙方对该部分应付款项仍应承担保证责任。
  • 各方特别约定如下:上述保证条款效力独立于本合同,本合同或其有关条 款无效时不影响上述保证条款的效力。对甲方在主合同无效后应承担的返还责任或 赔偿责任,丙方应承担连带责任。

第九条抵押

  • 本合同项下抵押物为第一条规定的房屋。
  • 抵押权的效力及于抵押物及其从物、从权利、附着物、附和物、加工物、 孽息及代位物。
  • 抵押担保的范围为本合同项下贷款本金及利息、复利、罚息、违约金、损 害赔偿金和实现债权及抵押权的费用。实现债权及抵押权的费用包括但不仅限于催 收费、诉讼费(或仲裁费)、抵押物处置费、过户费、保全费、公告费、执行费、 律师费、差旅费及其他相关费用。
  • 共有人均同意以第一条约定的房屋为乙方在本合同项下债权提供抵押担 保。

共有人: (签字)

  • 甲方应在本合同签订后立即向有关登记机关办理抵押登记手续,并在登记 手续办妥后将抵押登记证明文件正本交乙方保管。

第十条保险

  • 本合同签订后,甲方应当立即为抵押物办理乙方认可的保险手续,甲方也 可委托乙方代为办理相关手续。
  • 保险金额不低于本合同项下贷款本金,保险期限不短于本合同项下贷款期 限,并应指定乙方为保险权益的第一受益人。
  • 保险手续办妥后,保单正本由乙方保管,直至甲方清偿全部贷款本息。
  • 在清偿全部贷款本息之前,甲方应履行维持保险的有效存续所必须的义 务。
  • 甲方未能投保或续保的,乙方有权自行投保、续保,代为缴付保费或采取 其他保险维持措施。甲方应提供必要协助,并承担乙方因此支出的保险费用和相关 费用。

人人第十一条甲方的陈述与保证

  • 甲方具备完全民事行为能力,具备所有必要的权利能力,能以自身名义履

 

行本合同的义务并承担民事责任。

  • 签署和履行本合同是甲方真实意图的表示,不存在任何法律上的瑕疵。
  • 甲方在签署和履行本合同过程中向乙方提供的全部文件、资料及信息是真 实、准确、完整和有效的,未向乙方隐瞒可能影响其还款能力的任何信息。
  • 甲方保证对抵押物享有合法的、充分的、无争议的处分权,签约时抵押物 上不存在任何未告知乙方的他项权利、租赁、托管或共有等情况,签约时抵押物未 处于被依法查封、扣押、监管的状态。
  • 在签订本合同时,甲方不是丙方的股东或《公司法》所定义的“实际控制 人”,也没有关于成为丙方的股东或实际控制人的计划。

第十二条甲方的权利

  • 有权依本合同约定取得并使用贷款。
  • 在清偿全部贷款本息及应付费用后,有权从乙方处取回保单正本,取回抵 押登记证明文件正本及其他相关资料并注销抵押登记。

人人第十三条甲方的义务

  • 按本合同约定的时间、金额和币种偿还本合同项下的贷款本金并支付利 息。
  • 按本合同约定用途使用贷款,不应挪作他用。
  • 甲方应承担本合同项下所有费用支出,包括但不仅限于公证费、抵押登记 费、保险费、评估费及其他合理费用。
  • 甲方应遵循乙方有关个人贷款业务的业务制度和操作惯例,包括但不仅限 于配合乙方对贷款的使用情况、甲方收入情况及抵押物的使用、保管、保养及权属 维持情况进行监督检查,及时提供乙方要求的资料、信息。
  • 甲方应合理使用并妥善保管抵押物,不应以任何非正常的方式使用抵押 物,应及时维修保养以保证抵押物的完好。
  • 未经乙方书面同意,甲方不应改变抵押物的占管人、使用人,不应以转让、 赠与、出租、设定担保物权等任何方式处分抵押物。
  • 甲方应在下列事项发生或可能发生之日起5天内书面通知乙方:

(1)对甲方还款能力有或可能有重大不利影响的诉讼、仲裁、行政措施、财 产保全措施、强制执行措施或其他重大不利事件;

(2)甲方或其家庭成员的工作、收入发生重大变化;

(3)抵押物权属发生争议;

(4)抵押物价值减少或有此种可能;

(5)抵押权受到或可能受到来自任何第三方的侵害;

(6)甲方的通讯地址、联系电话或工作单位发生变化;

(7)在丙方根据本合同约定解除保证责任前,甲方成为或可能成为丙方的股 东或《公司法》所定义的“实际控制人”。

人人13.8本合同项下的抵押物权减少、毁损或灭失时,甲方应及时提供乙方认 可的其他担保,保险公司或其他第三人为此支付给甲方的赔偿金应用于提前偿还贷 款本息。

13.9抵押期间,经乙方书面同意后,甲方可以转让抵押物,但抵押物转让所得 价款应用于偿还贷款本息。

第十四条乙方的权利

  • 按照本合同约定收回贷款本金、利息(包括复利、逾期及挪用罚息)、收 取甲方应付的费用。
  • 按照本合同约定行使抵押权及与之相关的其他权利。

第十五条乙方的义务

  • 在甲方履行本合同约定义务的前提下,乙方有义务按本合同约定的时间和 金额发放贷款。
  • 乙方向甲方通知下列事项:

(1)放款金额、放款时利率、放款日及到期日;

(2)根据本合同约定,因中国人民银行调整利率后予以调整的期还款额;

(3)甲方还款情况。

  • 妥善保管保单正本、抵押登记证明文件正本及其他有关资料,若有遗失或 毁损的,应负责补办并承担由此而造成的损失。

人人第十六条贷款的提前到期

出现下列任何一情形时,乙方有权停止发放贷款,并单方面宣布本合同项下已 发放的贷款本金全部提前到期,要求甲方立即偿还所有到期贷款本金并结清利息:

(1)甲方在第十一条项下所作陈述与保证不真实;

(2)甲方违反本合同的约定;

(3)第13.7条所列应通知的任何事项之一实际发生,乙方认为将影响其债权 的安全;

(4)甲方在履行与乙方订立的其他合同时,有迟延履行等违约行为且经乙方 催告后仍未予以纠正。

人人第十七条甲方的违约责任

  • 甲方未按时足额偿还贷款本金、支付利息或未按本合同约定用途使用贷款 的,乙方有权按逾期贷款或挪用贷款的罚息利率计收利息,并对应付未付利息计收 复利。本合同利率按第三条约定发生调整的,乙方有权相应调整罚息利率,自合同 利率调整日起,按调整后的罚息利率计收逾期或挪用的罚息,但包含合同利率调整 日的当期复利不分段计算,适用调整后的罚息利率。

(1)逾期贷款的罚息=罚息利率x逾期本金金额x逾期天数,逾期贷款的 罚息利率为本合同约定利率上浮50%;逾期天数从应还款日当日计算至实际还款日 前一日;

(2)挪用贷款的罚息=罚息利率x挪用本金金额x挪用天数,挪用贷款的 罚息利率为本合同约定利率上浮100%o

  • 甲方未按时足额偿还贷款本金、支付利息的,应当承担乙方未实现债权而 发生的催收费、诉讼费(或仲裁费)、保全费、公告费、执行费、律师费、差旅费 及其他相关费用。
  • 甲方有逃避乙方监督、逃废债等行为时,乙方有权将该种行为向有关单位 通报,并在新闻媒体上公告。对于甲方未按时偿还贷款本息达连续三个月以上(含 三个月)的,乙方有权按照本合同附件格式在有关媒体上刊登公告,披露甲方的姓 名和住址,以督促甲方偿还贷款本息。

人人第十八条乙方的违约责任

乙方未按本合同约定按时足额发放贷款的,对未发放的贷款金额,按迟延天数 和每天万分之一的比率向甲方支付违约金。乙方的违约责任以此为限。

第十九条抵押权的行使

人人19.1下列任一情况出现时,乙方有权处理抵押物:

(1)甲方连续三个月或累计六个月未按时足额还款;

(2)乙方依第十六条宣布贷款全部提前到期;

(3)甲方的行为足以使抵押物的价值减少,且未按乙方请求恢复原状或另行 提供特别担保的.

  • 乙方有权按照法律规定的方式处理抵押物。

人人第二十条扣划约定

  • 乙方按第六条约定扣划所得款项不足以清偿甲方有到期应付的贷款本金、 利息、罚息、复利或其他费用的,甲方授权,乙方有权扣划甲方在交通银行开立的 任一账户中的资金用于清偿。
  • 扣划后,乙方应将扣划所涉的账号、借款合同号、《借款凭证》编号、扣 划金额及剩余的债务金额通知甲方。
  • 扣划所得款项不足以清偿甲方全部债务时,应首先用于抵偿到期未付的费 用,抵偿费用后的余额先用于抵偿到期未付的本金,再用于抵偿到期未付的罚息、 罚息复利、利息、利息复利。
  • 扣划所得款项与需抵偿的债务币种不一致的,按交通银行在扣划时公布的 汇率折算为抵偿债务的金额。

第二十一条争议解决

本合同项下争议向乙方所在地有管辖权的法院起诉。争议期间,各方仍应继续 履行未涉争议的条款。

第二十二条合同的效力及变更

  • 合同的效力
    • 本合同自甲方签字、乙方负责人或授权代表签字(或盖章)并加盖单位 印章和丙方法定代表人(负责人)或授权代表签字(或盖章)并加盖公章后生效, 抵押自办妥抵押登记之日起生效。
    • 本合同项下各条款间相互独立,各条款的效力不受其他条款的影响。某 条款或某部分条款无效的,其他条款仍有效。

人人22.2合同的变更

  • 第五条约定的期还款因中国人民银行调整利率而变更。此种情形下,变 更后的期还款以乙方通知为准。乙方将按照调整后的利率、剩余贷款本金、剩余还 款期数确定新的还款额。
  • 甲方要求且乙方同意延长或缩短贷款期限的,双方应另行签订书面协

 

议,载明剩余本金、变更后的贷款期限、变更贷款期限后应适用的利率、剩余还款 期数及据此重新确定的期还款额。

甲方经乙方同意后缩短贷款期限的,剩余的贷款本金仍适用原贷款期限对应的 中国人民银行相应期限档次贷款的利率,利率浮动水平和调整仍按本合同第三条约 定执行。

甲方经乙方同意后延长贷款期限的,剩余的贷款本金适用贷款期限延长后对应 的中国人民银行相应期限档次贷款的利率,利率浮动水平和调整仍按本合同第三条 约定执行。

  • 甲方要求且乙方同意变更还款方式的,双方应另行签订书面协议,载明 剩余本金、贷款期限、调整还款方式后应适用的利率、剩余还款期数及据此重新确 定的期还款额。

第二十三条通知

  • 、丙方在本合同填写的联系方式(包括地址、联系电话、传真号码、 电子邮件等)均真实有效。任一联系方式发生变更,相关方应立即以书面方式将变 更信息寄/送至乙方在本合同填写的通讯地址。该等信息变更仅在乙方实际收到更改 通知并更改有关记录后生效。
  • 合同另有明确约定外,乙方对甲方、丙方的任何通知,乙方有权通过 以下任一方式进行。乙方有权选择其认为合适的通知方式,且在任何情况下均无需 对邮递、传真、电话、电传或任何其他通讯系统所出现的任何传送失误、缺漏或延 迟承担任何责任。乙方同时选择多种通知方式的,以其中较快到达被通知者为准。

(1)公告,以乙方在其网站、网上银行、电话银行或营业网点分布公告之日 视为送达日;

(2)专人送达,以甲方/丙方签收之日视为送达日;

(3)邮递(包括特快专递、平信邮寄、挂号邮寄)送达于乙方最近所知的甲 方、丙方通讯地址,以邮寄之日后的第五日(即使该邮件可能被退回)视为送达日。

(4)传真或其他电子通讯方式送达于乙方最近所知的甲方、丙方传真号码或 电子通讯地址,以发送之日视为送达日。

人人第二十四条信息披露与保密

  • 乙方应对其自甲方、丙方处获得的信息和资料负保密责任,但下列情 形除外:

(1)适用法律法规要求披露的;

(2)司法部门或政府部门要求披露的;

(3)向乙方的外部专业顾问披露的;

(4)甲方/丙方同意或授权乙方进行披露的。

  • 甲方、乙方同意乙方在如下情形可以使用所有有关甲方、丙方的信息和资 料,包括但不仅限于甲方的个人基本信息、信贷交易信息、其他相关信息和资料及 丙方相关信息和资料等:

(1)为下列目的向业务外包机构、第三方服务供应商、其他金融机构及乙方 认为必要的其他机构或个人,包括但不仅限于交通银行的其他分支机构,或者交通 银行完全或部分拥有的子公司,披露和允许其使用该等信息和资料:*为开展个人 贷款业务或与开展个人贷款业务有关,例如推广交通银行个人贷款、催收甲方、丙 方欠款;&为乙方向甲方/丙方提供或可能提供新产品或服务或进一步提供服务;3 为更好地维护、管理和提升客户关系;

(2)将该等信息和资料提供给中国人民银行个人/企业信用信息基础数据库和 其他经中国人民银行批准建立的个人/企业信用信息数据库;

(3)为信贷风险分析和控制目的使用或允许第三方在保密的基础上使用该等 信息和资料。

第二十五条其他条款

人人25.1甲方同意乙方将甲方的未成年子女的个人信用信息提供给中国人民 银行个人信用信息基础数据库或经中国人民银行批准建立的个人信用信息基础数 据库,并授权乙方因贷款申请及贷后管理查询并留存甲方及甲方的未成年子女的个 人信用报告。

人人25.2本合同签订后,贷款发放前,如遇法律法规或监管要求发生变化,致 使乙方发放贷款将违反该等法律法规或监管要求的,乙方有权暂停发放贷款,甲乙 双方应就相关内容另行协商,如双方未能就本合同的修改达成一致,乙方将停止发 放本合同项下尚未发放的贷款,本合同自行终止。

  • 本合同项下的《借款凭证》以及各方确认的相关文件、资料均为合同不可 分割的组成部分。
  • 本合同签订后十日内,甲、乙、丙一方认为有必要时,三方应共同向公证 机关办理本合同公证。
  • 本合同正本一式四份,甲方、乙方、丙方及房地产登记机构各执一份。需 要时,公证机关执一份。剩余的合同文本由乙方保存。

第二十六条其他约定事项

(本页以下无正文)

甲方、丙方已通读上述条款,乙方已应甲方、丙方的要求作了相应说明,甲方、 丙方对所有内容无异议。

甲方(签字)

签署日:

乙方(单位公章)

负责人或授权代表

(签字或盖章)

签署日:

个人信用信息查询授权条款(适用于借款人的配偶):

本人(姓名:证件种类:―证件号码:)系借款人的配偶。 本人同意贷款人将本人的个人信用信息提供给中国人民银行个人信用信息基础数 据库或经中国人民银行批准建立的个人信用信息基础数据库,并授权贷款人因借款 人的贷款申请及贷后管理查询并留存本人的个人信用报告。

签字:
日期:

附件:

 

公告

尊敬的交通银行客户:

您好!我行已按照您约定的联系方式多次通知您还贷,目前您的贷款已经逾期, 请您见此公告后速与本行联系,并办理相关还款事宜。

声明:本公告仅供本行与上述借款人联系之用,通知上述借款人尽快与本行联 系还贷事宜,任何人均不得将本公告拟作他用,否则将承担一切法律责任。

本行联系电话:

本行联系地址:

交通银行股份有限公司 分行

年 月日

 

附录 2 Personal Housing Mortgage Loan Contract

Bank of Communications Co., LTD

Personal Housing Mortgage Loan Contract
Special Notice

Before signing this contract, please read careftilly the following terms and confirm all the matters concerned in order to safeguard your rights and interests:

L Any documents, materials submitted by you and any representations made by you shall be true, legal and eflfective,

  1. Ybu have read carefully all the terms hereof particularly the terms in 人▲ marks, and fully understand their meanings and legal consequences.
  2. Ybu have the right to sign and conclude this contract. After execution of the contract, you shall exercise your rights and take your obligations initiatively as specified herein. Any disputes between you and the house seller regarding buy and sale of the house shall not be used to justify your refusal of implementing any of your obligations specified herein.
  3. Please use fountain pen or sign pen to fill in your infonnation and affix your signature.
  4. If you have any queries on this contract and its related transactions, please feel free to contact our bank for advice or call 95559 for the Customer Service Center of Bank of Communications. Ybu may suspend your signing of the contract if your queries are not solved.

Party A (Borrower i.e. Mortgager):

Party B (Loaner i.e. Mortgagee):

Party C (Guarantor):

Whereas Party A purchases a house □ for residence or □ for commercial use whereby to make application to Party B fora loan on personal housing mortgage, Party A Party B and Party C through consultation agree to sign and conclude this contract, in order to specify their respective rights and obligations.

  • House

The details of the house that Party A purchases and mortgages to Party B:

  • Loan
    • Amount: RMB (in words)
    • Length of Maturity: 240 (DYears 0Months), firom to.
    • The amount, disbursement date and maturity date of the loan is subject to the Loan Certificate.
    • The intended Use of the Loan: to buy the house specified in Article 1 hereof.
  • Interest Rate and Adjustment
    • The interest rate for the loan hereunder is _% (mannual rate □monthly rate), which is 0 % loweror □ _% higher than the benchmark interest rate of People’s

Bank of China currently in effect for the loan with a corresponding level and period.

  • Under this contract, Party A shall repay the loan in installment which is on a 0 monthly □ quarterly □ biannually □ annually basis and the interest for the first installment is accrued on the day the loan is issued. The interest per installment is normally calculated on the interest rate of the installment which, under this contract, is: 0 monthly interest rate = annual interest rate /12; □ quarterly interest rate = annual interest rate / 4; □biannual interest = annual interest rate / 2; Daimual interest rate. Daily interest rate = annual interest rate / 360.

人人 3.3 Where the official rate of interest of People’s Bank of China is adjusted after the contract is signed and before the loan is issued, Party B shall execute an adjusted interest rate on the corresponding level of the official rate, with its floating range specified in Sub-article 3.1.

Where the official rate of interest of People’s Bank of China is adjusted after the loan hereunder is effectively disbursed,

□ 3.4.1 the interest rate herein is not adjusted;

0 3.4.2 the following Sub-article 3.4.2.2 is used to determine the date on which the interest rate herein is adjusted. From this adjustment date onward, an adjusted interest rate on the corresponding level of the rate on the day of 呵ustment for the interest rate herein shall be executed, with its floating range specified in Sub-article 3.1.

  • from the day the loan is actually disbursed (subject to the first disbursement date of the loan, if in installment), the interest rale herein is adjusted on the last day of the □month □quarter Dyear.
  • The interest rate herein is adjusted on January 01 of the next year.

In the event that the benchmark interest rate after loan origination becomes a floating interest rate or is canceled after it is adjusted by People’s Bank of China, both Party A and Party B shall have further consultation on an adjustment of the loan interest rate, which is nevertheless not lower than the applicable interest rate at the time of adjustment; For over 15 □ months 0 days after the adjustment date of People’s Bank of China without a consensus of both parties over the adjusted interest rate, Party B has the right to aimounce that the loans under this contract are all matured in advance.

人人 Article 4 Loan Origination

  • Party B has the right to suspend the loan until all the following conditions are met:
    • Party B has received the supporting document of the house down payment paid by Party A (not lower than the required amount of Party B);
    • Party B has received the original copy of the mortgage registration certificate specified in Article 9;
    • Party B has received the original copy of the insurance policy specified in Article 10;
    • The representation and guarantee made by Party A under Article 11 is true and accurate;
    • No events with adverse impact on Party A’s repayment capacity;

 

  • Other preconditions:.
  • Party B releases the loan within three business days of the bank, after tiie conditions for a loan are met and its formalities are completed by Party A.
  • Loan Account

Party A opens a Pacific Card account / a saving account, in his/her own name, at Party B’s, A/c No.:? as the account for receipt of the loan of Party B.

  • Transfer of Loan

Party A authorizes Party B to transfer the loan from the aforesaid account to the following account in the name ofhoxising payment of Party A:

Payee:

A/c No.:

Opening Bank:

  • Repayment
    • Party A selects the following Sub-article 5.1.4 for repayment:
      • Repayment of principal and interest in lump sum, in which the interest accrued from the disbursement date to the repayment date is calculated by the following formula:

Interest = Loan Principal x Interest Rate of the Period x Number of Periods x Loan Principal x Daily Interest Rate x Odd Days.

  • Repayment of principal in lump sum and interest in installment, in which the interest accrued jfrom the disbursement date to the repayment date is calculated by the following fbmula:

Interest = Loan Principal x Interest Rate of the Period x Number of Periods x Loan Principal x Daily Interest Rate x Odd Days.

  • Repayment of principal and interest in equal amount, i.e. the loan principal and interest is repaid in equal amount in each installment during the loan period. The formula fbr calculating the amount fbr repaying the loan principal and interest per period is as follows:

Interest Amount per Period = (Loan Principal – Paid Loan Amount) x Interest Rate for tiie Period

Principal Amount Repaid fbr the Period

=Amount for Repaying 也e Loan Principal and Interest per Period – Interest Amount

per Period

Total amount of repayment per period RMB (in words):

  • Repayment of principal in equal amount, i.e. the loan principal is repaid in equal amount in each installment during the loan period, while its interest, amount of which deceases progressively with the decreasing balance of the loan principal after each repayment, is settled in each period. The formula for calculating the amount for repaying the loan principal and interest per period is as follows:

Amt for Repaying Loan Principal and Interest per Period =

Principal Amount per Period + Interest Amount per Period

Interest Amount per Period =

(Loan Principal – Cumulative Amt of Repaid Principal) x Interest Rate for the Period

Total amount of repayment per period RMB (in words):

  • Repayment in equal amount of progressive increase or progressive decrease, referring to the amounts repaid for each installment during the loan period take the form of arithmetic progression.

The sum of principal and interest, based on the principal, the term and the interest rate, is determined by the formula on equal amounts of principal and interest.

The following formula is used to determine the progressively increased or decreased amount per period or the repayment amount of the first period, provided that Party A has specified a repayment amount for the first period.

Al = the repayment amount of the first installment

G = progressively increased or decreased amount per period

The (progressively increased/ decreased) amount G of per period (in words) is

RMB the repayment amount of the first period (in words) is RMB , and the repayment amount for the following periods is the amount of last period plus or minus G.

  • Repayment by stages refers to the loan principal is divided into not more than five stages for repayment, in each stage the amount of principal and number of periods for repayment are determined, and and the amount payable in each period is calculated

 

invariably on either the principal repayment in equal amount or the principal and interest repayment in equal amount.

When repaying the loan of a certain stage, the outstanding balance of all the principal other than the payable of this s现e is accrued separately for interest (interest = outstanding balance of all the principal other than this stage x interest rate of the period x number of periods + outstanding balance of all the principal other than this stage x daily interest rate x odd days).

The sum of the amount payable in each period of the stage and the interest incurred ftom the outstanding balance of the principals other than the amount payable of this stage is the actual repayment amount of the period.

The loan hereunder is repaid in stages, on eitiher □ the principal repayment in

equal amount or Lithe principal and interest repayment in equal amount for each stage, including:

There are periods in the first stage of loan repayment, and the principal to be

repaid for this period is RMB (in words).

  • Repayment Date
    • For repayment of principal and interest in lump sum, the repayment date is the maturity date of the loan.
    • For repayment of principal in lump sum and interest in installment, the loan principal is repaid on the maturity date of the loan, and the interest is paid on schedule. Party A selects the following Sub-article as a way to confinn the interest date.
      • The interest date corresponds to the disbursement date.
      • The interest date is day of the last month of each period, or day of

each month if Party A uses a month as one period. If no such a date in the month, the last day of the month is chosen.

  • For repayment of principal and interest in equal amount, repayment of principal in equal amount, and repayment in equal amount of progressive increase or progressive decrease, the principal and interest are repaid on schedule. Party A selects the following Sub-article _ asa way to confirm the interest date.
    • The interest date corresponds to the disbursement date.
    • The interest date is day of the last month of each period, or day of

each month if Party A uses a month as one period. If no such a date in the month, the last day of the month is chosen.

  • For repayment of principal in lump sum and interest in installment, repayment of principal and interest in equal amount, repayment of principal in equal amount, and repajonent in equal amount of progressive increase or progressive decrease,
    • no repayment of principal and interest is deducted in the month the loan is released until the first repayment date. The formula for calculating the interest of the first period is: interest = loan principal x interest of tfie period x number of periods x loan principal x daily interest rate x odd d^s. First repayment of principal with interest is RMB (in words);
    • no repayment is made on such a due date until the maturity date of the loan for a lump-sum settlement, if this due date to the maturity date is less than a period. The fonnula for calculating the interest of the last period is: interest = loan principal amount of the last period x interest of the period x number of periods x loan principal amount of the last period x daily interest rate x odd days.
  • Party B shall laydown the Schedule for Repayment of Loan Principal with Interest as specified herein, and present it to Party A in time after the loan hereunder is actually released, while Party A agrees to repay the loan principal and interest on time as provided therein.
  • Period of Grace

Party B gives Party A a grace period of 15 days, effective from the next d到 of the repayment date for each period. It is deemed as a due payment of Party A if the loan of the period is repaid by Party A in the grace period. Defeult interest and compound interest are not accrued in the grace period but charged on any payments beyond this period from the date of repayment of this period.

  • Mode of Repayment
    • Party A uses the loan account specified in Article 4.3 as the account for repayment, and entrusts Party B to deduct and auto-transfer funds from this account for the loan repayment.

人 人 6.2 Party A shall perform the obligations for repayment on time in full amount by depositing the amount due of the period in the repayment account one day before the repayment date. If Party B fails to transfer the money from the repayment account due to

insufficient balance or other reasons (including but not limited to the account frozen by the authorities), Party A shall be liable for breach of contract under Article 17 hereof

人 人 6.3 The fund that Party B gets from account transfer is to offset any loan principal and interest payable by Party A in order of the previous period before the current period, and the principal before the interest.

  • Party A shall apply to Party B in advance for change of tiie repayment account, for which a supplementary agreement shall be concluded upon consent of Party B, nevertheless, before the date a new account provided therein is activated, the old account remains in use.
  • In the event that the repayment account is frozen by the authority, Party A shall provide another account to Party B immediately as a new account to repay the loan, or repay the loan at the counter prescribed by Party B.
  • Prepayment of Loan
    • Prepayment of loan must be in compliance with the following provisions:
      • No partial prepayment of principal for a loan under a year (inch a year) of maturity;
      • The date of prepayment shall not be on the date of interest adjustment;
      • The amount of partial prepayment is not lower than six times of the amount repaid for the loan principal and interest per period.
      • In repaying the loan in advance, Party A shall pay off the interest on the repaid principal, which is accrued to the day before the prepayment date.
      • In repaying the loan in advance, any overdue loan or interest, if any, is repaid first.
    • Party A shall apply to Party B in writing at least 15 bank work days in advance for any prepayment of loan, for which a supplementary agreement is concluded upon consent of Party B to specify the outstanding balance of the principal, the remaining periods and the amount payable for each period after the prepayment of loan. No formality of prepayment is involved until the agreement is in force and the fimd for prepayment is deposited in the repayment account specified in Article 6.1.

人 人 7.3 Where Party A, upon consent of Party B, prepays the loan in part whereby to shorten the remaining loan periods, the interest rate of the original loan term

 

corresponding to the rate of People’s Bank of China with the corresponding term and level remains applicable to the outstanding balance of the loan principal, and the floating range and adjustment of the interest specified in Article 3 hereof remain effective.

人 人 7.4 Party B does not refund any interest that has been accrued and collected for the loan principal repaid in advance, and charge an interest for a period from the last repayment date to the prepayment date. Meanwhile, Party B has the right to be indemnified by Party A at one % of the loan principal repaid in advance, fbr the interest of a period from the prepayment date to the maturity date of the loan.

  • Guaranty
    • Party C provides a guaranty of joint liability for the loan under this contract.
    • The guaranty period is two years after the maturity date of the loan hereunder; if the payment is in installment, its guaranty period is calculated respectively on each installment, from the maturity date of each installment to the two year anniversary after the maturity date of the last installment.
    • The guaranty covers the principal and interest, the default interest, the compound interest and any fees of Party B to realize its creditor’s right of the loan under this contract, including but not limited to the cost in urging payment, the legal fee (or arbitration fee), the preservation cost, the advertising fee, the execution fee, the counsel fee, the traveling fee and other fees.
    • Where Party A fails to pay in full any amount due fbr any of the installments and other fees as specified herein, Party C shall immediately clear all the due payments of Party A under request of Party B.
    • The guaranty of Party C is discharged after Party A has obtained the house ownership certificate specified in Article 1 and Party B has got the original copy of the ready-house mortgage registration. Nevertheless, if Party A has payment in arrear before Party B gets the original copy of the ready-house mortgage registration, Party C shall continue assuming the liability fbr guaranty to this part of payables.
    • It is specified by parties hereto that the aforesaid provisions of guaranty are independent hereof and their effectiveness is not affected by the invalidity of this contract and its relevant provisions, and the liability of Party A fbr refund and compensation after avoidance of the principal contract shall be jointly assumed by Party C.
  • Mortgage
    • The mortgage hereunder is the house specified in Article 1 hereof
    • The effect of the mortgagee’s right is extended to the mortgage and its appurtenances, secondary rights, fixtures, attachments, processed materials, fruits, subrogation.
    • The guaranty for the mortgage covers the loan principal hereunder and its interest, compound interest, default interest, penal sum, damage awards, and any costs of Party B to secure its creditor’s right which include but not limited to the costs in urging payment, legal action (or arbitration), mortgage disposal, ownership transfer, preservation, announcement, execution, legal counsel, traveling etc.
    • The co-owners all agree to mortgage the house specified in Article 1 hereof as a guarantee of the obligatory right herein.

Co-owner:(signature)

  • Party A shall, after signing this contract, have the mortgage registered at the registration authority and thereafter lodge the original certificate obtained therefrom with Party B.
  • Insurance
    • After signing the contract, Party A shall immediately apply for mortgage insurance that is recognized by Party B or entrust Party B to do it on his/her behalf.
    • The insured amount is not lower than the loan principal hereunder, the insurance period not shorter than the loan period hereunder, and Party B is designated as the first beneficiary of the insurance interest.
    • After finalizing the insurance application, the original copy of the insurance policy shall be kept by Party B until Party A has paid off all the loan principal and interest.
    • Before paying off all the loan principal and interest, Party A shall perform the obligations necessary in maintaining the valid existence of the insurance.
    • Party B has the right, at its own discretion, to have the mortgage insured or reinsured if Party A fails to do have it insured or reinsured, to pay a premium on behalf of or to take other measures in maintaining the insurance for Party A who shall therefore

 

provide necessaiy assistance and indemnify Party B for any expenses on such premiums and other related fees arising thereafter.

人 人 Article 11 Representation and Guarantee of Party A

  • Party A has full capacity for civil conduct and all necessaiy capacity for civil rights, and may in his/her own name perform the duties under this contract and assume civil liabilities.
  • It is the true meaning of Party A in signing and performing this contract without any defects in law.
  • All documents, materials and information that Party A has provided to Party B in signing and performing this contract are real, accurate, complete and valid without concealing any infonnation from Party B which might prejudice his/her ability in repayment.
  • Party A guarantees that in signing this contract, he/she has the lawfill, sufficient and indisputable right to dispose the mortgage whereon there are no other rights, leases, trusteeships or co-ownership not notified to Party B, and that the mortgage is not in the status of being sealed up, distrained or placed under surveillance.
  • Party A is not and is not planning to be a shareholder or an “actual controller” of Party C as defined by the Corporation Lawin signing this contract.

Article 12 Rights ofParty A

  • Rights to obtain and use the loan as specified in this contract.
  • Rights to get back the original insurance policy, the original mortgage registration certificate and other relevant documents and to cancel the mortgage registration after paying off all the loan principal, interest and other dues.

人人 Article 13 Obligations ofParty A

  • Repay the loan principal and interest hereunder by the time, the amount and the cunency specified herein.
  • Use the loan exclusively in the way specified herein with no other purposes.
  • Party A shall assume all the expenses hereunder, including but not limited to the expenses in notarization, mortgage registration, insurance, valuation and in any other reasonable purposes.
  • Party A shall follow the business rules and practices of Party B in private loan services, including but not limited to cooperating with Party B in its supervision and inspection of the use of loan, the incomes of Party A, the use, keeping and maintenance of the mortgaged property the upkeep of its ownership, and timely provide any documents and information at the request of Party B.
  • Party A must reasonably use and appropriate keep the mortgaged property and must not use it in any other improper way. Party A must maintain and upkeep the mortgaged property in a timely manner to ensure it is in good condition.
  • Party A must not, without written consent of Party B, alter the name of the occupant/keeper or the user of the mortgaged property, or dispose it in whatever ways such as transfer, donation, leasing or setting guaranteed real rights.
  • Party A shall inform Party B in writing within 5 days after the following events have happened or might happen:
    • Any litigation, arbitration, administrative measure, preservative measure, enforcement measure or other significant adverse events that have or might have significant adverse impact on the repayment capacity of Party A;
    • There is a significant change in the works and incomes of Party A and his/her family members;
    • There is a dispute on the ownership of the mortgage;
    • The value of the mortgage is decreased or is likely to be decreased;
    • The right to mortgage is infringed or is likely to be infringed by any other third party;
    • There is a change in the mailing address, telephone or work unit of Party A;
    • Party A has become or is likely to become a shareholder of Party C or the “actual controller55by definition of the Corporation Law before Party C terminates the liability of guaranty as specified herein.

人人 13.8 Party A shall timely provide other recognizable guarantees to Party B in the event that the real right of the mortgage property is declined in value, impaired or lost whereon a compensation, if any, paid by the insurer or any other third person shall be used for prepayment of loan principal and interest.

13.9 Party A may, upon written consent of Party B, transfer the mortgaged property

 

in the period of mortgage, the incomes of which, however, shall be used for prepayment of loan principal and interest.

  • Rights of Party B
    • Recover the loan principal and interest (including compound interest, interest penalty on overdue payment and misappropriation), and collect any payables of Party A as specified herein.
    • Exercise the right to mortgage and other related rights as specified herein.
  • Obligations of Party B
    • Party B has the obligation to release the loan by the time and the amount specified herein provided that Party A has duly perfonned his/her obligations hereunder.
    • Party B informs Party A of the following items:
      • Loan amount, interest rate at the time of loan issuance, date of loan issuance and date of maturity;

1522 Amount due for each period adjustable with the interest rate adjusted from time to time by People’s Bank of China as specified herein.

  • The repayment details of Party A.
  • Party B shall keep properly the original insurance policy, the original mortgage registration certificate and other relevant documents, and have these documents reissued if lost or damaged and assume the loss incurred therefrom.

人人 Article 16 Loan Matured in Advance

Under one of the following circumstances, Party B has the right to suspend the loan, and to unilaterally amounce that the loan principal hereunder is matured in advance and request Party A to settle immediately all outstanding principal and its accrued interest.

  • The representation and guarantee made by Party A in Article 11 are not true and accurate;
  • Party A violates the provisions of this contract;
  • The occurrence of any one of the events listed in Article 13.7 for notification that is deemed by Party B as prejudice to the safety of its creditor’s right;
  • Party A has some defaults, such as delay of performance, in the execution of other contracts signed with Party B and fails to conect them even after being demanded by Party B.

人人 Article 17 Party A’s Liability for Breach of Contract

  • If Party A fails to repay the loan principal and interest on time and in full amount, or to use the loan as specified herein, Party B has the right to accrue an interest thereon at the punitive rate for overdue loan or misappropriated loan, and a compound interest for accrued interest payable. If the interest rate herein (in this contract) is adjusted under Article 3 hereof (of this contract), Party B has the right to adjust the rate of punitive interest accordingly whereon to accrue a penal interest on the day thereof (of the contractual interest rate adjustment), but not to calculate the compound interest of the cunent period, if it is inclusive of this date, on the different rates before and after such adjustment, subject to the punitive interest rate after adjustment.
  • J Penal Interest on Overdue Loan = Penal Interest Rate x Overdue Principal Amount x Overdue Days. Penal interest rate on overdue loan is 50% higher than the interest rate specified herein; Overdue days are accrued from the due date of repayment to the day before the actual date of repayment;
  • .2 Penal Interest on Misappropriated Loan = Penal Interest Rate x Misappropriated Principal x Number of Misappropriation Days. Penal interest rate on misappropriated loan is 100% higher than the interest rate specified herein.
  • If Party A fails to repay the loan principal and interest on time and in full amount, Party A shall assume the costs in urging payment, legal action (or arbitration), mortgage disposal, ownership transfer, preservation, announcement, execution, legal counsel, traveling and other related fees.
  • Party B has the right to report to the department concerned any acts of Party A in evading Party B’s supervision, escaping or invalidating his/her financial obligations, and to have a notice published by the news media, in the format of the appendix hereto, to disclose the name and the address of Party A and to urge Party A to reimburse the loan principal and interest if he/she fails to do so for over three consecutive months (including three months).

 Article 18 Party B’s Liability for Breach of Contract

 

Where Party B foils to issue the loan on time and in full amount as specified herein, Party B shall pay a penal sum at o/qqo per day on the unissued loan amount to Party A. Party B’s liability for breach of contract shall not exceed the limit of this liability.

Article 19 Exercise of Right to Mortgage

人 人 Article 19.1 Party B has the right to dispose the mortgaged property under any one of the following circumstances:

  • If Party A fails to repay tiie loan on time and in full amount for three consecutive months or cumulative six months;
  • If Party B announces that the loan herein is all matured in advance under Article 16 hereof;
  • If Party A has an act to sufficiently cause the value of the mortgaged property to decease, and fails to restore the mortgaged property to its original status or otherwise provide special guarantees on the request of Party B.

19.2 Party B has the right to dispose the mortgage according to the laws and regulations.

人人 Article 20 Provisions on Fund Deduction and Transfer

  • 1 Where the fund deducted and transferred by Party B is not sufficient to pay off the loan principal, interest, penal interest, compound interest and other fees of Party A that are due and payable, Party B has the right, under the authorization of Party A, to deduct and transfer the fund from any one of the accounts that Party A has opened in Bank of Communications to such payments.
  • 2 After fimd deduction and transfer, Party B shall infbim Party A of the account number, the loan contract number, the Loan Certificatenumber, the amount deducted and transfened and the balance of the debt.
  • 3 The deducted and transferred fimd, if not sufficient to pay off all the debts of Party A, shall be paid first for due fees, its balance for due principal, then the penal interest, the compound interest on the penal interest, then the interest, the compound interest on the interest
  • 4 If the deducted and transferred fund is not the same currency as that of the debt for reimbursement, it shall be converted into the currency of the debt at the exchanged rate of Bank of Communications at the time of deduction.
  • Solving Disputes

A lawsuit shall be filed to the competent court of Party B for any dispute hereunder. In the period of dispute, the parties hereto shall continue performing all other provisions irrelevant to the dispute.

  • Effectiveness and Modification of Contract
    • Effectiveness of Contract
      • This contract enters into force after it is signed by Party A, signed (or sealed) by the person-in-charge or the authorized representative of Party B affixed with a company seal, and signed (or sealed) by the legal representative (person-in-charge) or the authorized representative of Party C affixed with an official seal, or on the day on which the mortgage is registered if it is with a mortgage.
      • All provisions herein are all independent to one another with their respective validity not affected by other provisions. For a provision or part of the provisions becomes invalid, other provisions remain effective.

人人 22.2 Modification of Contract

  • Under such circumstances as the repayment amount per period specified in Article 5 hereof is to be changed with the interest rate adjusted by People’s Bank of China, it is subject to the notice of Party B who shall re-determine a new amount, by the adjusted interest rate, the principal balance and the remaining periods, for the loan repayment.
  • If Party A requests under consent of Party B to extend or shorten the length of maturity of the loan hereunder, both parties shall conclude a written agreement to specify the principal balance, the length of maturity after change and its applicable interest rate, and the remaining periods, thereby re-determining the amount of repayment.

For the length of maturity shortened by Party A under consent of Party B, the interest rate for the original length of maturity versus that of People’s Bank of China with the corresponding level and period is still applicable to the loan principal balance, and its range of floating and adjustment is subject to Article 3 hereof.

For the length of maturity extended by Party A under consent of Party B, the interest rate for the extended length of maturity versus that of People’s Bank of China with the corresponding level and period shall be applicable to the loan principal balance, and its range of floating and adjustment is subject to Article 3 hereof.

  • If Party A requests under consent of Party B to change the way of repayment, both parties shall conclude a written agreement to specify the principal balance, the length of maturity and its applicable interest rate after the way of repayment is changed, and the remaining periods, thereby re-determining the amount of repayment for each period.

Article 23 Notice

  • The contact information (including address, telephone, fax number, email etc.) filled in by Party A and Party C on this contract is true and effective. Any changes to any of the contact information shall be informed by the related party in writing, to be mailed or sent to Party B in its mailing address hereon. The change of such information is not valid until Party B has received a notice of change and made changes to its relevant records.
  • Unless otherwise specified herein, Party B has the right to choose any one of the following ways as it sees fit for any notice to Party A and/or Party C without taking any responsibilities, under whatever circumstances, of any transmission errors, losses, omissions or delays in mailing, fax, telephone, telex or any other communication systems, or to take multi-ways, subject to a notice earlier delivered to the recipient.
    • Public notice: the day the notice is publicized by Party B on its website, online bank, telephone bank or business branch is deemed as the day of delivery;
    • Personal delivery: the day the notice is given by personal delivery and is signed by Party A/Party B is deemed as the day of delivery;

23.23 Mail delivery: the fifth day after the date the notice is delivered by mail (including express mail service, regular mail or registered mail) to the mailing address of Party A and/or Party C recently updated to Party B, even if it might be undelivered, is deemed as the day of delivery;

23.2.4 Facsimile or other electronic communications: the day the notice is sent to the fhx number or the electronic address of Party A and/or Party C recently updated to Party B is deemed as the day of delivery.

 

人 人 Article 24 Disclosure and Confidentiality of Information

  • Party B is liable for maintaining the confidentiality of the information and materials it has obtained from Party A and/or Party C except in the following circumstances:
    • It is required by the applicable laws and regulations for disclosure;
    • It is required by the judicial department or government sector for disclosure;
    • It is a disclosure to the external professional consultant of Party B;
    • It is a disclosure agreed or authorized by Party A /Party C.
  • Party A and Party C agree that Party B may use all the information and materials of Party A and Party C under any of the following circumstances, including but not limited to Party A’s personal basic infonnation, credit transaction infbnnation, other related information and materials and related infonnation and materials of Party C:
    • Such infonnation and materials are disclosed to or allowed to be used by business outsourcing organizations, third-party service providers, other financial institutions as well as other organizations or individuals that Party B deems necessary, including but not limited to other branches of Bank of Communications or subsidiaries fiilly or partially owned by Bank of Communications for the purpose of:
      • 1 carrying on the personal loan service and its related issues, for example, promotion of the personal loan of Bank of Communications, notice to Party A and Party C for any arrearages;
      • 2 Party B to provide or likely to provide new products or services or further services to Party A /Party C;
      • 3 better maintenance, management and upgrading of client relations;
    • 2 For such information and materials to be provided to the Foundation Database for Personal Credit Information of People’s Bank of China, or a Database for Personal /Corporate Credit Information set up under the approval of People’s Bank of China;
    • 3 For such information and materials to be used by a third party for the purpose of credit risk analysis and control based on confidentiality.

人人 25.1 Party A 咤rees that Party B provides the personal credit information of Party A’s dependents to the Foundation Database for Personal Credit Information of or approved by People’s Bank of China, and authorizes Party B to inquire about and keep the personal credit reports of Party A and Party A’s dependents for loan application and post-lending management.

人 人 25.2 Party B has the right to suspend the loan if there is any change to the requirement of laws, regulations and supervisions, after the contract is signed and before the loan is issued, which will result in the loan issued by Party B in violation thereof, and to stop extending any unissued loan hereunder for the contract to be terminated automatically if both Party A and Party B foil to reach a consensus for the modification hereof after consultation of both parties on the related matters.

  • The Loan Certificateunder this contract and all the relevant documents and materials confirmed by parties hereto shall serve as an integral part of the contract.
  • Within ten day after signing this contract. Party A, Party B and Party C shall, if any one of the parties hereto deems it necessary, apply jointly for notarization of this contract in the public notary office.
  • This contract has fouroriginal copies, and Party A, Party B, Party C and the Real Estate Registration Institution shall hold one copy each. If necessary, the Notary Office shall have one copy. The remaining copies of the contract are kept by Party B.

Article 26 Other Specified Matters

(No text after this page)

Party A and Party C have read through the aforesaid provisions, and Party B has answered all the questions from Party A and Party B. Party A and Party C hereby agree on all the contents herein.

Party A (signature):

Date of Signature:

Party B (company seal)

Person-in-charge or Authorized Representative

(seal or signature)

Date of Signature:

Enabling clause on inquiry of personal credit information (applicable to tiie spouse of the borrower):

I (Name: , ID Type: , ID No.:) am the spouse of ±e borrower. I agree that the lender provide my personal credit information to the Foundation Database for Personal Credit Information of or approved by People’s Bank of China, and authorizes the lender to make queries of loan application and post-loan management fortiie borrower and keep my personal credit reports.

Signature:

Date:

Appendix:

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