浅谈法律英语中复合长句的翻译 On Translation of Long Composite Sentences in Legal English

浅谈法律英语中复合长句的翻译
On Translation of Long Composite Sentences in Legal English

中国是一个法制国家,法律是我们正常生活的有利保障,是维持 国家正常运行的工具。法律语言是法律的载体和体现。法律英语是一 种法律语言,是一种专业英语。随着中国改革开放程度的不断加深和 社会主义市场经济的逐步完善,我国正在加快法制建设的进程。为了 让世界更多地了解中国的法制建设和政策法规,进一步引进外资,促 进中国经济的发展与繁荣,法律翻译的重要性也越来越突出。同时也 有必要学习和借鉴其他发达国家的法律和法规经验。法律文件必须精 确,客观地规定公民的权利和义务,不允许任何夸张或带有情感色彩 的表达,这样就使得法律英语具有区别于一般英语的特征,其文体要 求逻辑严密,严肃庄重。其中最显著的特点就是复合长句的使用。本 文描述了法律英语中的复合长句及其翻译原则,还有其结构特点,重 点分析了法律英语复合长句的翻译策略,并分别从状语从句,定语从 句的角度加以举例说明。据预计,这些描述和分析可能为理解和翻译 法律文件带来一些启迪。

关键词:法律英语;复合长句;结构特点;翻译

Abstract

China is a country ruled by law. Generally speaking law is the advantageous safeguard for our normal life, and also a tool for maintaining the normal operation of the State. The legal language is the carrier and the embodiment of the law, which is also the language of the law, and the professional English. With the gradual improvement of the socialist market economy and the deepening of China’s reform and opening up policy, China is speeding up the process of legal construction. In order to let the world know more about the Chinese legal system and policies and regulations, further introduce the foreign investment, and promote economic development and prosperity in China, The legal translation is becoming more and more important. What’s more, it is necessary to study and learn the experience about laws and regulations from other developed countries. The legal documents must be precisely and objectively stimulate the rights and obligations of citizens, moreover not allow any exaggeration or with the expression of rich in emotion, which makes the legal English is different from the general English in characteristics. The style of the legal English is logical, serious and solemn. The most significant feature is using the long composite sentence. This paper describes and analyses the long composite sentence and its translation principles of legal English as well as its structural characteristics, focusing on legal English translation strategy of the long composite sentence, and set examples about the adverbial clause, and attributive clause respectively. It is expected that the description and analysis may bring some understandings and inspirations in translation of legal documents.

Keywords: legal English; long composite sentence; structural characteristics; translation

 

摘要   I

Abstract Ill

弓I言 1

1法律英语中的复合长句及翻译原则 3

2法律英语复合长句的结构特点 5

3法律英语复合长句的翻译策略 9

  • 状语从句的翻译策略 9
    • 条件状语从句的翻译策略 9
    • 目的状语从句的翻译策略 11
    • 时间状语从句的翻译策略 12
    • 方式状语从句的翻译策略 13
  • 定语从句的翻译策略 14

结语 17

参考文献 19

附录:翻译资料 21

引言

在当代高度法制化的社会中,法律的地位显得尤为重要,众所周 知,人们的活动也必须遵守法律。同时,为了保持经济的快速发展, 中国正努力建设成为一个具有健全法律制度的法治国家,在经济全球 化和政治多极化的趋势中,中国与其他国家的各个领域都有所交流, 法律也不例外。

法律语言准确、严谨、庄重,法律英语的句子通常也会比较长, 经常是一段就是一句话,往往比一般的英语句子长。本文论述了法律 英语复合长句的结构特点及一些翻译原则,并主要阐述了法律英语复 合长句的翻译策略。本文主要对从句的翻译策略进行分析,其中又将 分为三个方面加以论述:状语从句、定语从句和主语从句的翻译策略, 而且,每种从句的翻译配合自己的翻译实践加以论述。这些论述和分 析将对理解和翻译法律文件有所启迪,并对进一步研究法律语言提供 参考借鉴。

1法律英语中的复合长句及翻译原则

法律英语中往往一句话自成一段,并且每段话中的英语单词一般 都会超过100个,包含的信息量大,并且正式的法律条文对中心限定 词很多,以显示其严谨的文风,让读者不易产生误解。

  • 法律英语中的复合长句

法律文件,从文体学来讲,是属于公文文体。法律英语是在立法 和司法等活动中形成和使用的具有法律专业特点的语言。法律规定了 公民的权利和义务等社会生活的各个方面,而立法者总是设法将某件 事情的相关信息都罗列在一起,放在一个完整的句子当中。因此法律 英语的句子结构常常很复杂,长句也较多。同时,很多从事法律英语 复合长句研究的学者认为“法律英语中的相关规定应该由两个或更多 的主要分句组成,并且其中的每个主要分句又由几个次要的从属分句 修饰限定”(董世忠1997: 35),例如不定式、形容词、副词、分词、 动名词等等,结构上呈葡萄式结构,环环相扣,看上去似乎松散凌乱, 让人不知所措,实则逻辑严谨,考虑周全。这样的长句不容易让人产 生误解。

  • 法律英语中复合长句的翻译原则

法律英语的翻译要体现法律文件的权威,应该要与其他的英语文 体翻译一样,也要遵行一定的翻译原则,要清楚准确地表达原语的真 正含义。一般而言法律英语的翻译过程大体上包括两个阶段:准确理 解和通顺表达。在第一阶段,理解原文,读懂原文。找出句子的中心 内容,再分析句子中包含的几层含义。在第二阶段,按照符合目的语 的方式,按照符合目的语人们的文化风俗习惯翻译原句并精心组织, 要做到译入语准确无误的表达原文的真正含义。另外,我们在研究法 律英语的翻译时,应该借鉴翻译界前辈的理论依据。国内国外对于法 律英语的翻译也做了相关的研究,国内的赵于洪在2000年提出:一 般而言法律翻译不仅仅只是一般的法律术语的转换,而是包含了法律 术语和语际转换这两部分。朱定初(2002:65)也指出了法律英语翻 译的原则,即“法律翻译除了语言功能的对等外,还应照顾到法律功 能的对等”。另外还有著名语言学家严复提出的“信、达、雅”,傅雷 的“重神似不重形似”,钱钟书的“化境”,林语堂的“忠实、通顺、 美”。西方学者中最典型的莫过于1991年翻译理论家道格拉斯・罗 宾逊在《译者的转变》中阐释并论证了 “翻译是原文作者和译文读者 双向交流的翻译理论”(W1LSS.W 2001: 98)o德国学者威尔斯也认 为翻译是现代交际的一种方式。近代欧美语言学家乔姆斯基提出的 “转换生成语法”,强调句子的深层结构不等于其表层结构。实际上, 中外学者所提出的理论方法各有千秋,如果能把两者融合在一起,结 合使用,将会比较完美。由于法律文件言简意赅,应该要理解句子的 深层含义,才能做好其翻译。总的来说,法律英语复合长句的翻译, 基本上还是可以适用于普通英语长句的翻译方法和手段的,只是比普 通英语长句涉及更多的法律方面的专业术语和法律语言的规范表达 等情况。

 

2法律英语复合长句的结构特点

法律英语中的长句除主谓结构外,还有许多修饰成分,如从句、短 语等,其主从关系由各种连接词贯通以表示其句子结构严谨。下面从 三个方面来讨论复合长句的结构特点。

  1. 1逻辑连接词的使用

英语中的逻辑连接词有很多类:因果,转折,并列,先后顺序, 补充递进关系的等等,其中在法律英语中转折,并列的逻辑连接词使 用频率最高,例如and和or。逻辑连接词在法律英语复合长句的结 构关系中有着重要的地位,起逻辑衔接的作用。and是并列连接词, 意思是“并且”;or是转折连接词,意思是“或者”。在法律文件中, 有的学者用下列公式表达了逻辑连接词and和or在法律英语中的作 用:

  • ) If X does A, B and C, X shall be liable to punishment.
  • ) If X does A, B or C, X shall be liable to punishment. (Sarcevic,S 1997: 164)

在(1)式中,只有当A、B和C这三个行为同时实施了,才会 受到惩罚。但是在(2)式中,转折连词。r,表示X只要实施了三个 行为中的任何一个:A或B或C,就会依照法律规定受到惩罚。所以 我们能够想象如果译者在进行法律翻译时误用了逻辑连接词or和 and,将会产生多么严重的后果。

la: An employee’s material liability shall be excluded if the damage was caused as a result of force majeure circumstances, normal economic risk, extreme necessity, or necessary defense. (见口寸录原文 2)

lb:如果是雇员由于特殊情况,正常的经济风险,极其必要性或者必要防卫,

从而对雇主造成损失,雇员不需承担经济责任。(见附录译文2)

在上面这个例子中,使用了转折连词。r,表示只要符合其中的任 何一个条件,那么雇员就不需要承担经济责任,但是如果把or换成 并列连词and,那么雇员不需要承担经济责任的难度无疑是加大了许 多。

  • 2修饰限定成分的使用

普通英语中的修饰限定成分主要有分词结构、动词不定式、名词 所有格、各种从句及各种介词结构等等。“在法律英语中,名词后面 往往跟着一个或者一个以上的修饰限定成分,并且每个修饰限定成分 都紧密放置在被修饰的中心词后面”。(Sarcevic,S 1997: 164)对法律 英语起草和法律翻译人员来说,把一件事情的相关信息放置在一个句 子里面,相应的也就增大了语言的复杂程度和翻译起来的难度,但同 时也会使法律英语相关条款的表达效果更加全面和清晰。

2a: In the event of the loss of the breadwinner, a pension shall be awarded to incapable family members of the deceased breadwinner as a result of a work-related injury or illness irrespective of his length of service, and if the death was caused by other reasons – subject to the relevant total length of service, which shall depend on the age of the insured employee at the time of his death.(见附录原文2)

2b:如果负担家计的员工已经死亡,且员工是因工负伤或者跟工作相关的疾 病而死亡,那么不须考虑其工龄,雇主都应将抚恤金授予死者的无工作 能力的家庭成员;但如果死亡是其他原因导致的,抚恤金的发放则要受 到死者的总工龄的影响,其工龄的计算取决于参保职工死亡时的年龄。

(见附录译文2)

在例2a中,句子的主干部分仅仅是前面a pension shall be awarded,其余的都属于主干句子的修饰限定成分。法律制定者不仅 要考虑到与发放死忙抚恤金相关的种种情况,而且还考虑到怎么准确 的放置多个修饰限定成分在一个句子中,真可谓是煞费苦心。这也体 现了法律英语繁复的风格。

  • 3条件句的使用

条件句是拉丁语语法专名,英文称作the conditional sentence,, 一般由连词if引导的条件从句引出某种假设,再由主句表示基于这 种假设下的反馈,是指一种表示假设的主从复合句。中文翻译为“如 果或假如……那么……英语中的条件句种类很多,可用来表达趋 势、建议、想法和结果等等,其出现频率很高。由于法律英语本身具 有给人们提供信息功能,所以条件句结构在法律英语中的使用也就非 常普遍。“George Coode将法律英语的条件句构成要素归结为:case (情况),condition (条件),legal subject (法律主体)和 legal action (法律行为)”(孙懿华、周广然1997: 88)

3a: If a job (position) for which an employee applies requires a full material liability agreement, and the employee refuses to enter into such an agreement, the employer shall have the right to refuse employment to such employee.(见附录原文2)

3b:如果员工申请一份工作(职位),这份工作又要求员工签订承担全部经 济责任的协议,而员工拒绝签订这样的一份协议,那么雇主有权利拒绝 向这种雇员提供工作。(见附录译文2)

在例3a中,前面两个句子成分是情况和条件,其中“如果员工 申请一份工作(职位)”是情况,后面的“承担经济责任”和“拒绝 签订”是条件。最后一个句子则描述的是法律主体和其应当采取的法 律行为“雇主拒绝提供工作”。在法律英语条文中,情况和条件通常

是用条件从句来表达,主句是法律主体和法律行为来表达的。

 

3法律英语中复合长句的翻译策略

翻译法律长句时要从整体出发,必要时可打破原句词序和结构, 按中文的表达方式表达清楚原句的意思。“法律英语的翻译不仅要实 现语言功能的对等,而且也要实现法律功能的对等”。(张福临1998: 126)法律英语结构严谨,语言精确,一般而言,可以采用普通英语 长句中的常见方法进行翻译,顺译,逆译和综合法,同时对法律英语 复合长句的分析要从主句入手,分析其主谓宾,再找出从句,分析主 句和从句的逻辑关系,然后确定从句,短语等作为修饰语的各修饰成 分,形成一个整体的概念后,才能深刻地认识这种句法结构的特性。

  1. 1状语从句的翻译策略

状语从句就是在句中起状语作用的句子,也称为副词从句。不同 的状语从句要求用不同的连接词组来引导。状语从句表示时间、原因、 结果、让步和比较等意义。法律英语文本中最常出现的是以下四种状 语从句,下面逐一分析各个状语从句的翻译策略。

  • 条件状语从句的翻译策略

法律英语中一个最突出的特点就是状语从句的大量使用。法律 英语常常使用由 wherea  provided that , unless , in

case  on condition(that)…» supposing , as long as 等

引导状语从句,最常用的则是if*……,whereas……引导的条件状语从 句。普通英语中条件状语的位置十分灵活,可在句首、句中或句末。 而在法律英语中,主句放后面,条件状语从句通常放句首。

“法律规则一般由‘假设的条件‘、‘行为主体‘和’应承担的法 律后果’构成”。(于芳2006: 181) “假设的条件”是指在社会上可 能发生的情况,一旦发生,造成了某些危害后果应该由“行为主体” 承担相应的“法律后果”。一条法律英语规范中会大量使用条件状语 从句,往往两个或以上。这在普通英语中较少见

5a: In the event of the loss of the breadwinner, a pension shall be awarded to incapable family members of the deceased breadwinner as a result of a work-related injury or illness irrespective of his length of service, and if the death was caused by other reasons – subject to the relevant total length of service, which shall depend on the age of the insured employee at the time of his death.(见附录原文2)

5b:如果负担家计的员工已经死亡,员工是因工负伤或者跟工作相关的疾病 而死亡,不须考虑其工龄,雇主都应将抚恤金授予死者的无工作能力的 家庭成员,而如果死亡是其他原因导致的,抚恤金的发放则要受到死者 的总工龄的影响,工龄的计算取决于参保职工死亡时的年龄。(见附录 译文2)

在上面的英汉翻译中,我们可以看到条件句出现了两次,分别是 由in the event of和If引导的条件状语从句,是指先决和假定条件。 规定当事人的权利和义务。而且,从以上两个例子“in the event of the loss of the breadwinner , then a pension shall be ” and “if the

death , then shall depend on “我们还可得知条件句中有这样

两个基本的句型:“In the event of A, then B shall be C” or “In the event ofA, then B shall do C”(刘期安 2007: 25)。整句话的主句是:a pension shall be awardedo其余的都是限定抚恤金发放的情况的。整句话有两 层含义,如果整句话的翻译就是按照原文的语序,把当事人的权利和 义务放前面,把条件句放后面“负担家计的员工已经死亡,雇主都应 将抚恤金授予死者的无工作能力的家庭成员,如果员工是因工负伤或

 

者跟工作相关的疾病而死亡,不须考虑其工龄,而抚恤金的发放则要 受到死者的总工龄的影响,工龄的计算取决于参保职工死亡时的年 龄,如果死亡是其他原因导致的”。那么不仅不符合中文的表达习惯, 也影响了法律的严谨程度。所以本句采用的是逆译法,条件在前,结 果在后。了解条件句的基本规律,理清主从关系,了解大意之后再根 据汉语的语言习惯调整语序,便会达到准确和严谨的效果。

  1. 2目的状语从句的翻译策略

目的状语的从句部分是用以补充说明主句中谓语动词发生的 目的的。“法律英语中的目的状语从句是用来协议并补充说明双方当 事人的权利和义务,规定履行的合同”。(杜金榜2004: 66)引导目 的状语从句常用的连词有:that (以便),so that (以便),in order that (为了;以便),Lest (免得;唯恐),for fear that (生怕;以 免)。在法律英语中如果引导词是”in order to, so as to”,状语从句 可以放在句首或句末。如果引导词是“s。(such)…that”,状语大多数 情况下只能放在句末,因为这一部分相对于主句而言是次重要的。

6a: If the employer delays the execution of such a decision, the authority for consideration of labor disputes which made the decision shall pass an appropriate definition or decision in order to pay the employee his average wage or the difference in wages in full for the entire period of the delay.(见 附录原文2)

6b:如果雇主延误这样一个决策的执行,做出决策的处理劳资纠纷的机构应 通过一个适当的决议或者决定,以便整个延误的时间内,雇主能支付给 雇员平均工资或者全部工资的差额。(见附录译文2)

在6a中,我们可以看到一个由in order to弓I导的目的状语从句, 紧跟在他所修饰的动词pass an appropriate definition or decision之后,

 

补充说明“通过一个适当的决议或者决定”发生的目的。同时在本句 中,还有which引导的限定性定语从句,从句中镶嵌从句。整句话的 主句其实就是:the authority shall pass an appropriate definition or decisiono如果在我们的翻译中,如果采用逆译法,翻译为“以便整 个延误的时间内,如果雇主延误这样一个决策的执行,做出决策的处 理劳资纠纷的机构应通过一个适当的决议或者决定,雇主能支付给雇 员平均工资或者全部工资的差额”。目的状语没有紧跟在所修饰的中 心词之后,就会产生歧义,有时候也会影响法律语言的严谨。同时本 句包含三层含义:1,如果雇主延误这样一个决策的执行;2,做出决 策的处理劳资纠纷的机构应通过一个适当的决议或者决;3,以便整 个延误的时间内,雇主能支付给雇员平均工资或者全部工资的差额。 上述三句话的逻辑关系以及表达的顺序与汉语完全一致。因此,我 们可以采用顺译法翻译本句,

  • 时间状语从句的翻译策略

用表示时间的连词连接一个句子作状语,这样的主从复合句就是 时间状语从句。连接时间状语从句的连接词有:when, before, after, while, as soon as, until, sinceo在普通英语中,时间状语的位置 比较灵活可以放句首、句中或句末。然而在法律英语中逻辑严密、语 言严谨,为了避免歧义,时间状语在翻译时通常放在一个句子的句首。

7a: When a child is bom, a lump-sum benefit shall be paid. The amount of benefit for each child bom and the procedure for its payment shall be established by legislation.(见附录原文2)

7b:当孩子出生时,雇主应一次性支付所有的生育福利。立法应确定每个小 孩的福利金额并且规定它的支付程序。(见附录译文2)

在7a中,可以看到是由when引导的时间状语从句。在法律

英语中,主句和从句的时态也都是保持一致,这点跟普通英语也 大致一致,从句是现在时,主句为一般将来时。规定的是生育期 间的福利问题,全句一目了然。一般而言,时间状语从句放句首, 本句很明显,采用顺译法,先翻时间状语从句,在翻译主句。

  • 方式状语从句的翻译策略

普通英语中的方式状语从句常见的引导词有“像……”的“as” 和“好像 “的“as if/as though^^□而法律英语中的方式状语从句是

比较隐蔽的。我们应尽可能弄清楚表述句中的方式状语从句是非常必 要的,因为不仅要涉及到双方当事人共同达成协议的履行,而且也要 涉及到履行的结果和履行的方式。

8a: Payment of forced leave caused by the employer’s failure to execute the decision of an authority for the consideration of labor disputes concerning the reinstatement of an employee at his former employment should be paid by the employer the way the payment of excessive work hours due to employers should be paid which is just mentioned above.(见附录原文 2 )

8b:处理劳资纠纷的机构做出决策,关于恢复雇员原来的工作岗位,雇主未 能执行这个决策,从而导致雇员被迫休假,休假期的报酬应被支付,跟 上述提及过的由雇主造成的员工超额加班情况一样,应给予员工报酬°

(见附录译文2)

在8a中,整个句子一眼看上去很复杂,也没有用普通英语中的 表示方式状语的连接词as if/as though,只有the way连接。句子的 主要框架是 Payment of forced leave should be paid by the employer, 这 要牵涉到长句的处理。不能死板地按照顺序往下翻译,应采用灵活 的逆序译法、分译法和顺序译法等各种方法。Payment of forced leave 后面紧跟着由过去分词caused by引导的修饰限定成分,所以在翻译 时应该紧紧跟着所修饰的中心词后面。同时,concerning是现在进行 时做the decision of an authority的后置定语,如果翻译为“关于恢复 雇员原来的工作岗位的这样一个处理劳资纠纷的机构做出的决策”那 么句子就会显的过于冗长,中文里,一般用短句表达,显得言简意赅, 译为“处理劳资纠纷的机构做出决策,关于恢复雇员原来的工作岗 位”。我们仔细分析整个句子发现,法律条款涉及到双方当事人,雇 主和雇佣员工所达成的协议,如果员工未能及时恢复以前的工作岗 位,涉及到的结果和履行方式分别是休假期的报酬应被支付和由雇主 支付,与员工的加班报酬被支付的方式是一样的。所以全句应该采用 综合法进行翻译,弄清句中究竟讲了多少件事情。将长句分解为语 义相对完整的单句,分析各个单句之间的语义逻辑关系,然后用合乎 汉语表达习惯的排列方式对各个单句进行重新组合。

3.2定语从句的翻译策略

定语从句通常跟在所修饰的名词也就是先行词的后面,是英语复 杂句中一种重要的从句形式。定语从句包括非限制性从句和限制性从 句。“非限制性定语从句一般作为补充、说明和解释,用得比较少, 而限定性定语从句用得比较多”。(郭明静2008: 51)其形式或长 或短,结构或简单或复杂,修饰语语气或强或弱。而中文里,前置定 语的数量是有限的,而在英语句子里面,定语从句数量没有限制。在 法律英语文件中,不断使用定语从句是为了定义和修饰名词以规定公 民的权利义务,规范社会生活的各个方面。目的是使法律条款更加明 确、清晰,严谨和消除误解。

9a: A list of subdivisions shall be established in the same procedure for enterprises where in the event of the joint execution of work by employees who work directly with monetary or commodity valuables, collective (team) material liability may be introduced.(见附录原文 2)

9b:如果员工是直接与贵重物品或商品接触的,并且他们的工作方式是共同 执行,那么应该按照企业的相同程序确立部门的名单,同时部门也会引 进集体(团队)经济责任制。(见附录译文2)

本例句用了两个限定性定语从句:一个由where引导,另一个由 who引导。该定语从句译成了主句。如果按照原条款的结构译为定语 从句“那些直接与贵重物品或商品接触的工作方式是共同执行的员 工”,虽然也说的过去,但是始终感觉语言不严谨,达不到法律语言 的要求。原文的结构错综复杂,让人一乍看不知所措,而在汉语的习 惯中,以短语和分句为主,忌长句。法律英语葡萄式的结构清楚得规 定了从事什么工作的员工应该按照企业的相同程序确立部门的名单。 句型虽显复杂,但语义明确。所以在翻译定语从句时,一定要紧跟着 它所修饰的中心词。本段话有两层含义:1,那么应该按照企业的相 同程序确立部门的名单,同时部门也会引进集体(团队)经济责任制; 2,如果员工是直接与贵重物品或商品接触的,并且他们的工作方式 是共同执行,。按照中文的习惯和法律语言的严谨,采用逆序法进行 翻译。

 

结语

本文的目标是对英语复合长句进行文体分析,并系统地讨论了法 律英语长句的翻译。通过具体的英文法律文件本人发现法律英语的句 子很长,主要是由于使用了许多状语从句、定语从句和主语从句结构。 论文结合自己的10万字翻译实例分析法律英语中的复合长句。其中 翻译人员在翻译时应当注意:合理使用逻辑连接词and和or,准确 分析修饰限定成分,摆正条件句的主从关系,以及正确理清一个句子 中的多个从句的关系,从而能够正确而又富有创造性地处理法律文件 中出现的长句翻译问题,然后在用通顺流利的语言表达出来,使读者 能一目了然,明白易懂。这是翻译人员基本应该做到的。本文只是简 要分析,还有一些其他的因素没有考虑全面。法律翻译是一项艰巨而 又复杂艰苦的工作,译者要做到把握细节,统揽全句,心中有数,才 不至于在复合长句这样复杂的结构中迷失方向。

 

参考文献

WILSS.W, 2001, The Science of Translation Problems and Methods[M]. *

Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

Sarcevic.S, 1997, New Approach to Legal Translation [M]. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.

董世忠,1997,《法律英语》[M]。上海:复旦大学出版社。

杜金榜,2004,法律语言学[M]。上海:上海外语教育出版社。

郭明静,2008,法律英语长句特点及其汉译[J],《江苏警官学院学报》 第4期。

刘期安,2007,法律英语的长句翻译[J],《大连海事大学学报(社会 科学版)》第6期。

宋雷,2001,《法律英语高级教程》[M]。北京:中国民主法制出版社。

孙懿华、周广然,1997,《法律语言学》[M]。北京:中国政法大学出 版社。

于芳,2006,长句的语法分析在法律英语翻译中的作用[J],《科技资 讯》第32期,181页。

张福临,1998,《实用法律英汉翻译》Mo武汉:武汉测绘科技大学 出版社。

朱定初,2002,评复旦大学《法律英语》中的译注——兼谈法律专门 术语翻译的基本原则[J],《中国翻译》第23期,65-70页。

 

20

 

 

附录:翻译资料

原文1:

  1. LABOUR PAYMENT, BENEFITS AND COMPENSATIONS
  • Labor payment for work organized on rotational shift basis shall be made:

Piece-worker is paid for the scope of performed works rated depending on complex aggregated and other applicable quotations;

Time worker is paid for all actually worked out time in hours on the basis of established tariff rates of awarded labor grades;

Masters, foremen, head of sections (shifts) and other linear (workshop) personnel directly managing on the site are paid for all actually worked out time (in hours) as per schedule on the basis of established corresponding tariff rate of salaries. Hourly wage of employees in this case is determined by dividing monthly salary attached to position by the quantity of working hours as per the calendar of calculated month;

Other managers, specialists and employees who also work on rotational shift basis are paid fbr actually worked out time (in days) on the basis of established monthly salaries attached to their positions.

  • Awarding bonuses fbr employees shall be made in compliance with the collective agreement in force at the enterprise.

When bonuses awarding takes place, the bonuses are calculated depending on the wage earned for the period of time worked out on the rotational shift.

An enterprise may allocate monetary funds fbr material incentives of employees of medical, day-care, cultural and enlightening and sporting establishments, public catering organizations, and other organizations servicing the labor collective, which performs work on rotational shift basis, (if the organizations are not parts of the enterprise) in accordance with the contracts made with them.

  • Multipliers (awarded fbr working in regions, high in mountains, in desert places, in places with scarce water resources, etc), determined in accordance with applicable legislation, are applied to calculation of wages of the employees performing the work on rotational shift basis (including employees of trading and public catering organizations, as well as employees of the organizations responsible for communications, transportation, medical servicing, and other services, which are charged with servicing the staff working in the rotational basis).
  • Excessive work hours, which are aliquant to duration of whole working days, may be accumulated within a calendar year till reaching amount of whole working days of inter-rotation rest. In case if an employee leaves the company, or a year expires, the accumulated hours are paid in accordance with the collective labor agreement.

Excessive work hours are considered as overtime and are paid in accordance with the legislation.

  • In case of non-arrival of the rotation personal to date, the managers of the enterprises, which are performing works on rotation shift basis, may attract, on permission of trade union, employees to overtime work as compared with work schedule fdr a period till arrival the rotation team. In such cases, administration is to take measures for organization of delivery of persona on rotating assignments at the earliest possible date.
  • All the employees, including those engaged in trading and public catering organizations, communications, transportation, medical servicing, etc., which are charged with servicing the staff who works on rotational shift basis are paid salary supplement for working on rotation basis fbr every calendar day of their staying in the place where work is performed, as well as fbr the days of traveling from the place of location of their enterprises (rallying point) to the place of work and back.

Size of salary supplement is defined by collective labor agreement but the supplement may not be lower than size of minimum wage enforced on the territory of the country.

Calculation of supplement amount for work on rotational shift basis is carried out basing on actual time occupied by work on rotation basis, in following way:

In case of work paid for hour, monthly wage of a corresponding worker is divided by number of calendar day of this month. The resulted daily rate is multiplied by a number of days, which are actually worked out during period of work on rotational shift basis and travelling, and, basing on this sum, the supplement is defined in established amount;

In case of piece work payment, the monthly wage of an employee calculated on the base of actually done scope of work is divided by number of calendar days of the month. Further calculation is carried out in accordance with the same procedure, which is used for the employees paid according to work paid for hour.

  • For the days of workers9delay in travelling because of meteorological conditions, or because of transportation organization^ fault or because of unforeseen causes, the employees are paid compensations basing on average day rate defined on the base of previous month wage calculation. In such cases, reimbursement of an employee’s outlays for hiring living quarters is calculated applicably to the normative act on business trips.
  • In the cases, when an employee can’t timely arrive to the rallying point for personnel on rotation assignments because of reasonable excuses and he proceeded to the place of work independently, the administration of the enterprise refunds transportation costs basing on regulation acts provided by legislation about business trips.
  • Expenditures connected with payment of mark-ups and regional multiplier, as well as paying the days of inter-rotation resting should be made within normative wage bill of the enterprise.

Expenditures connected with payments mark-ups for working on rotational shift basis and payment for period of time passed in travelling and delays in the travel are carried out within the estimate and costs for production of work and services.

  1. Social welfare and community service
    • People residing in the shift camps shall be provided with transport means, social welfare and community service, and daily hot meals three times a day.
    • Trade union committee and administration of the enterprise may, on the consent of the employees, solve issues on privileged allocation of trip tickets for sanatorium-and-spa treatment, leisure and tourism to the employees working on shift basis.
  • Order of allocation of guarantees and compensations foreseen by existing legislation
    • Regular labor leave for the employees working on rotational shift basis shall be allocated in the established order, after usage of vacations days.

Vacations days shall be included in the working experience providing right fbr annual main and additional leaves fbr work in harmful labor conditions and continuity of employment with the enterprise.

In case end of the annual leave of the employee shall fall to the days of between-shifts vacation of the staff with whom he is working, then this employee is offered from his consent another job before start of his shift. Upon agreement of parties the issue may be solved on granting of leave to this employee without salary keeping.

  • Average salary fbr payment of annual leaves shall be calculated in the established order taking into account vacations days granted in the reporting period.

In case the employee is granted paid compensatory time-off^ and severance benefits, then this payment shall be taken into account during calculation of monthly salary.

  • Upon payment of average salary to the employee with summarized calculation of working time an average salary for hour is defined. For this, salary fbr all hours actually worked over during the last three months, shall be divided onto the number of the hours. Number of working hours of this employee falling to must-be-paid time period according to the working schedule, shall be subject to payment.
  • Provision of public assistance insurance benefits to the employees working on shift basis shall be implemented in accordance with the existing legislation.
  • In cases of temporary disability of employees working on rotational shift basis during the period of their vacations, the benefit for the days of disability coinciding with the vacations days shall not be issued. If temporary disability continues even after end of vacations, then the benefit shall be issued from the day on which the employee was expected to start work. At the same time, the benefit shall be issued for the working hours missed due to disability, according to schedule prepared within the norm of the working time as established by legislation.
  • Organization of medical care
    • Administration of enterprises executing works on shift basis shall, with healthcare body at the place of enterprise location, solve the issue of attaching the employees to therapeutic establishments for their medical provision and conduction of medical examinations, ensure and be responsible for timely and organized attendance of employees at examinations and checkups.
    • Administration of enterprises, on balance of which camps are registered shall, together with healthcare body, organize medical care for the staff of the camps, provide medical and pharmaceutic persons to them, medicine and medical equipment and ensure evacuation of becoming ill.
    • Preliminary examinations at entry to work of persons to be sent to works on shift basis may be carried out in therapeutic establishments at the place of their living.
    • The employees to be sent to works in the camps or at the site, shall be examined by enterprise doctor or in the policlinic at the place of their living 2-4 days prior to sending; control over conduction of such examinations shall be executed by administration of the enterprise.
    • Healthcare bodies and establishments on the territory of which the camps and sites are located, shall provide medical care to employees – rotation workers, arranging the following to be included in the total construction costs:
  • feldsher’s stations at number of employees from 50 and more;
  • health units – from 500 employees and more;
  • ambulances – from 1500 employees;
  • at number of employees under 50 – medical brigades, with periodicity of their visits to be agreed with administration of the enterprise.

Transportation of medical brigades onto the sites shall be arranged by the enterprises.

  • Preventive sanitary inspection of construction of camps, organization of social facilities within, control over observance of sanitary and anti epidemic norms shall be carried out by territorial sanitary & epidemiological stations.
  • General health cards containing data on received vaccinations shall be established fbr employees, to fill in medical conclusions and results of periodical examinations at entry to work, before their direct sending to shift works.
  • Employees sent to enterprises to work on shift basis through “Labor registry office” and who received medical contra-indication to execution of works on selected profile, shall be placed to employment by the same body.

译文1

iv作息制度,H常工作表现记录

  • 通常情况下,工作安排的轮班工作制作为一项规则,总结记录了雇员的工作 时间,大约为一个月,一季度,或一个更为较长的时期内,但原则上不能超过一 年以上的时间。

记录的时间包含所有的工作时间,从企业的位置或居住的地点出发到工作的 地方,然后返还回去的时间,还包括了日历上是假期这样的休息时间。因此法律 制定了相关规定,在一定记录时期内的工作期间不应超过一个星期之内的工时 旦 里。

在企业,每个员工每个月的工作时间和休息时间都进行了特殊的记录,以权 责发生制为基础贯穿整个记录下的期间。

  • 在这段记录时期内的工作时间和休息时间,是根据轮班工作制并按照工作进 度表来规定的,这是通过了企业的行政机构和适当的工会委员会所批准的。轮班 工作的时间表,通常情况下,为一年,并至少在制定颁布之前的两个月告知员工。 在工作安排
  • 员工的日常休息时间,也应把午餐休息时间考虑在内,总共不应少于12 小时。因工作需要的情况下要减少每天休息的时间,那么每天未得到休息的时间, 连同每周应该休息的时间加在一起算作是工作记录期间额外的工作休息时间(轮 班工作制休息间的间隙性休息)。当前月份每周应该休息的天数不应少于本月全 周的周数。每周的休息日可能是在一个星期之内的任何一天。

在记录期间未满的情况下提前离开公司的员工,离开的日期可能会被任命指 定,并被考虑到轮班工作制休息间的间隙性休息时间里面去。

  • 企业的经理经过与工会的协调之后,都有权大力引进优秀的能人,工头, 部门领班(轮班制)和其他线性(车间)的人员,他们执行贯彻上级指令,根据 对主要雇员和工人已建立的制度对厂房设备设施(部门)开展管理活动,和整顿 关于工作和休息的管理体制。
  • 雇员在工作记录期间标准的工作时间是以以下情况为基础的,一周工作5 天,在节假日之前工作延续时间为8小时和7小时的工作班次。在这样的情况下, 如果雇员在有害的工作环境下工作,那么他们的标准工作时间应依据相关的法律 规定,要缩短其工作时间。

例如:1998年6月,有22个工作日和8天的休假。雇员在记录期间(月) 正常的工作时间,按照标准的工作条款,应为176小时(22X 8= 176)在轮 班工作时期内的标准工作时间,是根据上述记录期间的既定程序所制定的。

例:根据正常的工作条款,轮班工作的延续时间为15天,轮班期间(从1998 年6月1日至6月15日)的标准工作时间为80个小时(10 X 8= 80)。如 果在轮班工作期间工作日程安排表上规定每天工作12个小时,连续工作15天。 那么在这两个例子中,员工工作了(从1998年6月1日至6月15日)180小 时(15X 12=180) o在1998年6月份这些员工得到批准,轮班工作间的休息 日在加上每周本应该休息的时间总共为15天(轮班工作期间约10天,每天未 得到休息的有4小时,在这期间每周本应该休息的总共有5天,12小时+4天休 息日=100小时:8小时+4天=16天)。因此根据生产线上的条款4.3,未作规 定的工作时间之内的4个小时也应被考虑到计算在雇员轮班工作期间内的休息 上来。

如果雇员在工作记录期间或在轮班工作期间的工作是属于兼职性质的情况下 (因为休假,生病等),本应该工作的时间缺勤,那么其工作的时间应从标准工 作时间里面补差价。

上面所列举的例子是在轮班工作期间内,根据1988年相关条例的规定计算工 作时间的。雇员将提供2006年的例子,这在报纸《诺尔玛》(2006年1月17 日第3版)上有刊登出版。作者的例子具有指导性的地位和意义,为以上相关信 息和报纸《诺尔玛》的信息检索系统做了更加详细的独家专访,《诺尔玛》报是 由RiskullaevA先生,乌兹别克斯坦共和国的贸易联合会理事会的司法部门的负 责人,分管的额

  • .工资、福利及补助
    • 轮班工作须予以支付工资

计件工人工资根据其工作量决定,主要参考完成任务总量及其它相关适 用报价。

计时工人工资根据其具体工作时间决定,以各劳动级别的税率为基准。

技工、工头、领班及流水线上其它直接管理生产的人员所得工资也根据 其每一次工作安排中的具体工作时间决定,且以其工资税率为基准。在这种情况 下,员工的时薪则根据该职位该月应得薪水除以本月具体工作时数的结果来计 算。

其它经理、专家及其它进行轮班工作的员工也须以实际工作时间为准获取 工资,以各职位规定的月工资为基准。

  • 工奖金发放须符合公司现行政策。

一旦需发放奖金,则根据轮休调休制工作期间所赚取的工资来进行计算。 公司须根据合同拨付一定资金为员工提供必要的物质鼓励,如提供医疗保障、日 常护理、文化或体育活动、社交组织活动或其它一些在轮休调休制工作期间(如 此类组织不归公司所有)为劳动群体服务的组织。

  • 乘数效应(奖励在气候恶劣地区的工作,如高山、沙漠、水资源稀缺 地区)必须根据相关立法决定,该方法适用于计算轮休调休的员工(包括承担服 务部门轮休调休制工作的员工,如贸易及社交组织的员工,通讯、交通、医疗服 务等其它服务部门的员工)
  • 超出标准工作时间且可以整除的工时,将累积计入该日历年度内工作 时间,直至达到轮休小时数。如果员工离开公司,或者一年期满,公司须则根据 劳动合同的规定为累积的加班支付时薪。超出标准工作时间的工作则算作加班, 且应严格根据劳动法支付加班工资。
  • 果当班的轮班人员未能到岗工作,当班公司经理在获得工会批准后 可根据工作安排表鼓励并安排其它人员顶替一段时间直至原轮班人员可以赴岗 工作。在这种情况下,公司行政须采取措施在最早时间重新调整工作安排表。
  • 所有从事服务及社交、通讯、交通、医疗服务等工作的员工,负责服 务于轮休调休制工作人员,其在工作地点每一个日历天的轮班工作时间及往返于 工作地点和住所的时间均可得以额外工资,其具体数额根据集体劳动协议确定, 但不能低于所在国度所实行的最低工资标准。

计算轮班工作时间须以具体工作时数为基准,计算方法如下:

如是计时工作,则相应员工的月工资除以该月日历天数,所得结果乘以轮 班时间与往返工作地点及住所时数和,最后结果则为该员工工资数额。

如是计件工作,员工的月工资计算则以所完成工作量为基础,将完成的件 数除以该月日历天数,接下来的计算方式与计时工作得到工资计算方法一致。

  • 于气象条件、交通部门原因或是其它不可预见因素而导致员工在路 途上延误的时间,根据其在上月工资计算的日平均工资进行补偿。在这种情况下, 员工因此产生的租房费用将根据出差住宿标准进行报销。
  • 如因合理原因,员工无法按时到达轮班工作地点完成轮班任务,但其 最终独立到达工作地点,公司行政部门须根据相关法规对出差的规定为其支付交 通费用。
  • 由于工资标准不同及地区乘数而造成额外费用,以及轮休期间产生的 费用必须严格遵照公司的标准工资条例实施。

由于轮休工作制工资标准不同或交通途中及延误的途中所产生的费用,须 根据生产和服务成本的估算来严格施行。

  • .社会福利及社区服务
    • .公司将向轮休制员工提供交通工具、社会福利、社区服务以及一日三

餐。

  • 公司的工会委员会及行政部门在经员工同意的情况下,须为轮休制员工 优先派发车票,使其享受疗养院及水疗服务、休闲旅游等服务。
  • .据现行法规分配的社保及补助金
    • 轮休制员工在已使用节假日后如要进行常规休假,须谨遵已有相关规 定。休假期间算作工作经验,且在恶劣工作环境下工作的员工享有主年假和额外 休假的权利,且有权与公司续约。

如果员工年假最后几天时间结束后恰好是其搭档轮休时间,则经该员工同 意后,公司可向其分配新的工作任务直至其自身轮班时间。经各方同意后,员工 可以因此申请额外休假而公司不对其保留工资。

  • 年假期间的平均工资将以现行规定为准来予以计算,且须考虑在所休年 假中节假日所占的时间,如果员工获得假期补偿金或者遣散福利费,则应将此算 入该员工月工资。
  • .在对员工工作时间进行总结算并支付其平均工资后,即能得出员工每 小时的平均工资,为此,须将前三个月实际工作时间所获得工资除以工作时数, 此处所指工作时数是指根据工作安排表员工应得工资的工作时间,并且公司须予 以结算工资。
  • 关于轮班制工作人员公共援助保险福利的规定须严格按照现行立法来 执行。
  • 如轮班制工作人员在休假期间遭受暂时性残疾,则假期内是不享受福 利的。如果伤情持续至假期结束,则从员工轮班开始那天开始予以发放福利。同 时,须根据立法中规定的标准工作时间安排来计算因暂时性残疾而造成无法工作 的时数的应得福利。
  • .医疗保健组织
    • .公司行政部门在主管轮班工作时,须与公司所在地的保健机构合作, 解决员工医疗服务和医疗体检问题,确保为员工及时组织体检且对其负责。
    • 公司行政部门在管理注册工地平衡分布时,须与当地保健机构合作,为 工地员工提供医疗服务,配备医疗和医药人员,提供药品及医疗设备并保证病者 的疏散。
    • .轮班工作人员进行入职前体检须在其所在地的医疗机构进行。
    • 员工在被派往工地工作之前2至4天内,须经公司医生或其住所当地的 门诊部检查,该检查过程须由公司行政部门监管。
    • 工地所在地的医疗保健机构向轮班制工人提供医疗服务,并根据以下情 况安排具体设施,其中产生费用计入工程建设总费用:
  • 员工人数达50甚至以上设立医生站点
  • 员工人数达500甚至以上则设立医疗单位
  • 员工人数达1500甚至以上则配备救护车
  • 员工人数低于50的工地则为之安排医疗服务队,根据与公司行政部门所 达成的协议定期探访工地,该医疗队前往工地探访的交通由公司安排。
    • 建筑工地当地卫生及防疫站将负责的预防性卫生检查,社交设施的安 排,且须谨遵卫生防疫标准。
    • .须为员工办理预防免疫接种记录卡,并记录其在被派往工地前的医疗 结果及定期检查结论。
    • .经“劳工登记处”办理登记手续并被派往轮班工作制的员工,如在医 疗档案上显示有与该工作相关的医疗禁忌,则应安排至原工作单位。

原文2:

  • Regulatory Acts Concerning Labour Relations

Labour relations in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be regulated by labour legislation, collective agreements and collective contracts, and other local regulatory acts.

Labour legislation shall consist of this Code, Laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan and Decrees of the Oli Majilis, decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Laws of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, Decrees of the Zhokargy Kenesh, Decrees of the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Government of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, and decisions of other representative and executive authorities adopted within their competence.

Legislative or other regulatory acts relating to labour shall regulate labour relations of individuals working under employment agreements (contracts) at enterprises, institutions and organisations of all forms of ownership as well as for individuals.

  • Objectives of Labour Legislation

Labour legislation providing fbr the interests of employees, employers and the state shall ensure the effective functioning of the labour market, fair and safe labour conditions, and the protection of the labour rights and health of employees, facilitate the growth of the productivity of labour and the improvement of the quality of work, and on this basis increase the material and cultural level of the living standards of the entire population.

Hereinafter “legislative or other regulatory acts relating to labour”.

2

Hereinafter an “employment agreement”.

3

Hereinafter “enterprises,1.

  • Scope of the Labour Code

The scope of the Labour Code shall cover the entire territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

  • Balance between the Legislative and Contractual Regulation of Labour Relations

The minimum level of labour rights and guarantees for employees shall be established by legislative acts.

Additional labour rights and guarantees as compared to legislative acts may be established by other regulatory acts including those of a contractual nature (collective agreements, collective contracts and other local acts) as well as by employment agreements concluded between the employee and the employer.

Terms and conditions of employment agreements and contracts may not be amended unilaterally unless otherwise stipulated by Law. Issues not settled by legislative or other regulatory acts relating to labour shall be settled by agreement of the parties to employment agreements, and if no agreement can be reached, in accordance with the procedure established for the settlement of labour disputes.

Article 5・ Invalidity of Terms and Conditions of Employment Agreements and Contracts

Terms and conditions of employment agreements and contracts providing for a less favourable status for employees compared to legislative or other regulatory acts shall be invalid.

  • Prohibition of Discrimination in Labour Relations

All citizens shall have equal rights in possessing and exercising labour rights. The establishment of any restrictions or granting of advantages in the area of labour relations as regards sex, age, race, nationality, language, social origin, property and position, attitude towards religion, convictions, membership of public associations and other circumstances not connected with employees1 professional qualities and the results of their work shall not be accepted and shall be regarded as discrimination.

Differences in the sphere of labour stipulated by the requirements appropriate for a given type of labour or by special care of the state towards persons in need of increased social protection (women, minors, disabled people, etc.) shall not be regarded as discrimination.

A person who believes he is being discriminated against in the sphere of labour may bring the matter to court by claiming the elimination of discrimination and compensation for financial and moral damage.

  • Prohibition of Forced Labour

Forced labour, i.e. being compelled to carry out work under threat of any punishment (including as a means to support labour discipline) shall be prohibited.

Work shall not be deemed compulsory if required:

  • on the basis of legislative acts related to military or alternative service;
  • in emergency situations;
  • consequential to an enacted court judgement;
  • in other cases stipulated by law.
  • Protection of Labour Rights

Everyone shall be guaranteed the protection of labour rights, which shall be effected by the agencies of supervision and control over the observation of the labour legislation and the authorities in charge of settling labour disputes.

  • State Administration in the Sphere of Labour. Supervision and Monitoring of the Observation of the Labour Legislation.

State administration in the sphere of labour shall be exercised by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security of the Republic of Uzbekistan and its territorial agencies. Monitoring and supervision of the observation of the labour legislation and rules for the protection of labour shall be carried out by:

  • specially authorised state agencies and inspectorates thereof;
  • trade unions.

State authorities and administrative agencies shall monitor the observation of the labour legislation in the procedure stipulated by law.

The precise and uniform implementation of labour laws in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be supervised by the General Procurator of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the procurators subordinate to the General Procurator.

  • Correlation of International Treaties and Conventions with the Labour Legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Should an international treaty of the Republic of Uzbekistan or convention of the International Labour Organisation ratified by the Republic of Uzbekistan establish more favourable rules for employees as compared to legislative or other regulatory acts relating to labour of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the rules of the international treaty or convention shall apply.

The rules of international treaties of the Republic of Uzbekistan or conventions of the International Labour Organisation ratified by Uzbekistan shall also apply when labour relations are not directly settled by legislation.

  • Application of Labour Legislation to Persons Who Are Not Citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Labour legislation shall apply to foreign citizens and stateless persons who work in the Republic of Uzbekistan under employment agreements concluded with employers.

  • Application of Labour Legislation at Foreign Enterprises.

At enterprises fully or partially belonging to foreign legal entities and individuals and located in the Republic of Uzbekistan, the labour legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall apply.

  • Calculation of Terms Stipulated by this Code

A period with which this Code associates the beginning or termination of labour rights and duties shall begin on the day following the calendar day defined as the beginning thereof

Terms calculated in years, months or weeks shall expire on the relevant dates of the previous year, month or week of the term. A term calculated in calendar weeks or days shall include non-working days.

If the last day of a term falls on a non-working day, the termination date shall be the first working day following such date.

译文2

第一条:关于劳资关系的监管法令

乌兹别克斯坦的劳资关系应该受到劳动立法、集体协议和合同以及其他当地监管 行为的管制。

劳动法应该由以下内容组成:劳动法、乌兹别克斯坦共和国法律和最高会议颁布 的法令、乌兹别克斯坦共和国主席颁布的法令、卡拉卡尔帕克自治共和国法律、 Zhokargy Kenesh颁布的法令、乌兹别克斯坦共和国政府和卡拉卡尔帕克自治共 和国政府颁布的法令和其他代表机构和行政机构在它们的权限内做出的决议。

跟劳动力相关的立法或其他监管行为应该调控在企业、各种所有制的机构和组织 以及私人企业的就业协议(合同)下工作的员工的个人劳资关系。

第二条劳动法的目标

劳工法规定了员工的利益,雇主和国家应当确保劳动力市场的有效运转,公平 和安全的劳动条件和保护劳动权利和员工的健康,促进劳动生产率的增长,提高 工作质量,并在此基础上提高全体人民的物质和文化水平上的生活水准。

第三条劳动法的范围

劳动法的范围应该覆盖乌兹别克斯坦共和国的整个领土。

第三条劳资关系的立法监管和合同监管之间的平衡

立法条例应该确立员工最低水平的劳动权利和保障。

跟立法法案相比,附加的劳动权利和保障可能是其他监管法案所确立的,其中包 括有合同性质的监管法案(集体协议、集体合同和其他的地方法案)以及雇员和 雇主之间订立的就业协议。

就业协议和合同的条款和条件可能不能单方面进行修改,除非法律规定要求修 改。跟劳动相关的立法或者其他监管法案不能解决的问题应该由双方签订的就业 协议来解决,如果没有达成任何协议的话,则根据为解决劳动纠纷而确立的法律 程序来解决。

第五条就业协议和合同的条款和条件的无效性

跟立法或者其他监管法案相比,就业协议和合同的条款和条件对于处于不利地位 的员工来说应是无效的。

第六条劳资关系中的禁止歧视

所有的公民应该在持有和行使劳动权利上拥有平等的权利。在劳资关系领域中, 关于性别、年龄、种族、国籍、语言、社会根源、财产和地位、宗教态度、信念、 公共协会的成员以及其他跟员工的专业素质和工作成绩不相关的其他情况,根据 这些所设立的任何限制因素或者给予特权都是不能接受的,且被认为是歧视。

在劳动力领域,针对某个特定类型的劳动力而规定的保障措施或者是国家对于需 要增加社会保障的人群(妇女、未成年人,残疾人,等等)的特殊照顾,这些不 同之处不应该被视作歧视。

一个人认为自己在劳动力领域收到了歧视,可以将问题上述到法院,并要求消除 歧视和赔偿经济和精神损失。

第七条禁止强迫性劳动

强迫劳动,例如,在威胁有惩罚的情况下而被迫执行工作(包括作为一种支持劳动 纪律的方式),均应被禁止。

除了以下情况,工作不应被视为义务

-基于跟军事或替代服务相关的立法法案

-在紧急情况下

一法院颁布的判决下相应而生的情况

-法律规定的其他情况中

第八条保护劳动者的权利

每个人都应当得到劳工权益保护法的保证,而监视劳动法的监控部门和处理劳动 纠纷的机构应对劳工权益产生影响。

第九条国家对劳工领域的管理。监督和管理劳动法的执行。

在劳工领域中,乌兹别克斯坦共和国劳动和社会保障部和其他的领土机构行使国 家管理权利。

劳动法执行的监管权利和保护劳动者的法规应该由以下部门执行:

1)国家专门认证和授权的机构

2)工会。

国家机关和行政机关应该按照法律规定的程序来监督劳动法的执行。

在乌兹别克斯坦共和国,乌兹别克斯坦共和国的总检察官和从属于总检察官的检 察官们应该监督劳动法的严格统一执行。

第十条 跟乌兹别克斯坦共和国相关的国际条约和国际惯例

跟与乌兹别克斯坦共和国劳工相关的立法或者其他监管条例相比,乌兹别克斯坦 共和国的一项国际条约或者乌兹别克斯坦共和国批准的国际劳工组织的惯例会 为雇员设立更多有利的法规,而国际条约或者国际惯例的法规应在该国适用。

当劳资关系不是直接由立法机构解决时,乌兹别克斯坦共和国国际条约的法规或 者乌兹别克斯坦批准的国际劳工组织的惯例也同样适用。

第十一条劳动法同样适用于非乌兹别克斯坦共和国公民的人们 劳动法应适用于外国公民和在乌兹别克斯坦共和国工作,并与雇主签订了就业协 议的无国籍人士。

第十二条劳动法在外国企业中的应用

位于乌兹别克斯坦共和国,并完全或部分属于外国法人实体和个人的企业,乌兹 别克斯坦共和国的劳动法在这些企业中应同样适用。

第十三条劳动法规定的计算条件

劳动法中的工作时期的计算方法是指劳动者权利和义务的开始或者结束应根 据日历定义的第一天开始算起。

按年,月或者周计算的工作期限应该是在该条款的上一年,月或者周的相关日期 中止。按照日历的周或者日来计算的一个工作期限应该包括非工作日。

如果一个工作期限的最后一天刚好是非工作日,中止日期则应是这一个非工作日 后的第一个工作日。

原文2::

  • Regulatory Acts Concerning Labour Relations

Labour relations in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be regulated by labour legislation, collective agreements and collective contracts, and other local regulatory acts.

Labour legislation shall consist of this Code, Laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan and Decrees of the Oli Majilis, decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Laws of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, Decrees of the Zhokargy Kenesh, Decrees of the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Government of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, and decisions of other representative and executive authorities adopted within their competence.

Legislative or other regulatory acts relating to labour shall regulate labour relations of individuals working under employment agreements (contracts) at enterprises, institutions and organisations of all forms of ownership as well as for individuals.

  • Objectives of Labour Legislation

Labour legislation providing for the interests of employees, employers and the state shall ensure the effective functioning of the labour market, fair and safe labour conditions, and the protection of the labour rights and health of employees, facilitate the growth of the productivity of labour and the improvement of the quality of work, and on this basis increase the material and cultural level of the living standards of the entire population.

Hereinafter “legislative or other regulatory acts relating to labour

2

Hereinafter an “employment agreement”.

3

Hereinafter “enterprises”.

  • Scope of the Labour Code

The scope of the Labour Code shall cover the entire territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

  • Balance between the Legislative and Contractual Regulation of Labour Relations

The minimum level of labour rights and guarantees for employees shall be established by legislative acts.

Additional labour rights and guarantees as compared to legislative acts may be established by other regulatory acts including those of a contractual nature (collective agreements, collective contracts and other local acts) as well as by employment agreements concluded between the employee and the employer.

Terms and conditions of employment agreements and contracts may not be amended unilaterally unless otherwise stipulated by Law. Issues not settled by legislative or other regulatory acts relating to labour shall be settled by agreement of the parties to employment agreements, and if no agreement can be reached, in accordance with the procedure established for the settlement of labour disputes.

  • Invalidity of Terms and Conditions of Employment Agreements and Contracts

Terms and conditions of employment agreements and contracts providing for a less favourable status for employees compared to legislative or other regulatory acts shall be invalid.

  • Prohibition of Discrimination in Labour Relations

All citizens shall have equal rights in possessing and exercising labour rights. The establishment of any restrictions or granting of advantages in the area of labour relations as regards sex, age, race, nationality, language, social origin, property and position, attitude towards religion, convictions, membership of public associations and other circumstances not connected with employees* professional qualities and the results of their work shall not be accepted and shall be regarded as discrimination.

Differences in the sphere of labour stipulated by the requirements appropriate for a given type of labour or by special care of the state towards persons in need of increased social protection (women, minors, disabled people, etc.) shall not be regarded as discrimination.

A person who believes he is being discriminated against in the sphere of labour may bring the matter to court by claiming the elimination of discrimination and compensation for financial and moral damage.

  • Prohibition of Forced Labour

Forced labour, i.e. being compelled to carry out work under threat of any punishment (including as a means to support labour discipline) shall be prohibited.

Work shall not be deemed compulsory if required:

-on the basis of legislative acts related to military or alternative service;

  • in emergency situations;
  • consequential to an enacted court judgement;
  • in other cases stipulated by law.
  • Protection of Labour Rights

Everyone shall be guaranteed the protection of labour rights? which shall be effected by the agencies of supervision and control over the observation of the labour legislation and the authorities in charge of settling labour disputes.

  • State Administration in the Sphere of Labour. Supervision and Monitoring of the Observation of the Labour Legislation.

State administration in the sphere of labour shall be exercised by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security of the Republic of Uzbekistan and its territorial agencies. Monitoring and supervision of the observation of the labour legislation and rules for the protection of labour shall be carried out by:

  • specially authorised state agencies and inspectorates thereof;
  • trade unions.

State authorities and administrative agencies shall monitor the observation of the labour legislation in the procedure stipulated by law.

The precise and unifdnn implementation of labour laws in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be supervised by the General Procurator of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the procurators subordinate to the General Procurator.

  • Correlation of International Treaties and Conventions with the Labour Legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Should an international treaty of the Republic of Uzbekistan or convention of the International Labour Organisation ratified by the Republic of Uzbekistan establish more favourable rules for employees as compared to legislative or other regulatory acts relating to labour of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the rules of the international treaty or convention shall apply.

The rules of international treaties of the Republic of Uzbekistan or conventions of the International Labour Organisation ratified by Uzbekistan shall also apply when labour relations are not directly settled by legislation.

  • Application of Labour Legislation to Persons Who Are Not Citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Labour legislation shall apply to foreign citizens and stateless persons who work in the Republic of Uzbekistan under employment agreements concluded with employers. Article 12. Application of Labour Legislation at Foreign Enterprises.

At enterprises fully or partially belonging to foreign legal entities and individuals and located in the Republic of Uzbekistan, the labour legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall apply.

Article 13. Calculation of Terms Stipulated by this Code

A period with which this Code associates the beginning or termination of labour rights and duties shall begin on the day following the calendar day defined as the beginning thereof

Terms calculated in years, months or weeks shall expire on the relevant dates of the previous year, month or week of the term. A term calculated in calendar weeks or days shall include non-working days.

If the last day of a term falls on a non-working day, the termination date shall be the first working day following such date.

CHAPTER 14. ADDITIONAL GUARANTEES AND PRIVILEGES FOR CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF EMPLOYEES

  1. ADDITIONAL GUARANTEES FOR WOMEN AND THOSE ENGAGED IN FAMILY DUTIES
  • Employment Guarantees for Pregnant Women and Women with Children

It shall be prohibited to refuse employment to women or to reduce their wages on the grounds of pregnancy or child care. Should an employer refuse employment to a pregnant woman or a woman with a child under three years of age, the employer shall be obliged to inform her in writing of the reasons for such refusal. A refusal to employ such persons may be appealed against in court.

  • Work Which Women May Not Do

It shall be prohibited to use women’s labour at work with unfavourable labour conditions, as well as work underground, except for certain types of underground operations (non-physical work or work associated with sanitary or social services). Women shall be prohibited to lift and carry heavy weights exceeding the maximum norms established for them.

A list of the jobs with unfavourable labour conditions at which women*s labour is prohibited and the maximum weight norms permitted for lifting and carrying by women shall be established by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan by agreement with the Council of the Federation of Trade Unions of Uzbekistan and employers1 representatives.

  • Transfer of Pregnant Women to Easier Jobs or to a Job Excluding the

Influence of Unfavourable Industrial Factors

Subject to medical reports pregnant women shall be permitted reduced productivity and service quotas or shall be transferred to an easier job or a job excluding the influence of unfavourable industrial factors with the retention of the average monthly wage at their former job.

Until the matter concerning easier work or work excluding the influence of unfavourable industrial factors is decided, the woman shall be released from work with the retention of her average monthly wage for all the days lapsed.

  • Transfer of Women with Children under Two Years of Age to an Easier Job or a Job Excluding the Influence of Unfavourable Industrial Factors

Should it be impossible for women with children under two years of age to perform their former work, they shall be transferred to an easier job or a job excluding the influence of unfavourable industrial factors with the retention of their average monthly wage at their former position, until the child reaches two years of age.

  • Restriction on Women’s Labour at Night, Overtime, Work at Weekends or Business Trips

Pregnant women or women with children under 14 years of age (disabled children under 16 years) may not be compelled to work at night, work overtime, work at weekends or be sent on business trips without their consent. However, pregnant women and women with children under three years of age may work at night if there are medical statements confirming that such work does not threaten the health of the mother or child.

Article 228-1. The right of woman with children aged under three and working at the nstitutions and organizations, financed from the budget to reduced duration of working hours.

Duration of working hours for woman with children aged under three and working at the institutions and organizations financed from the budget shall not exceed 35 hours per week.

Wages to women specified in part one of this Article under the reduced duration of working hours shall be paid at the same amount as to employees of corresponding category under the full duration of daily work.

  • Establishment of Reduced Working Hours for Women and Those Engaged in Family Duties

At the request of a pregnant woman, a woman with children under fourteen years of age (disabled child under sixteen years) including a child in her care, or a person who takes care of a sick member of the family in accordance with a medical statement, the employer shall be obliged to provide a reduced working day or reduced working week (Article 119).

  • Additional Day Off

One of the parents (guardian, foster parent) bringing up a disabled child under sixteen years of age shall be given an additional day off per month paid in the amount of a daily wage at the expense of state social insurance.

  • Privileges for Women for the Purpose of Establishing Priority for Annual Leave

Pregnant women and women who have given birth to a child shall be granted annual leave at their discretion before or after maternity leave or after childcare leave respectively.

Single parents (widows, widowers, divorcees, single mothers) and wives of military servicemen of fixed-term service bringing up one and more children under fourteen years of age (disabled child under sixteen years) shall be granted annual leave at their discretion in summer or at any other time convenient for them (Article 144).

  • Additional Leave for Women with Children Under Twelve Years of Age or a Disabled Child Under Sixteen Years of Age

Women who have two or more children under twelve years of age or a disabled child under sixteen years of age shall be granted an annual additional paid leave for at least three working days.

Women who have two or more children under twelve years of age or a disabled child under sixteen years of age shall be granted at their discretion annual unpaid leave for at least fourteen calendar days. Such leave may be attached to annual leave or used separately (in full or in part) during the period established by agreement with the employer.

  • Maternity Leave

Women shall be granted maternity leave for seventy calendar days before giving birth and fifty six-days (in the case of complications or multiple births, seventy calendar days) after giving birth with payment of benefit under state social insurance.

Maternity leave shall be calculated in total and granted to a woman in full, irrespective of the number of days actually used prior to childbirth.

  • Leave to Care for a Child Aged from Two to Three Years

After the expiry of maternity leave, at the woman’s discretion she shall be granted leave to care for the child until it reaches the age of two with payment of a benefit for that period in the procedure stipulated by legislation.

A woman shall also be granted at her discretion additional unpaid leave to care for the child until it reaches the age of three.

Childcare leave may be used in full or in part also by the father of a child, grandmother, grandfather or any other relative who actually takes care of the child.

At the discretion of the woman or persons indicated in part three of this Article, during childcare leave they may work incomplete working hours or from home as agreed with the employer. They shall however retain the right to receive benefits (part one hereof).

During childcare leave, the woman shall retain her job (position). Such leave shall be included in the length of service, including the length of work in a specialisation.

Childcare leave shall not be included in the length of service which gives the right to subsequent annual paid leave, unless otherwise stipulated by the collective agreement or other local act of the enterprise or the employment agreement.

  • Leave for Persons Who Have Adopted Newborn Babies or Foster-Children

Those who have adopted newborn babies directly from a maternity home or have fostered them shall be granted leave for the period from the day of adoption (fostering) and for 56 calendar days (when adopting (fostering) two or more newborn babies, 70 calendar days) from the date of birth of the child with payment for that period of a benefit under state social insurance and, at their discretion, additional childcare leave until the child reaches the age of three (Article 134).

  • Breaks for Feeding a Child

Women who have children under two years of age shall be granted apart from the break fbr rest and meals, additional breaks to feed the child. Such breaks shall be granted at least every three hours and fbr at least 30 minutes each. If there are two or more children under two years of age, the break shall be established for at least one hour.

Breaks to feed children shall be included in working hours and shall be paid at the average monthly wage rates.

At the woman’s discretion, breaks to feed her child may be attached to her break fbr rest and meals or attached in an aggregate form to either the beginning or the end of the working day (shift) with the appropriate reduction thereof.

The specific length of such breaks and the procedure for granting them shall be established by the collective agreement or, if none is concluded, by agreement between the employer and the trade union committee or other employees1 representative body.

  • Guarantees fbr Pregnant Women and Women with Children upon the Termination of an Employment Agreement

An employment agreement with a pregnant woman or woman with children aged under three may not be terminated on the initiative of the employer except for cases of complete liquidation of the enterprise when the termination of an employment agreement is permitted with obligatory subsequent employment. Such women shall be employed by a local employment agency, ensuring the appropriate social benefits established by legislation during the period of seeking employment.

The women specified in part one of this Article must be provided employment by the employer in the event of the termination of their employment agreement due to its expiry. They shall retain their wages for the period of seeking employment, but not for more than three months after the termination of the employment agreement.

  • Guarantees and Privileges to Persons Who Bring Up Children Without a

Mother

The guarantees and privileges granted to women due to pregnancy and childcare (restriction of night work and overtime, work on days off and business trips and granting additional leave, establishing privileged work regimes, and other guarantees and privileges established by legislation and other regulatory acts relating to labour) shall apply to fathers bringing up children without a mother (in the event of her death, deprivation of parental rights, lengthy stay in a medical institution and other cases of the absence of a mother’s care) and to guardians (foster parents) of minors.

The guarantees and privileges stipulated in part one of this Article shall also be granted to a grandmother, grandfather and other relatives who actually bring up children deprived of parental care.

  1. PRIVILEGES FOR THOSE WHO COMBINE WORK WITH STUDIES
  • Creation of Conditions for Combining Work with Studies

An employer shall be obliged to create the necessary conditions fbr combining work with studies for employees undergoing professional training at the enterprise, improving their qualifications or studying part-time at educational establishments.

  • Privileges fbr Employees Studying at Educational Establishments

Employees studying at educational establishments part-time and complying with the curriculum shall have the right to additional paid leave at work, a reduced working week and other privileges established by legislative and other regulatory acts relating to labour.

  • Leave for Students at Secondary Schools

Employees studying at secondary schools shall be provided with leave for the period of their final examinations of at least 20 working days in the eleventh (twelfth) year and at least 8 working days in the ninth year, with the retention of their average wage at the place of employment.

For students in the fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, ninth, tenth or eleventh years at such schools, the legislation may establish four to six-day leave for the period of current examinations with retention of the average wage at the place of main employment by reducing the total number of days (8-12) provided in accordance with Article 251 of this Code.

  • Leave in Relation to Studies at Professional and Technical Schools

Employees studying at professional and technical schools in the evenings shall be released from work to prepare for and take examinations for at least 30 working days throughout the year with the retention of their average wage at the main place of employment.

  • Leave for Employees to Take Entrance Examinations fbr Higher and Secondary Special Educational Establishments

Employees admitted to entrance examinations shall be provided with unpaid leave of at least 15 calendar days when they enter a higher educational establishment and at least 10 calendar days for a secondary special educational establishment, not counting the travel time to the place where the educational establishments are located and back. Article 255. Privileges in Respect to Working Hours fbr Part-Time Students at Higher

Educational Establishments

Employees studying part-time at higher and secondary special educational establishments shall be granted at least one day off per week in the case of a six-day working week to prepare fbr classes with the retention of their average wage fbr the period of ten months of studies before the beginning of the dissertation (project) or final examinations. In the case of a five-day working week the number of days off shall be changed subject to the length of the shift providing a number of hours free from work.

  • Leave in Connection with Studies at Higher and Secondary Special Educational Establishments

Employees studying at higher and secondary special educational establishments shall be granted additional leave with the retention of their average wage for the period of participation in laboratory and examination sessions: at least twenty calendar days fbr those who are in the first and second years of evening classes at higher educational establishments, at least ten calendar days for those at secondary special educational establishments, and at least thirty calendar days annually in the case of correspondence courses at higher and secondary special educational establishments; at least thirty calendar days fbr those who are in the third and subsequent years of evening classes at higher educational establishments, at least twenty calendar days fbr those at secondary special establishments, and at least forty calendar days annually in the case of correspondence courses at higher and secondary special educational establishments; at least thirty calendar days for the period of final examinations at higher and secondary special educational establishments; four months for the period of preparation and defence of the dissertation (project) at a higher educational establishment and two months at secondary special educational establishments.

Thirty calendar days* unpaid leave shall be provided to employees in their last year at higher or secondary special educational establishments for the preparation of materials for their dissertation. For the period of such leave, students and trainees shall receive grants on a general basis.

  • Privileges Related to the Payment of Travel Expenses to the Location of an Educational Establishment

An employer shall pay to employees studying at higher and secondary special educational establishments via correspondence courses travel expenses to the location of the educational establishment and back for participation in laboratory and examination sessions once a year in the amount of at least 50% of the travel cost.

Travel expenses shall be paid in the same amount when travelling to prepare and defend a dissertation (project) or taking final examinations.

  • Creative Leave

In order to complete a master’s degree or doctorate or to write books and educational methodological manuals, those who combine production or teaching activities with scientific work shall be provided with creative leave with the retention of their average monthly wage and position at the place of main employment. The procedure for granting creative leave and the length thereof shall be defined by legislation.

  • Immediate Execution of Rulings on Certain Labour Cases

A court ruling to reinstate an employee at his employment when the employment agreement was illegally terminated, or on changing the wording of the grounds for the termination of an employment agreement, or a decision of the authority for the consideration of labour disputes to reinstate an employee who was illegally transferred to different job at his former employment, shall be subject to immediate execution. If the employer delays the execution of such a decision, the authority for consideration of labour disputes which made the decision shall pass an appropriate definition or decision to pay the employee his average wage or the difference in wages in full fbr the entire period of the delay. If an illegally transferred employee applies to court on the grounds of a certificate issued by the commission fbr labour disputes on the enforcement of its decision, the court shall issue a definition on payment to the employee of wages for the period of forced leave caused by the delay in the execution of the decision of the commission fbr labour disputes.

The decision of an authority for the consideration of labour disputes on awarding an employee wages shall also be subject to immediate execution, but within at least three months.

  • Charging an Official in Default of Illegal Termination of an Employment Agreement or Illegal Transfer with Material Liability

Should an official cause damage to an employer in connection with the payment of wages to an employee whose employment agreement was illegally terminated or an employee illegally transferred to a different job, the court shall oblige such official to compensate the damage.

Such obligation shall be imposed if the termination of an employment agreement or transfer were carried out in evident breach of law or if such official delayed the execution of the court ruling relating to reinstatement of employment.

The amount of damage may not exceed three monthly wages of the official. Article 275. Satisfaction of Financial Claims of an Employee

An employer shall have the right to satisfy financial claims of an employee for the entire period without restriction.

If there is a dispute concerning the recovery of payment by the authority fbr the consideration of labour disputes, the following financial claims of an employee shall

be satisfied in full:

-payment of forced leave caused by a delay in the issue of a work record-book to an employee on the termination of an employment agreement;

译文2:

第199条雇员不需承担经济责任的情况

如果是雇员由于特殊情况,正常的经济风险,极其必要性或者必要防卫,从 而对雇主造成损失,雇员不需承担经济责任。第200条 雇主有权拒绝收取雇员 赔偿的损失费

根据引发损失的具体情况,雇主应有权拒绝犯罪雇员赔偿的部分或者全部的 损失费。在国有企业,如果集体协议有规定的话,上述决定是可以采取的。在这 些情况中的损失应由企业的利润来赔偿。

第121条 雇员经济责任的限制范围

雇员对损失所承担的经济责任应在他的月平均工资的范围内,除非是本法规 定的其他情况中。

雇主非法终止就业协议或者非法调动职员到不同的工作岗位,雇主应承担经 济责任,其责任在本法第274规定的范围内

第203条雇员未能按照一份特殊的书面协议确保贵重物品的安全,雇员 应承担全部的经济责任

直接工作内容是贵重物品或者贵重商品的员工,按照一份特殊的书面协议雇主 将贵重物品委托给雇员,雇员未能确保其安全,雇员应承担全部的经济责任。如 果雇员的工作职能不包含直接跟贵重物品或者贵重商品工作,那雇员跟雇主达成 的承担全部的经济责任的协议是无效的。除了就业协议外,大于18周岁的雇员, 目前和以后的直接工作内容是贵重物品或者贵重商品,雇主会跟这些雇员签订一 份特殊的书面协议,内容是关于全部经济责任的承担问题。

一些类型的员工须签订关于全部经济责任的协议,集体协议应确定这些员工的 名单,如果没有达成任何协议的话,则由雇主与工会委员会或者其他雇员代表机 构之间的协议来确定。当工作内容是贵重物品或者贵重商品的员工共同执行工 作,可采用集体(团队)经济责任,企业应按照同样的程序确定部门的名单。如 果员工申请的一份工作(职位)要求签订承担全部经济责任的协议,而雇员拒绝 签订这样的一份协议,雇主有权利拒绝向这种雇员提供工作。

关于承担全部的个人或者集体(团队)经济责任的协议应具体规定合约双方的 职责,关于雇员和集体(团队)应确保委托给他们的贵重物品的安全,协议还应 确定雇员和集体(团队)另外的权利,义务和责任。

根据承担全部个人经济责任的协议,贵重物品应委托给某个特定的雇员,他保管 物品的过程中造成的任何失误都应由个人承担。为了解除责任,与雇主签订合约 的雇员必须证明自己无罪。

根据承担集体(团队)经济责任的协议,贵重物品应委托给先前设立的员工组(团 队),如果未能确保物品的安全,他们会被控告承担承担全部的经济责任。为了 解除责任,团队的一个成员必须证明自己无罪。

第14章 某些类型的员工的额外保障和特权

1.对女人和须承担家庭必要责任的人员的保障

第224条 对怀孕女人和有小孩的女人的工作保障

由于怀孕或者照顾小孩而拒绝女人就业,或者减少她们的工资,这都是不允许 的。如果雇主拒绝聘用一个怀孕的女人或者小孩小于三岁的女人,雇主有义务以 书面形式通知她拒聘的原因。这些人员可以将这种拒聘行为上述到法院。

第225条 女人不能做的工作

应禁止使用女人在恶劣的劳动条件下工作,以及不允许女人从事地下工作, 除非是地下工作的某些类型(非体力工作或者与卫生或社会服务相关的工作)。 对于超过为女人设置的最大重量的重物,禁止女人提和搬运。

乌兹别克斯坦共和国劳动和社会保障部,以及跟乌兹别克斯坦工会联邦委员会和 雇主的代表达成了协议的乌兹别克斯坦共和国卫生部,应确定工作条件恶劣的工 作的名单,禁止在这些工作中使用女性劳动力,以及确定允许女人提和搬运的最 大重量。

第226条 调动怀孕女员工到更为轻松的岗位或者不受不利的工业因素影响的岗 位

根据健康报告,允许怀孕女员工降低工作效率和减少工作任务,或者调动怀孕女 员工到更为轻松的岗位或者不受不利的工业因素影响的岗位,但是保留她们原先 岗位的平均月工资。

关于调动怀孕女员工到更为轻松的岗位或者不受不利的工业因素影响的岗位,在 解决这件事之前,应解除怀孕女员工的工作,在所有过去的日子中,保留雇员的 月平均工资。

第227条调动小孩小于2周岁的女员工到更为轻松的岗位或者不受不利的工业 因素影响的岗位

如果小孩小于2周岁的女员工不可能从事原来的工作,她们应被调到更为轻松的 岗位或者不受不利的工业因素影响的岗位,但是保留她们原来岗位的月平均工 资,直到她们的小孩满了两周岁。

第228条 限制女人在夜间工作,加班,在周末工作或者商务旅行

没有得到怀孕女员工或者小孩小于14周岁(小于16周岁的残疾小孩)的女员工 的同意,不能强迫她们在夜间工作,加班,在周末工作或者被派遣进行商务旅行。 然而,怀孕女员工或者小孩小于3周岁的女员工可以在夜间工作,除非是有医疗 报告证明这种工作不会威胁到母亲或者小孩的健康。

第228条小孩小于3周岁,并在机构和组织工作的女员工有权利得到国家预算 的资助,减少其工作时间

小孩小于3周岁,并在机构和组织工作的女员工有权利得到国家预算的资助, 减少其工作时间,她们的工作时间每星期不应超过35小时。

本条款的第一部分规定的女人减少了工作时间后的工资,即雇主应向她们支付 跟全程参加日常工作的员工的一样数额的工资。

第229条确定为妇女和需承担家庭责任的人员减少工作时间

按照怀孕女员工,孩子小于14周岁的女员工(小于16周岁的残疾人员),包 括自己照顾小孩,或者是根据医疗报告,需照顾患病的家庭成员的员工,这上述 员工的要求下,雇主应有义务减少他们工作日或者工作周的工作。

第230条 额外的一天假

对于抚养小于16周岁以下的残疾小孩的单亲父亲或者母亲(监护者,养父或养 母),雇主应向他们提供额外的一天假,但是应支付日常工资,这份工资由国家 社会保险资助。

第231条为女人确立年休假的优先权,作为女人的特权

怀孕女员工和刚生完小孩的女员工可以自己决定是否休年假,她们各自是在 产假前还是产假后休假或者是育儿假前还是育儿假后休假,这由她们自己决定。

单身父母亲(寡妇,鳏夫,离婚者,单身母亲)和在军队服定期兵役的人员 的妻子,如果他们抚养一个和多个小于14周岁的孩子(小于16周岁的残疾小孩), 雇主应准许他们自己决定休年假的时间,是在夏天还是其他任何合适的时候。(第 144 条)

第232条 对小孩小于12周岁或者是残疾小孩小于16周岁的女员工的额外 休假

如果女员工有两个或者多个小于12周岁的小孩或者有一个小于16周岁的残 疾小孩,雇主应允许她们每年休一个额外的假期,休假期的工资应至少是三个工 作日的工资。

如果女员工有两个或者多个小于12周岁的小孩或者有一个小于16周岁的残 疾小孩,她们可以决定每年休一个至少14个日历日的无薪假期,雇主应准许她 们的这个休假。这种休假可以加入年休假中,或者在与雇主确立的协议确定的时 期内,这些休假跟年休假分开(全部或者部分)

第233条产假

在生产之前,女员工准许休70日历天的产假,在生产后,准许休56日历天 的产假(如果出现并发症或者是多胞胎,则休70个R历天),这段时间的报酬 由国家社会保险支付。

不管前女员工在生产休假的天数,雇主都应计算全部的产假天数,并准许女员工 休全部天数的产假。

第234条 照顾年纪在2周岁到3周岁的小孩的休假

在产假期期满后,女员工决定是否继续休假直到小孩满两周岁,雇主应准许这 个休假,按照立法规定的程序,雇主在这段时间内应支付女员工报酬。

女员工也可以自己决定休无报酬的假期,照顾小孩直到小孩满三周岁,雇主应 准许这个休假。

孩子的父亲,祖母,祖父,或者其他真正照顾小孩的亲戚也可使用育儿假的一 部分或者全部。

女员工或者本条款的第三部分指出的人员,在育儿假期间,在与雇主达成协议 的情况下,他们可以不用工作正常的工作时数,或者他们可以在家中工作,这些 他们可以自主决定。

在育儿假期间,女员工应保留她的工作(职位)。这种休假应包括在工龄中,工 龄包括在一个专业化工作的工作天数。

除非是集体协议或者是企业的局部法规或者就业协议规定的其他情况,否则育儿 假不应加入工龄中,而工龄允许雇员有权利休随后的带薪年假,

第235条 收养新生婴儿或者养子女的人员的休假

员工如果直接从一家妇产医院领养新生婴儿或者已经收养了婴儿,雇主应准 许他们从领养(收养)日开始休假,假期是从婴儿出生算起的56个日历天(如 果领养(收养)两个或者多个新生婴儿,则是70个日历天),员工在这段时间 内的报酬由国家社会保险支付,而他们也可以自己决定是否体育儿假,直到小孩 满3周岁。(第134条)

第236条喂养小孩的休息时间

小孩小于2周岁的女员工,除了休息和吃饭的休息时间外,应准许她们有喂 养小孩的额外休息时间。至少每三个小时要有这样的休息时间,每次这少要30 分钟。如果女员工有两个或者多个小于2周岁的小孩,每次的休息时间应确定为 至少一个小时。

喂养小孩的休息时间应包括在工作时间内,且雇主应以月平均工资比率支付 报酬。

在女员工自己的意愿下,喂养小孩的休息时间可以放在休息和吃饭的休息时 间内,或者附于总休息时间内,或者在适当减少了工作时数的工作日(轮班)开 始或者结束。

集体协议应确定这种休息具体休息多久,以及准许这些休息时间的程序,如 果没有达成任何协议,则由雇主跟工会委员会或者其他雇员的代表机构之间的协 议来确定。

第237条 终止就业协议时,对怀孕女员工和有小孩的女员工的保障

雇主不能主动提出跟怀孕女员工和有小孩小于3周岁的女员工终止就业协 议,除非是企业正进行彻底清算,在这种情况中,允许雇主跟这些员工终止就业 协议,但是雇主应有责任保障她们后面的就业。当地职业介绍所应雇用这些女人, 在她们求职期间,应确保这些女员工接收到适当的社会补贴,这些补贴是立法所 确定的。

本条款的第一部分指出的女员工,如果由于协议期期满,雇主要终止跟她们的就 业协议,那雇主必须要给这些女员工提供就业。在这些女员工求职期间,应保留 她们的工资,但是不能超过终止就业协议后的三个月。

第238条抚养没有母亲的孩子的人员的保障和特权

.怀孕和照顾小孩的妇女得到的保障和特权(限制夜间工作和加班,在休息日工 作,商务旅行,准许额外的休假,设立妇女有特权的工作制度,以及立法和跟劳 工相关的其他监管法案确定的保障和特权),这些保障和特权应适用于抚养没有 母亲的小孩的父亲(如果是母亲死亡,被剥夺了父母权利,长期在家医疗机构养 病,以及没有母亲照顾的其他情况)和未成年人的监护人(养父母)。

本条款的第一部分规定的保障和特权也应准予给实际抚养小孩(失去父母的 照顾)的祖母,祖父或者其他亲戚。

3.对将工作与学习结合起来的员工的特权

第248条 创造条件来结合工作和学习

针对正在接受企业的专业培训的雇员,以及在教育机构提高工作资质或者利 用部分时间在教育机构进行学习的雇员,雇主有义务创造必要的条件,便于雇员 将工作和学习结合在一起。

第247条在教育机构学习的雇员的特权

如果雇员利用部分时间在教育机构学习且遵守学校的课程,他们有权在工作期 间休额外的带薪假,有权享受减少了工作日的工作周以及有权享受立法和跟劳工 相关的其他监管法案确定的特权。

第248条在企业兼职的教育机构的学生的年休假时间

在兼职学生的考试时间,实验课程时间和考试课程时间,雇主有义务为兼职学生 安排年休假,学生可以自己决定是否在这些时间休假。

第249条为中等学校的学生雇员减少工作时间

在一个学年内,将中等学校的学习和工作成功结合的雇员,雇主应减少他们在工 作周中的工作日或者是减少相关的工作时间(如果在这周内已减少了工作日), 而对于在农村地区的中等学校学习的雇员,雇主应给他们的工作周减少两个工作 日,或者相应的工作时间(如果在这周内已减少了工作日)。

在每周六天工作制或者是相应数目的工作时间的情况中,中等学校的学生在一个 学年中至少可以有36个工作日不用工作。而在每周六天工作制的情况下,不用 工作的工作时数的总数是一样的,而不用工作的工作日的天数则应根据工作轮班 而改变。

在没有参与工作的这些期间,雇主至少应支付给这些学生雇员他们在主要工作地 点的平均工资的50%,但是不能低于确定的最低工资金额。

第252条 中等学校的学生的休假

在中等学校学习的雇员,在学校的第11 (12)年,雇主应在他们的期末期间, 给他们提供一个至少20个工作日的休假,而在学校的第9年的期满期间,则至 少提供8个工作H的休假,且保留他们工作地点的平均工资。

在这些学校的第五,六,七,八,九,十或十一年的学生,雇主应根据本法的 第251条减少这些学生的工作天数(8到12天),在他们当前的考试时期,立 法应确定4到6天的休假,并保留他们在主要工作地点的平均工资,

第253条跟职业和技术学校学习相关的休假

晚上在职业和技术学校学习的雇员,在一年中,雇主应准许他们至少30个工作 日不用工作,用来准备和参加考试。

第254条 参加高等和中等职业教育机构的入学考试的雇员的休假

雇员如果通过了高等教育机构的入学考试,在他们入学时间,雇主应向他们提供 至少15个日历日的不带薪休假,雇员如果通过了中等职业教育机构的入学考试, 在他们入学时间,雇主应向他们提供至少10个日历日的休假,休假不包括去教 育机构的途中所花的时间以及从学校返回所花的时间。

第255条 高等教育机构的半日制学生在工作时间上的特权

业余时间在高等教育机构学习的雇员,在每周六天工作制的情况中,在论文(项 目)或者期末考试开始之前的十个月内,雇主应准许他们每星期至少休一天假, 从而让他们有时间准备课堂内容,在这段时间,雇主应保留他们的平均工资。在 每周五天工作制的情况中,休假的天数应根据轮班的天数而变化,轮班可以让雇 员在一些小时中不用工作。

第256条 在高等和中等教育机构学习的雇员的相关休假

在高等和中等技术教育机构学习的雇员,在他们参加实验和考试课程的期间,雇 主应准许他们休额外的假期,并保留他们的平均工资:对于在高等教育机构的夜 校学习的第一年和第二年的雇员,他们的额外假期至少是20个日历天,对于在 中等技术教育机构学习的雇员,他们的额外假期至少是10个日历天,以及每年 在高等和中等职业教育机构接受函授课程的雇员,他们的额外假期至少是30个 日历天;对于在高等教育机构的夜校学习的第三年和随后的年份中,雇员的额外 假期至少是30个日历天,以及在高等和中等职业教育机构接受函授课程的这些 雇员,他们的额外假期至少是40个FI历天;雇员在高等和中等职业教育机构的 期末考试期间,他们的额外假期至少是30个R历天;雇员在高等教育机构准备 论文材料和做论文(项目)答辩的期间,他们的额外假期是至少四个月;雇员在 中等职业教育机构准备论文材料和做论文’(项目)答辩的期间,他们的额外假期 是至少两个月; 雇员在高等或者中等职业教育机构的最后一年,他们需要准备论文的材料,雇主 应准许雇员在这段时间休30个日历天的不带薪假期。在这些假期期间,按照一 般情况,给予学生和培训生补助金。

第257条雇员的相关特权,即雇主支付雇员去教育机构的差旅费,

在高等和中等职业教育机构学习函授课程的雇员,雇员去教育机构的差旅费, 以及每年去学校参与实验和考试课程的差旅费,雇员至少应支付这些差旅费的 50%o

当雇员是去准备撰写论文和做论文(项目)答辩或者是参加期末考试,雇主应 支付给雇员相同数额的差旅费。

第258条创造性的休假

雇员为了完成硕士学位或者博士学位或者为了写书和教育方法手册,这些雇员将 工作或者教学活动跟科学工作结合起来,雇主应向他们提供创造性的休假,并保 留他们的月工资和主要工作地点的职位。立法应确定准许创造性休假的程序以及 这些休假的天数。

第273条 在一些劳工情况中立即执行法院的判决

当雇员的就业协议是被非法终止的,雇员应恢复工作的法院判决,或者更改终止 就业协议的理由的措辞的判决,或者由于雇员被非法调动一个不同的岗位,处理 劳资纠纷的机构做出决策,要求雇主恢复雇员原来的工作,以上判决或者决策都 应立即执行。如果雇主延误这样一个决策的执行,做出决策的处理劳资纠纷的机 构应通过一个适当的决议或者决定,即在整个延误的时间内,雇主应支付给雇员 平均工资或者全部工资的差额。如果被非法调动的职员向法院提出申请,证据是 劳资委员会发布的执行决策的证明单,法院应做出判决,由于雇主延误劳资纠纷 委员会执行决策,从而导致雇员被迫休假,这段休假时期内的工资由雇主支付给 雇员。

处理劳资纠纷的机构做出的决策,即要求雇主给雇员增加工资,这个决策也应立 即执行,至少应该是在三个内执行决策。

第274条 高级职员违法协议,非法终止就业协议或者非法调动雇员,控告这些 高级的经济责任

雇员的就业协议被非法终止,或者雇员被非法调动到不同的工作岗位上,由于这 些雇员的报酬的相关问题,高级职员对雇主造成损失,法院应判决这些高级雇员 赔偿损失。

如果终止就业协议或者调动明显违反了法律,或者如果法院做出恢复员工工作的 判决,这些高级职员延误其执行的话,这些高级职员应被法院强迫承担这种责任。 第275条满足顾客的经济要求

雇主有权利在这个雇员工作时期内满足雇员的经济要求,这没有时间限制。

关于处理劳资纠纷的机构恢复职员报酬,如果出现了的纠纷,雇员的下述经济 要求应得到全部的满足:

一雇员被终止就业协议,雇主延误向其发放工作履历表,从而使雇员被迫休假, 这个休假期的报酬应得到支付。

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