英语翻译基础——英语长句的处理

English Long Sentences
英语长句的翻译

Teaching Outline

  • Student’s Presentation
  • I love my love with an E
  • How to analyze long sentences?
  • Two Stages and Five Steps
  • Methods of Translating Long English Sentences
  • Attributive Clauses

I文字游戏的翻译

I love my love with an E because she’s enticing; I Hate her with an E because shes engaged. I took Her to the sign of the exquisite, and treated her with an elopement, Her name’s (Emily, and she lives in the east?

一-(David CopperfieH, XXII)

I董秋斯译文

  • 我爱我的爱人为了一个E,
  • 因为她是Enticing (迷人的);
  • 我恨我的爱人为了一个E,
  • 因为她是Engaged (订了婚的)。
  • 我用我的爱人象征Exquisite (美妙),
  • 我劝我的爱人从事Elopement (私奔),
  • 她的名字是Emily(艾米丽),她的住处在East (东方)?

I张谷若译文

  • 我爱我的所受,国,施衣的实位和人受。我根 我的所受,因,施系©想我的爱。我带着也割 枝弟浮嚼3招牌的一家,布施集情说爱。我帮 也看一出潜迩松春,,的是我方施犍及久你秦 我爱。抱的名儿叫做艾米系,抱的家傕我爱河 里。

I其他译本

  • 我爰我的爰人,因为她很逑人;我恨我的爰人,

因已许配他人;她在我心中是美人,我带她私 奔,以避开外人;她名叫虞美人,是东方丽人。

  • 老爱者爱,国俨可爱,,老根者爱,国俨另1所 爱。名祝舍爱,神唆之爱,舍就舍爱,布地为 爱;者爱名爱来乐,召东方之爱。
  • 我爱我的那个“丽”,可爱迷人有魅力;我恨 我的那个“丽”,要和他人结伉俪;她文雅大 方又美丽;和我出逃去游历;她芳名就叫艾米 丽,家住东方人俏丽。(马红军)

>英语长句的分析

■在英语文章中,特别是科技和文学作品中,经常出现结构复杂 的长句子,在一主句中包含多a从句。

■ 一般来说,造成长句的原因有三方面:(1)修饰语过多;⑵ 并列成分多;(3)语言结构层次多。在分析长句时可以采用下 面的方法:

(1)找出全句的主语、谓语和宾语,从整体上把握句子的结构。

(2)找出句中所有的谓语结构、非谓语动词、介词短语和从句 的引导词。

(3)分析从句和短语的功能,例如,是否为主语从句,宾语从 句,表语从句等,若是状语,它是表示时间、原因、结果、还 是表示条件等等)

(4)分析词、短语和从句之间的相互关系,例如,定语从句所 修饰的先行词是哪一个等。

(5)注意插入语等其他成分。

(6)注意分析句子中是否有固定词组或固定搭配。

■ ① How it happened ② that a little rocky peninsula in a remote corner of the Mediterranean was able to provide our world ③ in less than two centuries ④ with the complete framework for all our present day experiments in politics, literature, drama, sculpture, chemistry, physics ⑤ and Heaven knows what else, @ is a question ⑦ which has puzzled a great many people for a great many centuries ⑧ and to which every philosopher,⑨ at one time or another during his career, ©has tried to give an answer.(选自美国作家Hendrik Willem van Loon的名著 Tolerance二章第一段)

■每个部分的意思分别翻逵出来:

①它是如何发生的②地中海遥远角落的一个小岩石半岛能够 为我们的世界提供③在不到两个世纪之内④我们当代政治、 文学、戏剧、雕刻、化学、物理学的完整框架⑤上帝知道还有 些什么⑥是一个问题⑦(这个问题)许多世纪以来困惑了许多人 ⑧(对这个问题)每个哲学家⑨在他学术生涯的某个时候⑩尝 试找出答案。

■最后,将各个部分的意思合并重组:

地中海遥远角落的一个小岩石半岛,如何能够在 不到两个世纪之内,为我们的世界提供我们当代政治、 文学、戏剧、雕刻、化学、物理学(上帝知道还有些 什么)的完整框架,这个问题许多世纪以来困惑了许 多人,对这个问题,每个哲学家在他学术生涯的某个 时候,都会尝试找出答案。

■对于每一个英语长句,并不只用一种翻译方法,而是多 种翻译方法的综合运用。翻译长句时,首先,不要因 为句子太长而产生畏惧心理,因为,无论是多么复杂 的句子,它都是由一些基本的成分组成的。其次要弄 清英语原文的句法结构,找出整个句子的中心内容及 其各层意思,然后分析几层意思之间的相互逻辑关系, 正按照汉语的特点和表达方式,正确地译出原文的意 思,不必拘泥于原文的形式。

  • For a family of four, for example, it is more convenient as well as cheaper to sit comfortably at home, with almost unlimited entertainment available, than to go out in search of amusement elsewhere.
  • 分析:(1)骨干结构为比较结构it is more … to do sth than to do sth else.石且是在两个不定式之间进行比较。

(2)该句中共有三个谓声结构,it是形式主语,真正的主语为:to sit comfortably at home,并与 to go out in search of amusement elsewhere 作 t 匕较。

(3)句首的for a family of four作状语,表示条件。另夕卜,还有两 个介词短语作插入语:for example, with almost unlimited entertainment available,其中第二个介词短语作伴随状语,修饰to sit comfortably at home.

  • 试译:譬如,对于一个四口之家来说,舒舒服服地在家中 的地方去消遣又便宜又方便C

Two Stages and Five Steps

Stage I Comprehension

Stage II Presentation

  • Step 1: presenting the long sentence in a skeleton form

Step 2: inferring the main idea from the context and the whole text

Step 3: distinguishing between the principal and subordinate elements and find out the interrelations between principal and subordinate clauses

Stage II Presentation

  • Step 4: entering on a tentative translation of each sentence division

Step 5: rearrangement and finishing touches

Methods of Translating Long English Sentences

  • 1 .顺序法
  • Reversing倒置法/逆序法
  • Embedding 内嵌法
  • Dividing 切分法
  • Splitting 拆分法
  • Inserting 插入法
  • Recasting重组法/综合法
  • .顺序法
  • 当英语长句的内容的叙述层次与汉语基本一致时,可以按 照英语原文的顺序翻译成汉语。
  • 伤IL Even when we turn off the beside lamp and are fast asleep, electricity is working fbr us, driving our refrigerators, heating our water, or keeping our rooms air-conditioned.

分析:该句子由一个主句,三个作伴随状语的现在分词 以及位于句首的时间状语从句组成,共有五层意思:A. 既使在我们关掉了床头灯深深地进入梦乡时;B.电仍在为 我们工作;C.帮我们开动电冰箱;D.加热水;E.或是 室内空调机继续运转。上述五层意思的逻辑关系以及表达 的顺序与汉语完全一致,因此,该句可译为:

即使在我们关掉了床头灯深深地进入梦乡时,电仍在为 我们工作:帮我们开动电冰箱,把水加热,或使室内空调机 继续运转。

  • 伤) Prior to the twentieth century, women in novels were stereotypes of lacking any features that made them unique individuals and were also subject to numerous restrictions imposed by the male- dominated culture.
  • 在20世纪以前,小说中的妇女像都是一个模式。 她们没有任何特点,因而无法成为具有个性的人; 他们还要屈从于由男性主宰的文化传统强加给他 们的种种束缚。
  • 英语有些长句的表达次序与汉语表达习惯不同,甚至完全相反,这 后必须从原文后山开始翻译。
  • 伤J1 . Aluminum remained unknown until the nineteenth century, because nowhere in nature is it found free, owing to its always being combined with other elements, most commonly with oxygen, fbr which it has a strong affinity.
  • 分析:这个句子由一个主句,两个原因状语和一个定语从句「铝直 到19世纪才被人发现”是主句,也是全句的中心内容,全句共有四 个谓语结构,共有五层意思:铝直到19世纪才被人发现;B.由于 在自然界找不到游离状态的铝;C.由于它总是跟其他元素结合在一 起;D.最普遍的是跟氧结合;E.铝跟氧有很强的亲和力。按照汉语 的表达习惯通常因在前,果在后,这样,我们可以逆着原文的顺序把 该句翻译成:
  • 铝总是跟其他元素结合在一起,最普遍的是跟氧结合;因为铝跟氧

有很强的亲和力,由于这个原因,在自然界找不到游离状态的铝。 所以,铝直到19世纪才被人发现。

  • It is probably easier fbr teachers than fbr students to appreciate the reasons why learning English seems to become increasingly difficult once the basic structures and patterns of the language have been understood.
  • 一旦了解英语的基本结构和句型,再往下学似乎就

越来越难了,这其中的原因,也许教师比学生更容易 理解。

  • Such is human nature in the West that a great many people are often willing to sacrifice higher pay fbr the privilege of becoming white-collar workers.
  • 许多人常常宁愿牺牲比较高的工资以换取白领工人 的社会地位,这在西方倒是人之常情。
  • In reality, the lines of division between sciences are becoming blurred, and science is again approaching the “unity” that it had two centuries ago—although the accumulated knowledge is enormously greater now, and no one person can hope to comprehend more than a fraction of it.
  • 虽然现在积累起来的知识要多得多,而且任何个 人也只可能了解其中的一小部分,但事实上,各 学科之间界限却变得模糊不清,科学再次近似于 两百年前那样的“单一整体”。
  • Embedding means placing the modifiers before the word being modified,
  • Congress had made laws requiring most pressure groups to give information about how much they spend and how they spent it, the amount and sources of funds, membership, and names and salaries of their representatives.

国会已制定法律,要求大部分压力集团呈报他们花费了 多少钱,怎样花的,款项的总额以及来源、成员人数、 代表的姓名和薪金等情况。

  • There is no class war, but a war in which the whole British Empire and Commonwealth of Nations is engaged, without distinction of race, creed, or party.
  • 这不是一场阶级之间的战争,而是一场不分种族、不 分信仰,不分党派,整个大英帝国及英联邦全体成员 国无不参加的战争。
  • A molecule may be considered as the smallest particle of matter that can exist without changing its nature.
  • 可以认为,分子是在不改变物质性质的情况下能 够存社物尿最小微粒。
  • In 1970, he was placed under house arrest when he refused to use massive force in suppressing worker riots on the seacoast.
  • 1970年他因拒绝使用武力大规模镇压沿海城市的工 人骚乱而被软禁。

By means of dividing, we may break up a long English sentence into different parts according to its sense groups, and then translate each part one by one into Chinese.

有时英语长句中主语或主句与修饰词的关系并不十分密切, 翻译时可以按照汉语多用短句的习惯,把长句的从句或短语 化成句子,分开来叙述,为了使语意连贯,有时需要适当增加

词语。

■ Human beings have distinguished themselves from other animals, and in doing so ensured their survival, by the ability to observe and understand their environment and then either to adapt to that environment or to control and adapt it to their own needs. –1 1

■人类把自己和其他动物区别开来。与此同时,人类还具有 观察和了解周围环境的能力。他们要么适应环境,要么控 制环境,或根据自身的需要改造环境。人类就这样一代代 地生存下来。

 

  1. Splitting 拆分法
  • By splitting we mean taking certain elements out of a sentence and treating them separately.
  • The number of the young people in the United States who can’t read is incredible about one in four.
  • *没有阅读能力的美国青年人的数目令人难以相信约为 1/4o
  • 大约有1/4的美国青年人没有阅读能力,这简直令人难以 置信。
  • An outsider’s success could even curiously help two parties to get the agreement they want.
  • 说来也怪,一个局外人取得的成功竟然能够促使双方达 成一项他们希望得到的协议。
    • Inserting 插入法
  • By inserting here we mean putting some additional punctuation marks such as dash, parenthesis, colon, etc., in a long and complex sentence so as to make the Chinese version both clear and smooth.
  • The second aspect is the application by all members of society from the government official to the ordinary citizen, of the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in their work.
  • 第二个方面是全体社会成员(从政府官员到普通公民)都使用科 学家们在他们工作中所采用的那种特殊的思考方法和行为方法。
  • If you go to visit NobePs old residence, the house in which the great chemist remained a bachelor throughout his life, you will catch sight of a shelf laden with experimental records.
  • 如果你参观诺贝尔的故居——在那座房子里,这位伟大的化学家 过了一辈子的独身生活——你将看到一个堆满实验记录的书架。
  1. Recasting重组法/综合法

■在一些情况下,一些英语长句单纯采用上述任何一种方法都不 方便,这就需要我们的仔细分析,或按照时间的先后,或按照逻辑 顺序,顺逆结合,主次分明地对全句进行综合处理,以便把英语原 文翻译成通顺忠实的汉语句子。

■ 例1. People were afraid to leave their houses, for although the police had been ordered to stand by in case of emergency, they were just as confused and helpless as anybody else.

分析:该句共有三层含义:A:人们不敢出门;B:尽管警察已接 到命令,要作好准备以应付紧急情况;C:警察也和其他人一样不 知所措和无能为力。在这三层含义中,B表示让步,C表示原因, 而A则表示结果,按照汉语习惯顺序,我们作如下的安排:

尽管警察已接到命令,要作好准备以应付紧急情 况,但人们不敢出门,因为警察也和其他人一样不知 所措和无能为力。

  • Smith resumed the activities of anti-cancer

experiment begun in 1975 and financed by the Federal government as soon as he snapped from his original disappointment at repeated failures, which had resulted in their forced

suspension.

  • 史密斯医生于1975年开始着手由联邦政府资助的 抗癌实验。他由于屡遭失败而感到沮丧,被迫终 止了实验工作。现在他又重新振作起来,恢复了 抗癌实验活动。
  • Modem scientific and technical books, especially textbooks, requires revision at short intervals if their authors wish to keep pace with new ideas, observations and discoveries.
  • 大对于现代书籍,特别是教科书来说,要是作者希望自己书 中的内容能与新概念、新观察到的挛实和新发现同步发展 的话,那么就应该每隔较短的时间,将书中的内容重新修改。
  • Up to the present time, throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, this new tendency placed the home in the immediate suburbs, but concentrated manufacturing activity, business relations, government, and pleasure in the centers of the cities.
  • 大到目前为止,经历了 18和19两个世纪,这种新的倾向是把 住宅安排在城市的近郊,而把生产活动、商业往来、政府 部门以及娱乐场所都集中在城市的中心地区。

定语从句 的翻译Attributive Clauses

  • A Comparative Study of English and Chinese Attributive
  • IL Translation of Restrictive Attributive Clauses
  • HL Translating NonRestrictive Attributive Clauses『W W . d 0 C i Fl . CO ITI
  • Attributive Clauses Functioning as Adverbials

A Comparative Study of English and Chinese Attributive Structures

  • This is the cat.这就是那只猫。
  • This is the cat that killed the rat.
  • 这就是那只捕杀了老鼠的猫。
  • This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the cake.
  • *这就是那只捕杀了偷吃了蛋糕的老鼠的猫。
  • This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the cake that was put in the house.
  • *这就是那只捕杀了偷吃了放在房间里的蛋糕的老鼠的 猫。 / . UOC1T1, corn
  • This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the cake that was put in the house that Jack built.
  • *这就是那只捕杀了偷吃了放在杰克修建的房间里的蛋 糕的老鼠的猫。

Translation of Restrictive Attributive Clauses

  1. Combination:把从句译为带“的”的定语短语,放在被修 饰词前,将复合句译成汉语单句。又称“前置法”。
  • The people who worked for him lived in mortal fear of him.
  • 在他手下工作的人对他怕得要死。
  • Pollution is a pressing problem which we must deal with.
  • 污染是我们必须解决的一个迫切问题。
  • July and August are the months when the weather is hot.
  • 七八月是天气很热的月份。
  • In the room where the electronic computer is kept, there must be no dust at alL
  • 在存放电子计算机的房间里,不能有一点儿灰尘。

如果从句结构复杂,译成汉语前置定语显得太长而不符合汉语表达 习惯时,往往译成后置的并列分句。可以译成并列分句,重复英语 先行词,如:

Between these two tiny particles, the proton and the electron, there is a powerful attraction that is always present between negative and positive electric charges.

在质子和电子这两个微粒之间有一个很大的吸引力, 总是存在于正负电荷之间。

  • He managed to raise a crop of 200 miracle tomatoes that weight up to two pounds each.
  • 他种出了 200个大得惊人的西红柿,每个重达两磅。
  • A fuel is a material which will burn at a reasonable temperature and produce heat.
  • 燃料是一种物质,在适当温度下能够燃烧并放出热量。
  • They worked out a new method by which production has now been rapidly
  • 他们制定出一种新方法,采用之后生产已迅速得到提高。
  • They are striving for the ideal which is close to the heart of every Chinese and for which, in the past, many Chinese have laid down their lives.
  • 他们正在为实现一个理想而努力,这个理想是每个中国人所珍爱的, 在过去,许多中国人曾为了这个理想而牺牲了自己的生命。
  • 溶合法是把原句中的主语和定语从句溶合在一起译成一个独立的 句子的一种翻译方法。(There be结构句子往往这样处理)
  • There were men in that crowd who had stood there every day for a month.
  • 在那群人中,有些人每天站在那里,站了一个月。
  • There is a man downstairs who wants to see you.
  • 楼下有人要见你。
  • Fortunately, there are some chemical fuels that areclean and smokeless.
  • 幸好有些化学燃料是洁净无烟的。
  • There aresome metals which posses the power to conduct electricity and the ability to be magnetized.
  • 某些金属既能导电,又能被磁化。
  • There are many people who want to see the film.
  • 许多人要看这部电影。
  • 还有一些定语从句,译成汉语时可将英语主句压缩成汉 语词组作主语,而把定语从句译成谓语,溶合成一个句子。
  • We are a nation that must beg to stay alive/1said a foreign economist.
  • 一位外国经济学家说道,“我们这个国家不讨饭就活不下 去。”
  • We used a plane of which almost every part carried some identification of national identity.
  • 我们驾驶的飞机几乎每一个部件都有国籍的某些标志。
  • Good clocks have pendulums which are automatically compensated for temperature changes.
  • 好的钟摆可以自动补偿温度变化造成的误差。
  • Translating Non-Restrictive Attributive Clauses
  • 在译文中把原文从句后置,重复关系词所代表 的汉译,译成并列分句。
  • I told the story to John, who told it to his brother.
  • 我把这件事告诉了约翰,约翰又告诉了他的兄弟.
  • This is a college of science and technology, the students of which are trained to be engineers or scientists.
  • 这是一所科技大学,该校学生将被培养成工程师 或科学工作者。

2,前置法:一些较短的具有描写性的从句也可译成 带”的”的前置短语,放在被修饰词前面

  • Transistors, which are small in size, can make previously large and bulky radios light and small.
  • 采用体积较小的晶体管可以使先前那种大而笨的收音机变 得又轻又小。
  • The sun, which had hidden all day, now came out in all its splendor.
  • 整天躲在云层里的太阳,现在又光芒四射地露面了.
  • The emphasis was helped by the speakers mouth, which was wide, thin and hard set.
  • 讲话人那又阔又薄又紧绷绷的嘴巴,帮助他加强了语气。
  • But Miggles laugh, which was very infectious, broke the
  • 密格尔的富有感染力的笑声打破了静默。

3.译成独立句

  • One time there was a violent thunderstorm, the worst I had ever seen,which obscured my objective.
  • 有一次是暴风骤雨,猛烈的程度实为我平生所仅见。 这场暴风雨遮住了我的目标。
  • Nevertheless the problem was solved successfully, which showed that the computations were accurate.
  • 不过,问题还是圆满地解决了。这说明计算很准确。
  1. Attributive Clauses Functioning as Adverbials
  • 1 .Translating into Chinese Adverbial Clauses of Cause
  • 2, Translating into Chinese Adverbial Clauses of Result
  • Translating into Chinese Adverbial Clauses of Concession .

VAZXAAAA <?lCCI C CGm

  • “Translating into Chinese AdverbialVQIause of ConcHtion
  • Translating into Chinese Adverbial Clauses of Purpose

1 .Translating into Chinese Adverbial

Clauses of Cause

  • We know that a cat, whose eyes can take in many more rays than our eyes, can see clearly in the night.
  • 我们知道,由于猫的眼睛比我们人的眼睛能吸 收更多的光线,所以猫在黑夜也能看的很清楚。
  • You must grasp the concept of “work” which is very important in physics.
  • 你必须掌握“功”的概念,因为它在物理学中 很重要。
  1. Translating into Chinese Adverbial Clauses of Result
  • There was something original, independent, and heroic about the plan that pleased all of them.
  • 这个方案富于创造性,独具一格,很有魄力, 因此他们都很喜欢。
  • Copper, which is used so widely for carrying electricity, offers very little resistance.
  • 铜的电阻很小,所以广泛地用来传输电力。
  1. Translating into Chinese Adverbial Clauses of Concession
  • He insisted on building another house, which he had no use for.
  • 他坚持要再造一幢房子,尽管他并无此需要.
  • Electronic computers, which have many advantages, cannot carry out creative work and replace man.
  • 尽管电子计算机有许多优点,但是它们不能进 行创造性工作,也不能代替人。
  • .Translating into Chinese Adverbial

Clause of Condition

  • Men become desperate for work, any work, which will help them to keep alive their families.
  • 人们拼命想得到工作,不管什么工作,只要能 维持一家人的生活就行。
  • For any machine whose input and output forces are known, its mechanical advantage can be calculated.
  • 对于任何机器来说,如果知其输入力和输出力, 旎能求出其机械效率。
  • . Translating into Chinese Adverbial Clauses of Purpose
  • They have built up a new college here, where students will be trained to be engineers and scientists.
  • 他们在这里建了一所学院,以培养科技人才
  • HI try to get an illustrated dictionary dealing with technical terms, which will enable me to translate scientific literature more exactly.
  • 我要设法^’本有插图的技术名词词典,以便 把科学文献译得更准确。

References for further study

  • 英汉互译实践与技巧unit 9,名词性从句unit 10,定语从句unit 11状语从句
  • 英汉翻译基础教程第四单元(P46-56)

,、测试要求:

汉译英项目要求应试者运用汉译英的理论和技巧, 翻译我国报刊杂志上论述文和国情介绍,以及一般文 学作品的节录。速度为每小时250汉字。译文必须忠 实原意,语言通顺。

英译汉项目要求应试者运用英译汉的理论和技巧, 翻译英、美报刊杂志上有关政治、经济、历史、文化 等方面的论述文以及文学原著的节录。速度为每小时 约250词。译文要求忠实原意,语言流畅。

二、命题特点:

  • 1、题型:

本题分为两项:Section A及Section B。 考试时间共计60分钟。

  • 分别由一段300词左右的汉语(英语)短

文所组成,其中有一个150词左右的段落被底 线画出。要求根据上下文将此段落译成英语

(汉语)。

|汉译英真题(1994)

  • 人是一个非常复杂的矛盾体。为了不受干扰地工作,常常要逃避世俗 的热闹,可一旦长期陷入孤境,又感到痛苦,感到难以忍受。
  • 一般情况下,我喜欢孤独。
  • 我的最大爰好是深思默想。我可以一个人长时间地独处而感到愉快。

独享欢乐是一种愉快,独自忧伤也是一种愉快。孤独的时候,精神不会是 一片纯粹的空白,它仍然是一个丰富多彩的世界。情绪上的大欢乐和大悲 痛往往都在孤独中产生。孤独中,思维可以不依照逻辑进行C孤独更多地 产生人生的诗情一激昂的和伤感的。孤独可以使人的思想向更遥远更深 邃的地方伸展,也能使你对自己或环境作更透彻的认识和检讨。

  • 当然,孤独常常叫人感到无以名状的忧伤。而这忧伤有时又是很美丽 的。 w dcC। rn
  • 我喜欢孤独。
  • 但我也很惧怕孤独。

简•奥斯丁的小说都是三五户人家居家度日,婚恋

嫁娶的小事。因此不少中国读者不理解她何以在西方 享有那么高的声誉。但一部小说开掘得深不深,艺术 和思想是否有过人之处,的确不在题材大小。有人把

奥斯丁的作品比作越咀嚼越有味道的橄榄。这不仅因 为她的语言精彩,并曾对小说艺术的发展有创造性的 贡献,也因为她的轻快活泼的叙述实际上并不那么浅

白,那么透明。史密斯夫人说过,女作家常常试图修 正现存的价值秩序,改变人们对“重要”和“不重要” 的看法。也许奥斯丁的小说能教我们学会转换眼光和 角度,明察到“小事”的叙述所涉及的那些不小的问 题。

近读报纸,对国内名片和请柬的议论颇多,于是想起客居巴黎时经常见到的法国人手中的名片和请柬, 随笔记下来,似乎不无借鉴之处。

在巴黎,名目繁多的酒会,冷餐会是广交朋友的 好机会。在这种场合陌生人相识,如果是亚洲人,他 们往往开口之前先毕恭毕敬地用双手把自己的名片呈 递给对方,这好像是不可缺少的礼节。然而,法国人 一般却都不大主动递送名片,双方见面寒暄几句,其 至海阔天空地聊一番也就各自走开,只有当双方谈话 投机,希望继续交往时,才会主动掏出名片。二话不 说先递名片反倒显得有些勉强。

来美国求学的中国学生与其他亚裔学生一样,大多 非常刻苦勤奋,周末也往往会抽出一天甚至两天的时间 去实验室加班,因而比起美国学生来,成果出得较多。 我的导师是亚裔人,嗜烟好酒,脾气暴躁。但他十分欣 赏亚裔学生勤奋与扎实的基础知识,也特别了解亚裔学 生的心理。因此,在他实验室所招的学生中,除有一名 来自德国外,其余5位均是亚裔学生。他干脆在实验室 的门上贴一醒目招牌:“本室助研必须每周工作7天, 早10时至晚12时,工作时间必须全力以赴。”这位导 师的严格及苛刻是全校有名的,在我所呆的3年半中, 共有14位学生被招进他的实验室,最后博士毕业的只剩 下5人。1990年夏天,我不顾别人劝阻,硬着头皮接受 了导师的资助,从此开始了艰难的求学旅程。

1997224口我们代表团下榻口月潭中信大饭店,送走了最 后一批客人,已是次日凌晨3点了。我躺在床上久久不能入睡,披 衣在刽窗前,隹外看去,只见四周峰峦叠翠,湖面波光粼粼。望 着台湾这仅有前景莅如画的天然湖泊,我想了许多,许袤……

这次到台湾访问交流,虽然行程匆匆,但是,看了不少地方,

访了月友二交工新期加木家得到二起,,谈论的二个重要话题就是 华民簇在名巾t史的强器:鱼跳祖 11天解、苔湾南青车里值在东

丁,”不同的生活经历,,但大家的内心都深 秀传统南用定,

海峡西岸人段也将加强交流,共同推进祖国统一大业的早日完成。 芝笈的及贵版通和[7次挑瞬多皆不推到才历史前左睛在空 二代成该用在玄择加姿寒近接转满著情而薪在史,这臬莪布

日月潭水波不兴,仿佛与我一同在思索

 

加拿大的温哥华1986年刚刚度过百岁生日,但城市的发展令世 界瞩目。以港立市,以港兴市,是许多港口城市生存发展的道路。 经过百年开发建设,有着天然不冻良港的温哥华,成为举世闻名的 港口城市,同亚洲、大洋洲、欧洲、拉丁美洲均有定期班轮,年货 物吞吐量达到8, 000万吨,全市就业人口中有三分之一从事贸易与 运输行业。

温哥华(Vancouver)的辉煌是温哥华人智慧和勤奋的结晶, 其中包括多民族的贡献。加拿大地广人稀,国土面积比中国还大, 人口却不足3000万。吸收外来移民,是加拿大长期奉行的国策。可 以说,加拿大除了印第安人外,无一不是外来移民,不同的只是时 间长短而已。温哥华则更是世界上屈指可数的多民族城市。现今 180万温哥华居民中,有一半不是在本地出生的,每4个居民中就有

一个是亚洲人。而25万华人对温哥华的经济转型起着决定性的作用。

他们其中有,半是近5年才来到温哥华地区的,使温哥华成为亚洲以 外最大的中国人聚居地。

 

中国科技馆的诞生来之不易。与国际著名科技馆和其他博物馆相 比,它先天有些不足,后天也常缺乏营养,但是它成长的步伐却是坚 实而有力的。它在国际上已被公认为后起之秀。世界上第一代博物馆 属于自然博物馆,它是通过化石、标本等向人们介绍地球和各种生物 的演化历史。第二代属于工业技术博物馆,它所展示的是工业文明带 来的各种阶段性结果。这两代博物馆虽然起到了传播科学知识的作用, 但是,它们把参观者当成了被动的旁观者。

世界上第三代博物馆是充满全新理念的博物馆。在这里,观众可 以自己去动手操作,自己细心体察。这样,他们可以更贴近先进的科 学技术,去探索科学技术的奥妙。

中国科技馆正是这样的博物馆!它汲取了国际上一些著名博物馆的 长处,设计制作了力学、光学、电学、热学、声学、生物学等展品, 展示了科学的原理和先进的科技成果。

 

乔羽的歌大家都熟悉。但他另外两大爱好却鲜为 人知,那就是钓鱼和喝酒。

晚年的乔羽喜爱垂钓,他说,“有水有鱼的地方 大都是有好环境的,好环境便会给人好心情。我认为 最好的钓鱼场所不是舒适的、给你准备好饿鱼的垂钓 园,而是那极其有吸引力的大自然野外天成的场所。” 钓鱼是一项能够陶冶性情的运动,有益于身心健康。 乔羽说:“钓鱼可分三个阶段:第一阶段是吃鱼;第 二阶段是吃鱼和情趣兼而有之;第三阶段主要是钓趣, 面对一池碧水,悔忧心烦恼全都抛在一边,使自己的 身心得到充分休息。”

大自然对人的恩赐,无论贫富,一律平等。所 以人们对于大自然,全都一直并深深地依赖着。尤其 在乡间,上千年来人们一直以不变的方式生活着。种 植庄稼和葡萄,酿酒和饮酒,喂牛和挤奶,除草和栽 花;在周末去教堂祈祷和做礼拜,在节日到广场拉琴、 跳舞和唱歌;往日的田园依旧是今日的温馨家园。这 样,每个地方都有自己的传说,风俗也就衍传了下来。

 

得病以前,我受父母宠爱,在家中横行霸道, 一旦隔离,拘禁在花园山坡上一幢小房子里,我顿感 打入冷宫,十分郁郁不得志起来。一个春天的傍晚, 园中百花怒放,父母在园中设宴,一时宾客云集,笑 语四溢。我在山坡的小屋里,悄悄掀起窗帘,窥见园 中大千世界,一片繁华,自己的哥姐,堂表弟兄,也 穿插其间,个个喜气洋洋。一霎时,一阵被人摒弃, 为世所遗的悲愤兜上心头,禁不住痛哭起来。

 

在人际关系问题上我们不要太浪漫主义。人是 很有趣的,往往在接触一个人时首先看到的都是他或 她的优点。这一点颇像是在餐馆里用餐的经验。开始 吃头盘或冷碟的时候,印象很好。吃头两个主菜时, 也是赞不绝口。愈吃愈趋于冷静,吃完了这顿筵席, 缺点就都找出来了。于是转喜为怒,转赞美为责备挑 剔,转首肯为摇头。这是因为,第一,开始吃的时候 你正处于饥饿状态,而饿了吃糠甜加蜜,饱了吃蜜也 不甜。第二,你初到一个餐馆,开始举筷时有新鲜感, 新盖的茅房三天香,这也可以叫做“陌生化效应”。

 

一个人的生命究竟有多大意义,这有什么标准 可以衡量吗?提出一个绝对的标准当然很困难;但是, 大体上看一个人对待生命的态度是否严肃认真,看他 对待工作、生活的态度如何,也就不难对这个人的存 在意义做出适当的估计了。

古来一切有成就的人,都很严肃地对待自己的 生命,当他活着一天,总要尽量多工作、多学习,不 肯虚度年华,不让时间白白浪费掉。我国历代的劳动 人民以及大政治家、大思想家等等都莫不如此。

中国民族自古以来从不把人看作高于一切,在哲 学文艺方面的表现都反映出人在自然界中与万物占有 比例较为恰当的地位,而非绝对统治万物的主宰。因 此我们的苦闷基本上比西方人为少为小:因为苦闷的 强弱原是随欲望与野心的大小而转移的。农业社会的 人比工业社会的人享受差得多,因此欲望也小的多。 何况中国古代素来以不怠于物不为物役为最主要的人 生哲学。

 

暮色中,河湾里落满云霞,与天际的颜色混合一 起,分不清哪是流云哪是水湾。也就在这一幅绚烂的 图画旁边,在河湾之畔,」群羊正在低头觅食。它们 冗竽律苕一不就德工拾起头策,着二德宣亲前的黄善。 也许它们要抓紧时间,在即将回家的最后一刻再次咀

这是黄河滩上的一幕。牧羊人不见了,他不知在 何处歇息。只有这些美生灵自由自在地享受着这个黄

昏。这儿水草肥美,让它们长得肥滚滚的,像些胖姓 娃。如果走近了,会发现它们那可爱的神情,洁白的

才为,,那圭富而单姓的表情3如果稍稍长久一点端详 成灰张曲虚,迷套《用无用的怜悯。

 

都市寸土千金,地价炒得越来越高,今后将更高。拥有一个 小小花园的希望,对寻常之辈不啻是一种奢望,一种梦想。

我想,其实谁都有一个小小花园,这便是我们的内心世界。 人的智力需要开发,人的内心世界也是需要开发的。人和动物的 区别,除了众所周知的诸多方面,恐怕还在于人有内心世界,心 不过是人的一个重要脏器,而内心世界是一种景观,它是由外部 世界不断地作用于内心渐渐形成的。每个人都无比关注自己及至 亲至爱之人心脏的健损,以至于稍有微疾便惶惶不可终口。但并 非每个人都关注自己及至亲至爱之人的内心世界的明暗。

 

手机刷新了人与人之间的关系。会议室的门口

通常贴着一张通告,请与会者关闭手机。可是会议室

里的手机依然响成一片。我们都是普通人,没有多少

重要的事。尽管如此,我们也不会轻易关掉手机。打

开手机象征着我们与这个世界的联系。手机反映出我

们的“社交饥渴症。”最为常见的是,一个人在路上走

着走着,忽然停下来盯着手机屏幕发短信,不管是在 马路中间还是厕所旁边。

 

朋友关系的存续是以相互尊重为前提的,容不得 半点强求、干涉和控制。彼此之间,情趣相投、脾气 对味则合、则交;反之,则离、则绝。朋友之间再熟悉, 再亲密,也不能随便过头,不讲礼仪,这样,默契和平衡 将被打破,友好关系将不复存在。每个人都希望拥有 自己的私密空间,朋友之间过于随便,就容易侵入这 片禁区,从而引起冲突,造成隔阂。待友不敬,或许 只是一件小事,却可能已埋下了破坏性的种子。维持 朋友亲密关系的最好办法是往来有节,互不干涉,

“久而敬之”才能天长地久。

年份题材体裁
1994孤独散文(随笔)
1995Jane Austin文学评论
1996名片的文化差异评论
1997美国求学经历叙事
1998台湾之行散文(随笔)
1999名城介绍(温哥华)介绍说明文
2000中国科技馆说明文
2001乔羽散文
2002大自然的恩赐散文
2003儿时回忆散文
2004人际关系议论文
2005生命的意义议论文
2006中国民族的性情议论文
2007暮色肥羊散文
2008心灵的花园散文(随笔)
2009手机叙事说明
2010交友之道议论文

 

三、评分标准

GradeScoreDescription
510-9Excellent Translation The translation faithfully reflects all the original passage with only 1 or2 minor lexical errors. It adequately reflects the style and tone of the original passage. The translation is elegant (appropriate choice of words, a variety in sentence patterns).
48-7Good Translation with Few Inaccuracies The translation reflects almost all the original passage with relatively few significant errors in comprehending individual words, phrases, sentences or ideas. The translation is readable (generally clear, smooth and cohesive).
36-5Passable Translation with Some Inaccuracies The translation adequately reflects most of the original passage with occasional errors in comprehending individual words, phrases, sentences or ideas. The translation is, for the most part, readable.
24-3Inadequate Translation with Frequent Inaccuracies The translation only reflects about half of the original passage with frequent errors in comprehending individual words, phrases, sentences or ideas. The translation is, in some parts, unreadable.
12-1Poor Translation The translation reflects less than half of
the original passage. Almost all sentences contain errors in comprehending individual words. Phrases, sentences or ideas. The translation is, for most part, unreadable.

四、实例解析

.1 1、来美国求学的中国学生与其他亚裔学生一样,大多非常刻苦勤奋, 周末也往往会抽出一天甚至两天的时间去实验室加班,因而比起美国 学人来,成果出得较多。

  • Like students from other Asian countries and regions, most Chinese students who come to pursue their further education in the United States work on their studies most diligently and assiduously.
  • Even on weekends, they would frequently spend one day, or even two days, to work overtime in their laboratories.
  • Therefore, compared with their American counterparts, they are more academically fruitful.

 

欣赏亚裔学生勤奋与扎实的基础知识,也特别了解亚 裔学生的心理。

  • My supervisor is of Asian origin.
  • He is addicted to alcohols and cigarettes, with a sharp / irritable temper.
  • Nevertheless, he highly appreciates the industry and the solid foundational knowledge of Asian students and has a particularly keen insight into what Asian students have on their mind.
  • 因此,在他实验室所招的学生中,除有一名来自德国 外,其余5位均是亚嵩学生。他干脆在实验室的门上
  • Hence, of all the students recruited into his laboratory, except for one German, the other five were all from Asia,
  • He even put an eye-catching notice on the door of his lab, which read, “All the research assistants of this laboratory are required to work 7 days a week, from 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Nothing but work during the working hours.”

 

  • 这位导师的严格及苛刻是全校有名的,在我所呆的3 年半中,共有14位学生被招进他的实验室,最后博士 毕业的只剩下5人。
  • This supervisor is reputed on the entire campus for his severity and harshness.
  • During the 3 and a half years that I stayed there, a total of 14 students were recruited into his laboratory and only 5 of them stayed until they graduated with their Ph.D. degrees.

 

  • 1990年夏天,我不顾别人劝阻,硬着头皮接 受了导师的资助,从此开始了艰难的求学旅程。
  • In the summer of 1990, ignoring the dissuasions from others, I accepted my supervisor’s sponsorship and embarked on my difficult journey of academic pursuit.

 

J 2、温哥华(Vancouver)的辉煌是温哥华人智 1慧和勤奋的结晶,其中包括多民族的贡献。加拿 大地广人稀,国土面积比中国还大,人口却不足 3000万。

  • The prosperity of Vancouver, to which many ethnic groups have contributed, is the crystallization of its people’s wisdom and industriousness.
  • Canada, a sparsely populated big country, has a territory larger than that of China, but only a population of less than 30 million.
  • 吸收外来移民,是加拿大长期奉行的国策。可以说, 加拿大除了印第安人外,无一不是外来移民,不同的 只是时间长短而已。温哥华则更是世界上屈指可数的 多民族城市。
  • Admitting immigrants has therefore become the long-term national policy pursued by Canada,
  • It is safe to say that the Canadians, aside from the Indians, are all immigrants, who differ from each other only in how long they have lived in the country.
  • Vancouver is one of the few multinational cities in the world.

 

  • 现今180万温哥华居民中,有一半不是在本地出生的,

4个居民中就有一个是亚洲人。而25万华人对温哥华

的经济转型起着决定性的作用。他们其中有一半是近5

才来到温哥华地区的,使温哥华成为亚洲以外最大的 国人聚居地。

  • Among the 1.8 million residents in Vancouver, half were born outside the country, and of every four residents one comes from Asia.
  • The 250 thousand Chinese immigrants have played a decisive role in the economic transformation of Vancouver. 1– wwi i i
  • Half of them have come to the Vancouver area within the past five years, turning it into the largest Chinese settlement outside of Asia.
  • 3、这次到台湾访问交流,虽然行程匆匆,但是,看 了不少地方,访了旧友,交了新知,大家走到一起, 谈论的一个重要话题就是中华民族在21世纪的强盛。
  • When we stayed in Taiwan for an exchange program, despite the tight schedule, we visited many places, meeting old friends and make new ones.
  • At every get-together, one important topic was how to make China powerful and prosperous in the 21st CIOCIII .COm

 

  • 虽然祖国大陆、台湾的青年生活在不同的社会环境中, 有着各自不同的生活经历,但大家的内心都深深铭刻 着中华文化优秀传统的印记,都拥有着振兴中华民族 的共同理想。
  • Though young people on the mainland and in Taiwan live in different social environments and have varied life experiences, their hearts are all imprinted with the fine tradition of the Chinese culture and they cherish the same ideal of rejuvenating the Chinese nation.

 

  • 在世纪之交的伟大时代,我们的祖国正在走向繁荣富 强,海峡两岸人民也将加强交流,共同推进祖国统一 大业的早日完成。
  • The turn of the century has ushered in a great epoch during which our motherland is becoming stronger and more prosperous day by day.

The people on both sides of the Taiwan Straits will strengthen exchanges and work together to bring about an earlier reunification of their motherland.

 

  • 世纪之交的宝贵机遇和巨大挑战将青年推到了历史前 台。跨世纪青年一代应该用什么样的姿态迎接充满希 望的新世纪,这是我们必须回答的问题。
  • The precious opportunities and tremendous challenges at the turn of the century have pushed the young people to the forefront of history.
  • What attitude should be adopted by the crosscentury younger generation to meet the new century of hope? This is a question that demands our answer.
  • (译文参考了常青藤英语考试研究组的《英语专业八 级翻译指南》)

 

  • 4、世界上第一代博物馆属于自然博物馆,它是通 过化石、标本等向人们介绍地球和各种生物的演 化历史。
  • The first generation of museums are what might be called natural museums which, by means of fossils, specimens and other objects, introduced to people the evolutionary history of the Earth and various kinds of organisms.

 

  • 4、第二代属于工业技术博物馆,它所展示的是工业文明 带来的各种阶段性结果。这两代博物馆虽然起到了传播科 学知识的作用,但是,它们把参观者当成了被动的旁观者。
  • The second generation are those of industrial technologies which presented the fruits achieved by industrial civilization at different stages of industrialization.
  • Despite the fact that those two generations of museums helped to disseminate / propagate / spread scientific knowledge, they nevertheless treated visitors merely as passive viewers.

里,观众可以自己去动手操作,自己细心体察。这样,他 们可以更贴近先进的科卓技术,去探索科学技术的奥妙。

  • The third generation of museums in the world are those replete with / full of wholly novel concepts / notions / ideas.
  • In those museums, visitors are allowed to operate the exhibits with their own hands, to observe and to experience carefully.
  • By getting closer to the advanced science and technologies in this way, people can probe into their secret mysteries.

 

  • 4T中国科技馆正定这样的博物馆!它汲取了国际廿些著名博物馆的长 处,设计制作了力学、光学、电学、热学、声学、生物学等展品,展 示了科学的原理和先进的科技成果。
  • The China Museum of Science and Technology is precisely one of such museums.
  • It has incorporated some of the most fascinating features of those museums with international reputation.
  • Having designed and created exhibits in mechanics, optics, electrical science, thermology, acoustics, and biology, those exhibits demonstrate scientific principles and present the most advanced scientific and technological achievements.

 

6、晚年的乔羽喜爱垂钓,他说,“有水有鱼的地方大都是有好划、境 的,好环境便会给人好心情。我认为最好的钓鱼场所不是舒适的、给 你准备好饿鱼的垂钓园,而是那极其有吸引力的大自然野外天成的场 所。”

  • In his later years (Late in his life), Qiao Yu has become enamored of fishing (developed a penchant / special fondness for fishing).
  • He asserts: ” Mostly speaking, a place with water and fish must necessarily be blessed with a nice setting, which in return keeps people in good mood.
  • I believe that the optimum fishing places are not those commercial fishing centers which provide the fishermen with all the conveniences and where fish are kept hungry for ready capture, but those naturally-formed places in the wilderness which exert a special appeal.

6、钓鱼是一项能够陶冶性情的运动,有益于身心健康。乔羽说:

“钓鱼可分三个阶段:第一阶段是吃鱼;第二阶段是吃鱼和情趣兼而 有之;第三阶段主要是钓趣,面对一池碧水,将忧心烦恼全都抛在一 边,使白己的身心得到充分休息。”

  • According to him, fishing can constitute an activity conducive to the cultivation of one’s temperament and to one’s health, at once physical and psychological.
  • Qiao Yu claims: “Fishing can be divided into three stages.
  • The first stage consists of mere fish-eating;
  • the second a combination of fish-eating and the pleasure (enjoyment) of fishing;
  • the third primarily the pleasure of fishing when, confronted with a pond of clear water, one puts aside all his troubling vexations and annoyances and enjoys the total relaxation both mentally and physically/9

 

k8、得病以前,我受父母宠爱,在家中横行霸道,

1 一旦隔离,拘禁在花园山坡上一幢小房子里,我 顿感打入冷宫,十分郁郁不得志起来。

  • Before I fell ill, I had been the bully under our roofs (in my family) owing to my doting parents.
  • Feeling like being deposed into a cold palace, I began to taste the bitterness of depression and frustration immediately after I was segregated and confined in a small house on a h川side in our garden.

I’ 8、一个春天的傍晚,园中百花怒放,父母在园 中设宴,一时宾客云集,笑语四溢。

  • On a spring evening, my parents gave a banquet in the garden where a profusion of flowers were in full bloom.
  • In no time, crowd of their guests collected and laughter was heard all over there.

 

8、我在山坡的小屋里,悄悄掀起窗帘,窥见园 中大千世界,一片繁华,自己的哥姐,堂表弟兄, 也穿插其间,个个喜气洋洋。

  • I, without being noticed, lifted the curtain in my small room, only to spy the bustle of a kaleidoscopic world down in the garden, and my elder sisters, brothers and cousins, each full of the joys of spring, were shuttling among the guests/helping treat(host) the guests.

 

8、一霎时,一阵被人摒弃,为世所遗的悲愤兜 上心头,禁不住痛哭起来。

  • Quickly enough, I was thrown into a fist of sorrowful anger at being forgotten and discarded by the rest and could not help crying my heart out.
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